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Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




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Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Skin-resident immune cells actively coordinate...
    by Sangbum Park on May 6, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 06 May 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00670-5Sangbum Park, Catherine Matte-Martone and colleagues track Langerhans cells, dendritic epidermal T cells and epithelial basal cells in living mice over time and show that immune cells coordinate with epidermal cells to maintain their positions.

  • LIMIT is an immunogenic lncRNA in cancer immunity...
    by Gaopeng Li on May 6, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 06 May 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00672-3Li et al. identify LIMIT as a lncRNA that modulates MHC-I expression through HSP90 and HSF1, thereby regulating antitumour immune response and the efficacy of immunotherapy.

  • LIMITing tumours with an immunogenic lncRNA
    by Jiakai Hou on May 6, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 06 May 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00682-1Overcoming immune resistance mechanisms in patients with cancer is critical for successful immunotherapy. A new study now identifies LIMIT as an immunogenic long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that intrinsically regulates anti-tumour immune responses, thereby highlighting the therapeutic potential of targeting lncRNAs to improve the outcome of cancer immunotherapy.

  • Tracking skin and immune cell interactions
    by Chae Ho Lim on May 6, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 06 May 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00680-3The distribution of skin immune cells, namely Langerhans cells (LCs) and dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs), is well-documented, but the mechanisms underlying their pattern maintenance remained obscure. A study now finds that LCs maintain their distribution patterns depending upon Rac1 and that the density of LCs and DETCs is regulated by the density of epithelial cells.

  • The histone reader PHF7 cooperates with the...
    by Glynnis A. Garry on May 3, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 03 May 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00668-zGarry et al. report that the histone reader PHF7 cooperates with the SWI/SNF complex at cardiac super enhancers to increase accessibility to core cardiac transcription factors, thus facilitating direct cardiac reprogramming.

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology The latest science news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • Essential virulence proteins of corn smut...
    on May 7, 2021 at 4:10 pm

    To infect its host plant maize, the fungal parasite Ustilago maydis uses a complex of seven proteins. Numerous findings reveal an essential role of the complex in causing disease and suggest a widespread occurence in fungal plant pathogens.

  • Distinct cell-to-cell communication processes...
    on May 7, 2021 at 3:02 pm

    Cells talk to each other to coordinate nutrition, waste removal, energy use, and, in some cases, disease progression. The cells that line the surfaces of organs or specific tissues, called epithelial cells, appear to speak two different languages—one for either side of the cell, according to a new study by researchers based in Japan.

  • Swiping, swabbing elevates processing plant food...
    on May 7, 2021 at 7:18 am

    By swiping surfaces in commercial food processing plants with specially designed rapid-testing adenosine triphospate (ATP) swabs—which produce a light similar to the glow of fireflies in the presence of microorganisms—spoilage and foodborne illness could diminish, according to a new study from Cornell University food scientists.

  • Surprising sand fly find yields new species of...
    on May 6, 2021 at 8:26 pm

    Researchers at North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina Greensboro made a surprising finding while examining areas where sand flies rear their young: a new species of bacteria that is highly attractive to pregnant, or gravid, sand flies. The findings could advance the production of ecologically safe baits or traps to reduce sand fly populations.

  • Rooted tree key to understanding bacterial...
    on May 6, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    The findings, published in the journal Science today, demonstrate how integrating vertical descent and horizontal gene transfer can be used to infer the root of the bacterial tree and the nature of the last bacterial common ancestor.