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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




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Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Author Correction: Non-canonical Wnt/PCP...
    by Anika Böttcher on April 16, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 16 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00667-0Author Correction: Non-canonical Wnt/PCP signalling regulates intestinal stem cell lineage priming towards enteroendocrine and Paneth cell fates

  • Author Correction: Lipid peroxidation regulates...
    by Anushka Katikaneni on April 13, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 13 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00683-0Author Correction: Lipid peroxidation regulates long-range wound detection through 5-lipoxygenase in zebrafish

  • R-loops as Janus-faced modulators of DNA repair
    by Aline Marnef on April 9, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 09 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00663-4Legube and Marnef review the association between R-loops and DNA repair. They discuss how R-loops are formed near DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and how R-loops affect transcription near DSBs and DSB repair processes.

  • Depletion of aneuploid cells in human embryos and...
    by Min Yang on April 9, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 09 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00660-7Using gastruloids and human embryos, Yang et al. demonstrate that aneuploid embryos can still lead to healthy births due to elimination of aneuploid cells by apoptosis in a BMP4-dependent manner.

  • Endothelial struts enable the generation of large...
    by Bart Weijts on April 9, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 09 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00664-3Weijts et al. present a model of vasculogenesis in zebrafish whereby endothelial cells form a network of struts, allowing de novo formation of large-diameter blood vessels without a vascular cord or hollowing step.

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology The latest science news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • Toxic masculinity: Y chromosome contributes to a...
    on April 22, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    Males may have shorter lifespans than females due to repetitive sections of the Y chromosome that create toxic effects as males get older. These new findings appear in a study by Doris Bachtrog of the University of California, Berkeley published April 22 in PLOS Genetics.

  • Stress test finds cracks in the resistance of...
    on April 22, 2021 at 5:04 pm

    Research has identified critical factors that enable dangerous bacteria to spread disease by surviving on surfaces in hospitals and kitchens.

  • Scientists provide new insights into the citric...
    on April 22, 2021 at 12:25 pm

    Researchers led by Professors Ivan Berg (University of Münster) and Wolfgang Eisenreich (TUM) report new insights into the citric acid cycle: Certain bacteria can use this central metabolic pathway "backward," but to do so, they must have very high concentrations of the enzyme citrate synthase and of carbon dioxide. This pathway may be a relic from the early development of life.

  • Researchers unlock the secrets of fungal viruses:...
    on April 21, 2021 at 4:18 pm

    In the past year the world has been overwhelmed with rapidly emerging, important and fascinating information regarding SARS CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The pace of learning has been astounding, not just for the general public but for virus experts.

  • How SARS coronaviruses reprogram host cells to...
    on April 21, 2021 at 3:11 pm

    Coronavirus researchers led by Professor Rolf Hilgenfeld of the University of Luebeck and PD Dr. Albrecht von Brunn of the Ludwig-Maximilian Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have discovered how SARS viruses enhance the production of viral proteins in infected cells, so that many new copies of the virus can be generated. Notably, coronaviruses other than SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 do not use this mechanism, which may therefore provide a possible explanation for the much higher pathogenicity of the SARS […]