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cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”. Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)


Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)





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Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)




The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology










Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)



More News …

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology The latest science news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • Scientists discover new antiviral defense system...
    on August 11, 2022 at 7:36 pm

    Bacteria use a variety of defense strategies to fight off viral infection, and some of these systems have led to groundbreaking technologies, such as CRISPR-based gene-editing. Scientists predict there are many more antiviral weapons yet to be found in the microbial world.

  • Burrowing crabs bring beneficial bacteria to...
    on August 11, 2022 at 5:16 pm

    Fiddler crabs burrowing beneath arid mangrove forests help bring beneficial bacteria to an ecosystem in dire need of nutrients.

  • Scientists discover novel cellular mechanisms...
    on August 11, 2022 at 3:32 pm

    Northwestern Medicine investigators have discovered novel mechanisms underlying a specific transcription factor essential for elongation control, the process of synthesizing RNA from DNA, according to findings published in Molecular Cell.

  • Mechanism of maternal-to-zygotic transition in...
    on August 11, 2022 at 3:04 pm

    The maternal-to-zygotic transition, involving maternal mRNA clearance and zygotic genome activation (ZGA), is a conserved and fundamental process during vertebrate embryogenesis. During this critical developmental period, the embryo undergoes dramatic reprogramming by switching from a maternal factor-dominated state to a zygotic factor-driven state. Due to the transcriptional quiescence of the zygotic genome during the initial developmental stages, selective maintenance and translational […]

  • Scientists identify a plant molecule that sops up...
    on August 11, 2022 at 3:00 pm

    Symbiotic relationships between legumes and the bacteria that grow in their roots are critical for plant survival. Without those bacteria, the plants would have no source of nitrogen, an element that is essential for building proteins and other biomolecules, and they would be dependent on nitrogen fertilizer in the soil.

Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Untangling the web of intratumour heterogeneity
    by Zheqi Li on August 8, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 08 August 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00969-xIn this Review, Polyak and colleagues discuss cellular and microenvironmental mechanisms that contribute to intratumour heterogeneity and how this affects immune escape and tumour progression.

  • A complex epigenome-splicing crosstalk governs...
    by Sanjeeb Kumar Sahu on August 8, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 08 August 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00971-3Sahu et al. show that ZNF827 is essential for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer metastasis and cortical development. Mechanistically, ZNF827 controls RNA splicing landscape by recruiting HDAC1 to slow RNA polymerase II progression.

  • The MARCHF6 E3 ubiquitin ligase acts as an NADPH...
    by Kha The Nguyen on August 8, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 08 August 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00973-1Nguyen et al. show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCHF6 acts as an NADPH sensor to suppress ferroptosis. Mechanistically, NADPH binds to MARCHF6 and activates its E3 ligase activity, enhancing the degradation of pro-ferroptosis proteins.

  • Navigating ferroptosis via an NADPH sensor
    by Chao Mao on August 8, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 08 August 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00963-3NADPH levels serve as a biomarker of sensitivity to ferroptosis, but the regulators that detect cellular NADPH levels and modulate downstream ferroptosis responses are unknown. A study now identifies MARCHF6 in the ubiquitin system as an NADPH sensor that suppresses ferroptosis.

  • Author Correction: Polycomb CBX7 has a unifying...
    by Jesús Gil on August 8, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 08 August 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00956-2Author Correction: Polycomb CBX7 has a unifying role in cellular lifespan


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.