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These are organized by form and function.

Communications Computation Storage Authoring Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Typewriter Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Recorder Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS) Database Application AI, World


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



compute : to determine especially by mathematical means Compute the area of the triangle.; also : to determine or calculate by means of a computer computing pi to over one billion places — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Computation is any type of calculation that follows a well-defined model understood and expressed as, for example, an algorithm. The study of computation is paramount to the discipline of computer science. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica




Theory of Computation (CSAIL, MIT)




Mechanical Aids to Computation and the Development of Algorithms (Paul E. Dunne)


Computational Sciences (American Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Computational Thinking (Wikipedia)


Introduction to Computational Media (Ian Bogost, Georgia Tech)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Association for Computing Machinery,






OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



Communications of the ACM: Theory The latest news, opinion and research in theory, from Communications online.

  • Scientists See Useful Defects In Potential New...
    on December 10, 2019 at 4:02 pm

    A research team has reported seeing atomic scale defects in beta gallium oxide that could be useful in the way the semiconductor is deployed and functions.

  • Getting High School, College Students Interested...
    on December 1, 2019 at 5:00 am

    Mark Guzdial considers how few U.S. high school students take computer science, while Robin K. Hill shares what she's learned in teaching first-year college computing students.

  • Koding Academies
    on December 1, 2019 at 5:00 am

    A low-risk path to becoming a front-end plumber.

  • Uncertainty
    on December 1, 2019 at 5:00 am

    Considering how to best navigate stability and randomness.

  • The Rise of Serverless Computing
    on December 1, 2019 at 5:00 am

    The server is dead, long live the server. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Breathable atmospheres may be more common in the...
    on December 13, 2019 at 4:10 pm

    The existence of habitable alien worlds has been a mainstay of popular culture for more than a century. In the 19th century, astronomers believed that Martians might be using canal-based transport links to traverse the red planet. Now, despite living in an age when scientists can study planets light years from our own solar system, most new research continues to diminish the chances of finding other worlds on which humans could live. The biggest stumbling block may be oxygen—human […]

  • Achieving optimal collaboration when goals...
    on December 12, 2019 at 9:09 pm

    New research suggests that, when two people must work together on a physical task despite conflicting goals, the amount of information available about each other's actions influences how quickly and optimally they learn to collaborate. Vinil Chackochan and Vittorio Sanguineti of the University of Genoa, Italy, present these findings in PLOS Computational Biology.

  • NASA's NICER delivers best-ever pulsar...
    on December 12, 2019 at 4:44 pm

    Astrophysicists are redrawing the textbook image of pulsars, the dense, whirling remains of exploded stars, thanks to NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER), an X-ray telescope aboard the International Space Station. Using NICER data, scientists have obtained the first precise and dependable measurements of both a pulsar's size and its mass, as well as the first-ever map of hot spots on its surface.

  • Cheers! Maxwell's electromagnetism extended to...
    on December 11, 2019 at 6:00 pm

    On Dec. 11, 2019, a general framework for incorporating and correcting for nonclassical electromagnetic phenomena in nanoscale systems will be presented in the journal Nature.

  • Researchers develop first mathematical proof for...
    on December 11, 2019 at 5:53 pm

    What if engineers could design a better jet with mathematical equations that drastically reduce the need for experimental testing? Or what if weather prediction models could predict details in the movement of heat from the ocean into a hurricane? These things are impossible now, but could be possible in the future with a more complete mathematical understanding of the laws of turbulence.