Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Life / Gene



DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)



Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!




Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)




Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)









OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics


More News … - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Wildlife officials truck Chinook salmon to cooler...
    on May 20, 2022 at 5:16 pm

    In a stopgap measure to help struggling spring- and winter-run Chinook salmon spawn in the face of rising water temperatures and lower water levels due to climate change, state and federal wildlife officials in Northern California have begun trucking adult fish to cooler waters.

  • Developmental origin of the adrenal cortex in...
    on May 20, 2022 at 1:38 pm

    Sitting atop each kidney and measuring only around two centimeters long, the adrenal glands are tiny but mighty. These glands produce steroid hormones, including those involved in stress response, blood pressure maintenance, and fertility. When their development goes awry, it can cause a life-threatening condition called primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease. Many of the genetics involved in this and other adrenal gland disorders remain unknown.

  • How seascapes of the ancient world shaped the...
    on May 20, 2022 at 1:33 pm

    Trinity scientists, along with international colleagues, have explored the importance of sea travel in prehistory by examining the genomes of ancient Maltese humans and comparing these with the genomes of this period from across Europe. Previous findings from the archaeological team had suggested that towards the end of the third millennium BC the use of the Maltese temples declined.

  • MCM molecules impede the formation of DNA loops
    on May 20, 2022 at 1:33 pm

    The entire genomic material of a cell must be packed into a tiny cell nucleus in such a way, that on the one hand, it can be stored in an organized manner and, on the other hand, it can be transcribed, duplicated or repaired as needed. Different proteins are responsible for space-saving packaging, which can roll up or loop the DNA. Scientists Kikuë Tachibana and Karl Duderstadt from the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried are investigating the exact task and function of these […]

  • How one of the X chromosomes in female embryonic...
    on May 20, 2022 at 1:33 pm

    In most mammals, females have two X chromosomes and males have one X and one Y chromosome in each of their cells. To avoid a double dose of X-linked genes in females, one of the Xs is silenced early in the developmental process. This silencing is critical, yet how it happens has been relatively mysterious. Two new U-M studies reveal more about this silencing process and insights that could improve stem cell research.

Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Single-nucleus chromatin accessibility profiling...
    by Adam W. Turner on May 19, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 19 May 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01069-0Single-nucleus ATAC-seq characterization of chromatin accessibility in human coronary artery disease samples identifies cell-type- and state-specific regulatory mechanisms underlying disease risk, highlighting the roles of TBX2 and PRDM16.

  • Multi-ancestry genetic study of type 2 diabetes...
    by Anubha Mahajan on May 12, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 12 May 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01058-3Genome-wide association and fine-mapping analyses in ancestrally diverse populations implicate candidate causal genes and mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes. Trans-ancestry genetic risk scores enhance transferability across populations.

  • DeepSTARR predicts enhancer activity from DNA...
    by Bernardo P. de Almeida on May 12, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 12 May 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01048-5A deep-learning model called DeepSTARR quantitatively predicts enhancer activity on the basis of DNA sequence. The model learns relevant motifs and syntax rules, allowing for the design of synthetic enhancers with specific strengths.

  • SunUp and Sunset genomes revealed impact of...
    by Jingjing Yue on May 12, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 12 May 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01068-1Genome assemblies for the SunUp transgenic papaya and its progenitor Sunset identify three transgene-insertions in SunUp. Resequencing of 86 papaya genomes highlights the impacts of breeding and geographic origin.

  • Genome-wide analysis of cis-regulatory...
    by Jaya Krishnan on May 12, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 12 May 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01049-4Genome-wide epigenomic profiling of liver tissue from one surface and two independent cave populations of Astyanax mexicanus sheds light on regulatory changes underlying metabolic adaptations to the nutrient-deprived cave environment.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.