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force : any of the natural influences (as electromagnetism, gravity, the strong force, and the weak force) that exist especially between particles and determine the structure of the universe — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Forces in the universe are based on four fundamental interactions. The strong and weak forces are nuclear forces that act only at very short distances, and are responsible for the interactions between subatomic particles, including nucleons and compound nuclei. The electromagnetic force acts between electric charges, and the gravitational force acts between masses. All other forces in nature derive from these four fundamental interactions. For example, friction is a manifestation of the electromagnetic force acting between the atoms of two surfaces, and the Pauli exclusion principle, which does not permit atoms to pass through each other. Similarly, the forces in springs, modeled by Hooke’s law, are the result of electromagnetic forces and the Exclusion Principle acting together to return an object to its equilibrium position. Centrifugal forces are acceleration forces that arise simply from the acceleration of rotating frames of reference — Wikipedia

David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science, Britannica





New study suggests we might have spotted a fifth force of nature (Fiona MacDonald, Science Alert)
Physicists confirm possible discovery of fifth force of nature (
Has a New, Fifth Force of Nature Been Found? (Mike Wall,
A Fifth Force: Fact or Fiction? (Don Lincoln, Senior Scientist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Live Science)




The story of force: from Aristotle to Einstein (Arthur Stinner)


Quotations Page


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library





Fundamental Forces of Physics (Sci Show YouTube Playlist)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Science Daily,, NPR Archives









OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


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Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.