Earth Moon

Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Physical / Universe / Solar System / Terrestrial/ Earth / Moon



Moon : the earth’s natural satellite (see satellite 2a) that shines by the sun’s reflected light, revolves about the earth from west to east in about 291⁄2 days with reference to the sun or about 271⁄3 days with reference to the stars, and has a diameter of 2160 miles (3475 kilometers), a mean distance from the earth of about 238,900 miles (384,400 kilometers), and a mass about one eightieth that of the earth (often capitalized : usually used with the) — Webster   See also   OneLook


The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth’s only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter’s satellite Io, the Moon is second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The average distance of the Moon from the Earth is 384,400 km (238,900 mi),[10][11] or 1.28 light-seconds.

The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face, with its near side marked by dark volcanic maria that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. It is the second-brightest regularly visible celestial object in Earth’s sky, after the Sun, as measured by illuminance on Earth’s surface. Its surface is actually dark, although compared to the night sky it appears very bright, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its prominence in the sky and its regular cycle of phases have made the Moon an important cultural influence since ancient times on language, calendars, art, and mythology. — Wikipedia

Moon (Encyclopædia Britannica)



The Artemis missions will build a community on the Moon, driving a new lunar economy and inspiring a new generation. Narrator Drew Barrymore and NASA team members explain why returning to the Moon is the natural next step in human exploration, and how the lessons learned from Artemis will pave the way to Mars and beyond. As NASA prepares to launch the Orion spacecraft and Space Launch System rocket on the uncrewed Artemis I mission around the Moon, we’ve already begun to take the next step. — NASA

Moon to Mars (NASA)
Artemis Program (NASA)
Artemis (NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, YouTube Playlist)

Artemis, NASA’s Moon landing Program (Planetary Society)
Artemis Program (Wikipedia)

Earth’s Moon (NASA)
Earth’s Moon (JPL, NASA)

Our Moon: the Moon (International Astronomical Union)
The Moon (Planetary Society)
Lunar Exploration (Lunar & Planetary Institute)
Moon (National Air and Space Museum)

Moon (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
Moon (Wolfram Alpha)




On 30 November 1609, Galileo aimed his telescope at the Moon. While not being the first person to observe the Moon through a telescope (English mathematician Thomas Harriot had done it four months before but only saw a “strange spottednesse”), Galileo was the first to deduce the cause of the uneven waning as light occlusion from lunar mountains and craters. In his study, he also made topographical charts, estimating the heights of the mountains. The Moon was not what was long thought to have been a translucent and perfect sphere, as Aristotle claimed. — Wikipedia

Da Vinci TV (YouTube Channel)

The Moon (The Galileo Project)
The View from Galileo’s Telescope (MicroObservatory, Center for Astrophysics, Harvard & Smithsonian)

Surveyor Program was a NASA program that sent seven robotic spacecraft to the surface of the Moon between June 1966 and January 1968. The primary goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of soft landings on the Moon. The program was implemented by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to prepare for the Apollo program, and started in 1960. The missions called for the craft to travel directly to the Moon on an impact trajectory, a journey that lasted 63 to 65 hours, and ended with a deceleration of just over three minutes to a soft landing. Five of the Surveyor craft successfully soft-landed on the Moon, including the first one. The other two failed: Surveyor 2 crashed at high velocity after a failed mid-course correction, and Surveyor 4 lost contact (possibly exploding) 2.5 minutes before its scheduled touch-down. — Wikipedia

Surveyor 7 Launches (NASA)
Surveyor 7 (NASA)
Surveyor 7 (JPL, NASA)
Surveyor 7 (Lunar and Planetary Institute)
Surveyor 7 (Wikipedia)

Surveyor (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)
Surveyor Program (Lunar and Planetary Institute)
Surveyor Space Probe (Encyclopædia Britannica)

On October 11th, 1968, just 15 months from President Kennedy’s deadline for a moon landing, NASA launched its first Apollo crew into space. Apollo 7’s Wally Schirra, Donn Eisele, and Walter Cunningham spent 11 days in low Earth orbit, thoroughly testing the Apollo Command and Service Module’s systems. The crew also won an Emmy for the first live television broadcasts from an American spacecraft. — NASA

NASA’s Look at 50 Years of Apollo (YouTube Playlist)
About Apollo 7, the First Crewed Apollo Space Mission (NASA)
Apollo 7: The First Mission (NASA History Division)
Apollo 7 Mission Overview (Lunar and Planetary Institute)
Apollo 7 (Wikipedia)

Apollo Mission (NASA)
Apollo Program (National Air and Space Museum)
Apollo Space Program (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Apollo Program (Wikipedia)


Library of Congress # G3195-3197 Moon (UPenn Online Books)

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Moon (Astronomy Magazine)
Moon (Science Daily)
Moon (
Moon (NPR Archives)



Earth’s Moon (



The visualization in the video below captures the mood of Claude Debussy’s best-known composition, Clair de Lune (moonlight in French). The piece was published in 1905 as the third of four movements in the composer’s Suite Bergamasque, and unlike the other parts of this work, Clair is quiet, contemplative, and slightly melancholy, evoking the feeling of a solitary walk through a moonlit garden. The visualization was created to accompany a performance of Clair de Lune by the National Symphony Orchestra Pops, led by conductor Emil de Cou, at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts on June 1 and 2, 2018, as part of a celebration of NASA’s 60th anniversary. — Moonlight, Clair de Lune

Moonlight, Clair de Lune (Visualizations by Ernie Wright)
Scientific Visualization Studio (Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA)
NASA Goddard (YouTube Channel)


More News …

Moon News -- ScienceDaily Moon News. Current science articles on the Moon. Read about the new lunar mission being planned, how the "Man In The Moon" was created, moon landing facts and more. Images.

  • Lunar glass shows Moon asteroid impacts mirrored...
    on September 29, 2022 at 5:33 pm

    A research team has found asteroid impacts on the Moon millions of years ago coincided precisely with some of the largest meteorite impacts on Earth, such as the one that wiped out the dinosaurs.

  • Breaking in a new planet
    on August 18, 2022 at 1:13 pm

    Impacts affect the porosity and structure of moons and planets more dramatically than scientists suspected, increasing their potential habitability for life. Studying how those impacts affect planetary bodies, asteroids, moons and other rocks in space helps planetary scientists understand […]

  • One more clue to the Moon's origin
    on August 10, 2022 at 8:10 pm

    Researchers discover the first definitive proof that the Moon inherited indigenous noble gases from the Earth's mantle. The discovery represents a significant piece of the puzzle towards understanding how the Moon and, potentially, the Earth and other celestial bodies were formed.

  • Scientists discover places on the moon where it's...
    on July 26, 2022 at 8:02 pm

    A team led by planetary scientists has discovered shady locations within pits on the moon that always hover around a comfortable 63 degrees Fahrenheit. The pits, and caves to which they may lead, would make safer, more thermally stable base camps for lunar exploration and long-term habitation than […]

  • Global map of lunar hydrogen: Data confirms role...
    on July 20, 2022 at 7:05 pm

    Using data collected over two decades ago, scientists have compiled the first complete map of hydrogen abundances on the Moon's surface. The map identifies two types of lunar materials containing enhanced hydrogen and corroborates previous ideas about lunar hydrogen and water, including findings […]



Explore related posts on Cosma


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Our Moon, Luna), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid

See also   Space Transportation


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.