Astronomical Instrument

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Physical Realm
Universe Astronomical Instrument
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice and study of observing celestial objects with the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments.

Galileo Galilei turned a telescope to the heavens and recorded what he saw. Since that time, observational astronomy has made steady advances with each improvement in a variety astronomical instruments and related methods. — Wikipedia

Observational Astronomy (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
Observatories & Telescopes (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica

Astronomical Instruments, Category (Wikipedia)
Astronomical Instruments, List (Wikipedia)


Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO)



Galileo and the telescope (The Science Geek)
The History of Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Telescopes (NASA.Gov)
Observational Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)
Telescopes (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)
Telescopes (Cosmos4Kids)


Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Careers in Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


Sky & Telescope, ScienceDaily,, NPR Archives






Acapella Science (YouTube Channel)



Celestial News & Events – Sky & Telescope The essential guide to astronomy

  • Earth's New "Minimoon" May be a 1960s-Era Rocket...
    by David Dickinson on November 21, 2020 at 2:00 pm

    An object set to pass near Earth next month may in fact be a relic of the early Space Age. The post Earth's New "Minimoon" May be a 1960s-Era Rocket Booster appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • Leonid Meteor Shower to the Rescue
    by Bob King on November 16, 2020 at 1:56 pm

    Modest but reliable, the annual Leonid meteor shower returns this week. Take an hour or two to relax and enjoy the show. The post Leonid Meteor Shower to the Rescue appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • Behold Mars! The Best View Until 2035
    by Bob King on October 6, 2020 at 3:34 pm

    After a two-years hiatus Mars returns big and bright at opposition on October 13th, its best apparition until September 2035. The post Behold Mars! The Best View Until 2035 appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • October 2020: Mars is the Star!
    by Kelly Beatty on October 1, 2020 at 5:04 pm

    October evenings offer many wonderful night-sky sights — including a dramatic appearance by Mars — and you can find them by listening to our guided audio tour of the star-filled sky. The post October 2020: Mars is the Star! appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • International Observe the Moon Night Is Here
    by Diana Hannikainen on September 25, 2020 at 1:36 pm

    International Observe the Moon Night is here. Step outside Saturday evening and admire our closest celestial neighbor with your family. The post International Observe the Moon Night Is Here appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

Space Telescopes News -- ScienceDaily Space Telescopes. Astronomy articles and pictures from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Telescope and many other leading astronomy institutes from around the world.

  • Blue Ring Nebula: 16-year-old cosmic mystery...
    on November 18, 2020 at 7:16 pm

    Astronomers have solved the 16-year-old mystery surrounding the Blue Ring Nebula - an unusual, large, faint blob of gas with a star at its center. This object is unlike any they'd ever seen before in our Milky Way galaxy. The team has discovered the nebula appears to be the first known example of a merged star system at this stage.

  • Cosmic flashes come in all different sizes
    on November 16, 2020 at 5:56 pm

    By studying the site of a spectacular stellar explosion seen in April 2020, scientists have used four European radio telescopes to confirm that astronomy's most exciting puzzle is about to be solved. Fast radio bursts, unpredictable millisecond-long radio signals seen at huge distances across the universe, are generated by extreme stars called magnetars - and are astonishingly diverse in brightness.

  • History of temperature changes in the Universe...
    on November 13, 2020 at 3:37 pm

    How hot is the Universe today? How hot was it before? A new study by an international team of researchers suggests that the mean temperature of gas in large structures of the Universe has increased about 3 times in the last 8 billion years, to reach about two million Kelvin today.

  • Escape from Mars: How water fled the red planet
    on November 12, 2020 at 7:40 pm

    Mars once had oceans but is now bone-dry, leaving many to wonder how the water was lost. Researchers have discovered a surprisingly large amount of water in the upper atmosphere of Mars, where it is rapidly destroyed, explaining part of this Martian mystery.

  • Birth of magnetar from colossal collision...
    on November 12, 2020 at 6:46 pm

    Researchers spotted a short gamma ray burst 10 times brighter than predicted. The mysterious brightness might signal the birth of a rare magnetar, formed from two neutron stars merging, which has never before been observed. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Resolving long-standing mysteries about the first...
    on November 20, 2020 at 4:20 pm

    In 1838, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel won the race to measure the first distance to a star other than our Sun via the trigonometric parallax—setting the first scale of the universe.

  • NSF plans to decommission Arecibo Observatory's...
    on November 19, 2020 at 9:03 pm

    Following a review of engineering assessments that found damage to the Arecibo Observatory cannot be stabilized without risk to construction workers and staff at the facility, the U.S. National Science Foundation will begin plans to decommission the 305-meter telescope, which for 57 years has served as a world-class resource for radio astronomy, planetary, solar system and geospace research.

  • Sky survey reveals newborn jets in distant...
    on November 19, 2020 at 8:57 pm

    Astronomers using data from the ongoing VLA Sky Survey (VLASS) have found a number of distant galaxies with supermassive black holes at their cores that have launched powerful, radio-emitting jets of material within the past two decades or so. The scientists compared data from VLASS with data from an earlier survey that also used the National Science Foundation's Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to reach their conclusion.

  • Huge Puerto Rico radio telescope to close in blow...
    on November 19, 2020 at 5:47 pm

    The National Science Foundation announced Thursday that it will close the huge telescope at the renowned Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico in a blow to scientists worldwide who depend on it to search for planets, asteroids and extraterrestrial life.

  • Study investigates mode switching phenomenon in...
    on November 19, 2020 at 2:00 pm

    Using the Parkes 64-meter radio telescope, Chinese astronomers have performed a detailed study of a pulsar known as PSR J1326−6700. The results of this research provide more insights into the mode switching phenomenon observed in this pulsar. The study was published November 11 on