Astronomical Instrument

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Physical Realm
Universe Astronomical Instrument
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice and study of observing celestial objects with the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments.

Galileo Galilei turned a telescope to the heavens and recorded what he saw. Since that time, observational astronomy has made steady advances with each improvement in a variety astronomical instruments and related methods. — Wikipedia

Observational Astronomy (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
Observatories & Telescopes (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica

Astronomical Instruments, Category (Wikipedia)
Astronomical Instruments, List (Wikipedia)


Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO)



Galileo and the telescope (The Science Geek)
The History of Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Telescopes (NASA.Gov)
Observational Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)
Telescopes (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)
Telescopes (Cosmos4Kids)


Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Careers in Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


Sky & Telescope, ScienceDaily,, NPR Archives






Acapella Science (YouTube Channel)



Celestial News & Events – Sky & Telescope The essential guide to astronomy

  • This Week's Sky at a Glance, April 16 – 24
    by Alan MacRobert on April 16, 2021 at 8:49 am

    The waxing Moon this week steps out of Taurus past Mars, across Gemini and Cancer, and into Leo. Sirius and Procyon remain in the southwest after dusk. Jupiter and Saturn shine in early dawn. The post This Week's Sky at a Glance, April 16 – 24 appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • A Bouquet of Novae Brightens April Nights
    by Bob King on April 15, 2021 at 6:06 pm

    With the recent discovery of Nova Scorpii 2021 earlier this week, three bright stellar explosions are now visible in small telescopes from dusk till dawn. The post A Bouquet of Novae Brightens April Nights appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • This Week's Sky at a Glance, April 9 – 17
    by Alan MacRobert on April 9, 2021 at 9:31 am

    Arcturus ascends in the east as Sirius sinks in the southwest. Orion tilts further as the Dipper rides high. And this week Mars threads the horntips of Taurus, closely followed by the crescent Moon. The post This Week's Sky at a Glance, April 9 – 17 appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • T–3 Years Until the 2024 Total Solar Eclipse
    by Jamie Carter on April 8, 2021 at 12:00 pm

    The countdown has begun to a special total solar eclipse that will cross Mexico, the U.S. and Canada on April 8, 2024. The post T–3 Years Until the 2024 Total Solar Eclipse appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • Make the Most of Comet ATLAS
    by Bob King on April 7, 2021 at 4:33 pm

    Bright comets will be scarce this year, but you can see one of the better ones this month as it races from Aquila to Canes Venatici. In other news, a new, bright nova has flared in Sagittarius. The post Make the Most of Comet ATLAS appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

Space Telescopes News -- ScienceDaily Space Telescopes. Astronomy articles and pictures from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Telescope and many other leading astronomy institutes from around the world.

  • Scientists may detect signs of extraterrestrial...
    on April 16, 2021 at 11:49 pm

    Research shows that a new telescope could detect a potential signature of life on other planets in as little as 60 hours.

  • A new super-Earth detected orbiting a red dwarf...
    on April 16, 2021 at 5:19 pm

    Researchers report the discovery of a super-Earth orbiting the star GJ 740, a red dwarf star situated some 36 light years from Earth.

  • Fast radio bursts shown to include lower...
    on April 16, 2021 at 4:01 pm

    A team of researchers has established that fast radio bursts (FRBs) include radio waves at frequencies lower than ever detected before, a discovery that redraws the boundaries for theoretical astrophysicists trying to put their finger on the source of FRBs.

  • Surprise twist suggests stars grow competitively
    on April 16, 2021 at 4:00 pm

    A survey of star formation activity in the Orion Nebula Cluster found similar mass distributions for newborn stars and dense gas cores, which may evolve into stars. Counterintuitively, this means that the amount of gas a core accretes as it develops, and not the initial mass of the core, is the key factor in deciding the final mass of the produced star.

  • Telescopes unite in unprecedented observations of...
    on April 14, 2021 at 2:01 pm

    In April 2019, scientists released the first image of a black hole in galaxy M87 using the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). However, that remarkable achievement was just the beginning of the science story to be told. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Hubble takes a spiral snapshot
    on April 9, 2021 at 7:43 pm

    The luminous heart of the galaxy M61 dominates this image, framed by its winding spiral arms threaded with dark tendrils of dust. As well as the usual bright bands of stars, the spiral arms of M61 are studded with ruby-red patches of light. Tell-tale signs of recent star formation, these glowing regions lead to M61's classification as a starburst galaxy.

  • Shedding more light on molecules linked to life...
    on April 9, 2021 at 1:23 pm

    The search for life on other planets has received a major boost after scientists revealed the spectral signatures of almost 1000 atmospheric molecules that may be involved in the production or consumption of phosphine, a study led by UNSW Sydney revealed.

  • Long-awaited review reveals journey of water from...
    on April 9, 2021 at 6:00 am

    Dutch astronomer Ewine van Dishoeck (Leiden University, the Netherlands), together with an international team of colleagues, has written an overview of everything we know about water in interstellar clouds thanks to the Herschel space observatory. The article, published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, summarizes existing knowledge and provides new information about the origin of water on new, potentially habitable, worlds. The article is expected to serve as a reference work for […]

  • NASA's Webb Telescope packs its sunshield for a...
    on April 7, 2021 at 6:52 pm

    Engineers working on NASA's James Webb Space Telescope have successfully folded and packed its sunshield for its upcoming million-mile (roughly 1.5 million kilometer) journey, which begins later this year.

  • Radio telescope reveals thousands of star-forming...
    on April 7, 2021 at 5:42 pm

    The images capture drama billions of years ago in the early Universe—glinting galaxies, glowing with stars that have exploded into supernovas and blazing jets fired from black holes.