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Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




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Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Author Correction: Human germline genome editing
    by Rebecca A. Lea on December 10, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 10 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0451-xAuthor Correction: Human germline genome editing

  • Advances in genome editing through control of DNA...
    by Charles D. Yeh on December 2, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 02 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0425-zHarnessing DNA repair pathways in genome editing In this Review, Yeh, Richardson and Corn discuss the DNA repair pathways that underlie genome editing and recent improvements and strategies to yield desired genomic alterations in cells and organisms.

  • CRISPR-based technologies for cell biology
    on December 2, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 02 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0434-yAdvances in CRISPR-based systems have greatly expanded the molecular toolbox for biologists. In this issue, we present the first of a Series of commissioned Review articles that highlight the progress made using CRISPR–Cas9 technology and its relevance for cell biological research.

  • Massive centriole production can occur in the...
    by Olivier Mercey on December 2, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 02 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0427-xMercey et al. demonstrate that without deuterosomes, multiciliated cells still develop the proper number of centrioles with normal step-wise kinetics, independent of the growing platform.

  • Early chromatin shaping predetermines multipotent...
    by Irving T. C. Ling on December 2, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 02 December 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0428-9Ling and Sauka-Spengler reveal chromatin and transcriptional landscapes that regulate the early specification of vagal neural crest cells during the development of the enteric nervous system in chicken.

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology Phys.org provides the latest news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • Teams of microbes are at work in our bodies....
    on December 11, 2019 at 8:59 pm

    In the last decade, scientists have made tremendous progress in understanding that groups of bacteria and viruses that naturally coexist throughout the human body play an important role in some vital functions like digestion, metabolism and even fighting off diseases. But understanding just how they do it remains a question.

  • Single-cell analysis of the earliest cell fate...
    on December 11, 2019 at 6:00 pm

    Researchers at the Babraham Institute, EMBL's European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), CRUK Cambridge Institute and the Wellcome—MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute have provided the first single-cell epigenomic analysis of gastrulation, a crucial process in early embryo development. The researchers analysed over 1,000 cells from mouse embryos to understand the epigenetic priming events preceding gastrulation and the cell fate decisions these establish. The findings, published today in […]

  • New technique to determine protein structures may...
    on December 11, 2019 at 4:00 pm

    Researchers in Dana-Farber's cBio Center have now demonstrated a powerful 'experimental evolution' method to discover details of protein shape and function, and the method may find uses across a very broad spectrum of biomedical research.

  • Antibiotic resistance and cancer: six surprising...
    on December 11, 2019 at 2:39 pm

    Scientists recently announced the discovery of a novel antibiotic produced by bacteria living inside a nematode (roundworm). Although this molecule needs further analyses, the finding, published in Nature, brings hope to the fight against antimicrobial or antibiotic resistance, the growing ability of infectious and sometimes lethal bacteria to survive drug treatment.

  • Researchers create accurate model of organ...
    on December 11, 2019 at 1:30 pm

    Every organ in the body is capable, to some extent, of repairing itself after an injury. As part of this process, scar tissue forms and then recedes to make room for normal tissue when healing is complete.