Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Ecosystem / Aquatic



The Aquatic Biome (World’s Biomes, University of California Museum of Paleontology)
Aquatic Ecosystems (National Geographic)


aquatic : growing or living in or frequenting water — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Aquatic ecosystem An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water. Communities of organisms that are dependent on each other and on their environment live in aquatic ecosystems. The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica




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Ocean series on Youtube (The Economist)





Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea. Given that in biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather than on taxonomy.

A large proportion of all life on Earth lives in the ocean. The exact size of this large proportion is unknown, since many ocean species are still to be discovered. The ocean is a complex three-dimensional world covering approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. The habitats studied in marine biology include everything from the tiny layers of surface water in which organisms and abiotic items may be trapped in surface tension between the ocean and atmosphere, to the depths of the oceanic trenches, sometimes 10,000 meters or more beneath the surface of the ocean. Specific habitats include coral reefs, kelp forests, seagrass meadows, the surrounds of seamounts and thermal vents, tidepools, muddy, sandy and rocky bottoms, and the open ocean (pelagic) zone, where solid objects are rare and the surface of the water is the only visible boundary. The organisms studied range from microscopic phytoplankton and zooplankton to huge cetaceans (whales) 25–32 meters (82–105 feet) in length. Marine ecology is the study of how marine organisms interact with each other and the environment. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



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The Ocean Through Time (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Life on Planet Ocean (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



What can I do to protect coral reefs? (NOAA)
What You Can Do (


The otherworldly creatures in the ocean’s deepest depths (Lidia Lins, TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



What is a Marine Biologist? (Environmental Science)


Science Daily,






More News … - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Aquatic fungi: Forgotten conservation targets
    on May 19, 2022 at 2:20 pm

    They are always there, dwelling in the water, where they play a key role in food webs, in cycling of nutrients, matter and energy, and water purification. However, as happens with organisms that tend to be inconspicuous and often invisible to the naked eye, society mostly neglects them, and forgets their huge importance in providing support and stability of aquatic ecosystems. What is even more problematic, we also forget that they are exposed to a wide range of threats from human activities. […]

  • New study highlights major step forward in...
    on May 18, 2022 at 5:16 pm

    In a major step forward for monitoring the biodiversity of marine systems, a new study published today in Environmental DNA details how MBARI researchers are using autonomous underwater robots to sample environmental DNA (eDNA). eDNA allows scientists to detect the presence of aquatic species from the tiny bits of genetic material they leave behind. This DNA soup offers clues about biodiversity changes in sensitive areas, the presence of rare or endangered species, and the spread of invasive […]

  • Scientists find new and mysterious DDT chemicals...
    on May 17, 2022 at 5:20 pm

    When Christopher Tubbs joined an ambitious multinational effort to save California condors from the brink of extinction, he knew the odds of success were long.

  • Beyond flora and fauna: Why it's time to include...
    on May 17, 2022 at 1:56 pm

    It's no secret that Earth's biodiversity is at risk. According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 26% of all mammals, 14% of birds and 41% of amphibians are currently threatened worldwide, mainly due to human impacts such as climate change and development.

  • New trait-based approach to global change ecology...
    on May 16, 2022 at 6:57 pm

    It's not enough to understand what the effects of climate change are. Society needs ways to get ahead of these changes, to predict them before they actually happen. And when it comes to conservation, the approach scientists use to study species in the wild could be critical to these predictions, according to a recent research review led by biologist Stephanie Green and published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

Sea Life News -- ScienceDaily Current events articles in marine biology and science. From beached whales to coral reef bleaching, learn what is happening in today's oceans.

  • Watching corals breathe: Simultaneously measuring...
    on May 23, 2022 at 3:55 pm

    An international research team has developed tiny particles that measure the oxygen concentration in their surroundings. In this way, they can track fluid flow and oxygen content at the same time -- exciting prospects for many fields of research, from biology to physics.

  • Where do 'Hawaiian box jellies' come from?
    on May 20, 2022 at 10:12 pm

    An insightful cross-disciplinary team, working for over a decade, published a study recently revealing that a key number of hours of darkness during the lunar cycle triggers mature 'Hawaiian box jellyfish' (Alatina alata) to swim to leeward O'ahu shores to spawn.

  • Deciphering the biosynthetic gene cluster for...
    on May 20, 2022 at 6:47 pm

    Scientists discover the enzymes responsible for the production of one of the most toxic and fast-acting neurotoxins associated with freshwater harmful algal blooms in lakes and ponds. The discovery revealed that guanitoxin-producing cyanobacteria are more prevalent than originally known in the United States, opening the possibility for new molecular diagnostic testing to better inform and protect the public from this natural freshwater toxin.

  • 'Traffic calming' boosts breeding on coral reefs
    on May 20, 2022 at 11:31 am

    Coral reef fish breed more successfully if motorboat noise is reduced, new research shows.

  • Two pathogens linked to salmon health and survival
    on May 20, 2022 at 12:45 am

    Many wild salmon populations in B.C. have experienced substantial declines over the last three decades. New research can help chart a course towards better protection of wild salmon.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.