Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Life / Animal / Vertebrate / Fish


Marine Science Otago (YouTube Channel)
New Zealand Marine Studies Centre (Official Website)


fish : any of numerous cold-blooded strictly aquatic craniate vertebrates that include the bony fishes and usually the cartilaginous and jawless fishes and that have typically an elongated somewhat spindle-shaped body terminating in a broad caudal (see caudal 2) fin, limbs in the form of fins when present at all, and a 2-chambered heart by which blood is sent through thoracic gills to be oxygenated — Merriam-Webster   See also   OneLook


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Fish are the gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term “fish” is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces (also ichthyes) is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification. — Wikipedia

Fish (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Bony Vertebrates (One Zoom)

Agnatha (Catalogue of Life)
Chondrichthyes (Catalogue of Life)
Osteichthyes (Catalogue of Life)
Actinopterygii (Catalogue of Life)

Fish (WolframAlpha)



Talks about Fish (TED: Ideas Worth Spreading)
Articles about Fish (Big Think)




Ichthyology, also called fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish, including jawless fish (Agnatha), cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) and bony fish (Osteichthyes). According to FishBase, 33,400 species of fish had been described as of October 2016, with approximately 250 new species described each year. — Wikipedia

Ichthyology (Encyclopædia Britannica)

FishBase (R. Froese & D. Pauly)
Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes (California Academy of Sciences)

Discover Fishes (Florida Museum of Natural History)




DDC: 597.0 Cold-blooded Vertebrates, Fishes (Library Thing)
Subject: Fishes (Library Thing)

Subject: Fishes (Open Library)

LCC: QL 614 Fishes (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Fishes (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: QL 614 Fishes (Library of Congress)
Subject: Fishes (Library of Congress)

Subject: Fishes (WorldCat)




Fish (Science Trek)
Here Fishy Fishy (Biology4Kids)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)


American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists
Zoological Association of America
Association of Zoos and Aquariums


Ichthyology & Herpetology (American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists)
Fish (EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Fish (bioRxiv: Preprint Server for Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Fish (JSTOR)
Fish (Science Daily)
Fish (Science News)
Fish (
Fish (NPR Archives)


Fish & Sharks (Northeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries)


Fish (


More News …

Fish News -- ScienceDaily All about fish. Current research in marine biology including fish habitats, aquaculture, speciation, deep sea fish and more.

  • Why certain fish are left off the hook
    on June 8, 2023 at 11:57 pm

    A new study found that while a piece of legislation designed to foster the sustainability of marine fisheries is sometimes blamed for being too stringent -- leading to what some politicians call 'underfishing' -- the law is not constraining most fisheries, and there are various other reasons that lead to certain fish species being less fished.

  • Biodegradable plastic from sugar cane also...
    on June 1, 2023 at 8:02 pm

    Plastic made from cane sugar also threatens the environment. Researchers from the University of Gothenburg have found that perch change their behavior when exposed to so-called bioplastic.

  • Overfishing linked to rapid evolution of codfish
    on May 31, 2023 at 7:01 pm

    The overfishing of codfish spanning the second half of the 20th century indicates that human action can force evolutionary changes more quickly than widely believed, according to a new study.

  • Protecting large ocean areas doesn't curb fishing...
    on May 31, 2023 at 6:52 pm

    In the first-ever 'before and after' assessment of the impact of establishing Mexico's Revillagigedo National Park on the fishing industry, a team of US and Mexican researchers found that Mexico's industrial fishing sector did not incur economic losses five years after the park's creation despite a full ban in fishing activity within the MPA.

  • River erosion can shape fish evolution
    on May 25, 2023 at 6:13 pm

    A new study of the freshwater greenfin darter fish suggests river erosion can be a driver of biodiversity in tectonically inactive regions. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Pirarucu: Amazon's giant air-breathing fish in...
    on June 10, 2023 at 8:34 am

    A fish larger than a man, tasty as well as beautiful, the freshwater pirarucu is a favorite with poachers in a lawless part of the Amazon jungle where Brazil, Peru and Colombia meet.

  • Marine viruses: Submerged players of climate...
    on June 9, 2023 at 6:37 pm

    While the world has been heavily focused on the usual players of global climate change, like fossil fuels and deforestation, a group of unlikely contenders has emerged from the depths of the ocean—marine viruses. These minuscule but mighty entities are now stealing the limelight as scientists unravel their profound influence on our planet's climate.

  • Underwater noise shown to disturb feeding...
    on June 9, 2023 at 5:54 pm

    Many marine organisms, such as fish, marine mammals and crustaceans, produce and use sound to navigate, reproduce, detect prey and avoid predators. However, anthropogenic sound, for example from the construction and operation of offshore wind farms, drilling, seismic surveys and shipping, is changing the acoustic landscape in the ocean.

  • Wireless sensor enables real-time spoilage alerts...
    on June 9, 2023 at 5:05 pm

    Food waste and food-borne diseases are among the most critical problems urban populations face today. They contribute to greenhouse emissions tremendously and amplify economic and environmental costs. Since food spoilage remains the main reason for this waste, the circumstances of processing, transporting, and preserving food still need to be improved in line with current technological advancements.

  • A Russian 'spy' whale? Killer whales biting...
    on June 9, 2023 at 4:33 pm

    Off the coast of Spain and Portugal, killer whales have been biting boats. And the famous beluga whale nicknamed "Hvaldimir" has popped up again—this time in Sweden. When first spotted in Norway in 2019, wearing a suspicious harness, some suggested he could be a Russian spy.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.