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Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Genetic analyses identify widespread...
    by Nicola Pirastu on April 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 22 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00846-7Genetic analyses identify widespread sex-differential participation bias in population-based studies and show how this bias can lead to incorrect inferences. These findings highlight new challenges for association studies as sample sizes continue to grow.

  • Trans-ancestry analysis reveals genetic and...
    by Janie F. Shelton on April 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 22 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00854-7A study of more than one million 23andMe research participants identifies genetic and nongenetic associations with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity.

  • Our faces and brains
    by Martijn P. van den Heuvel on April 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 22 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00858-3Neurological, cognitive and genetic sciences share a longstanding interest in studying the relationship between the shape of the human skull and of the brain. However, the downstream biological genetic underpinnings of such interactions, if they exist, remain largely unknown. A new genetic study now reports on a set of genes that may be involved in substantially shaping the profile of our face and the physical shape […]

  • Extreme conservation encodes the structural...
    by Amit Gupta on April 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 22 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00869-0RNA is dynamic and can fold into multiple alternative conformations. A new study shows that cells control mRNA translation by regulating the stoichiometry of alternative RNA structures formed from extremely conserved sequences of 5′ untranslated regions and that this control may contribute to embryonic development.

  • Author Correction: Distinct dynamics and...
    by Zhiyuan Chen on April 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 22 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00871-6Author Correction: Distinct dynamics and functions of H2AK119ub1 and H3K27me3 in mouse preimplantation embryos - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Tarantula's ubiquity traced back to the cretaceous
    on April 16, 2021 at 9:01 pm

    Tarantulas are among the most notorious spiders, due in part to their size, vibrant colors and prevalence throughout the world. But one thing most people don't know is that tarantulas are homebodies. Females and their young rarely leave their burrows and only mature males will wander to seek out a mate. How then did such a sedentary spider come to inhabit six out of seven continents?

  • Designed proteins assemble antibodies into...
    on April 16, 2021 at 3:30 pm

    In a new report now published on Science, Robby Divine and an interdisciplinary research team at the department of biochemistry, regenerative medicine, and vaccines and infectious disease at the University of Washington U.S. and the School of Medicine, at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, conducted computational designs of nanocages to assemble antibodies into precise architectures. During the construction, one structural component formed an antibody or Fc-ligand fusion and the […]

  • Scientists are on a path to sequencing 1 million...
    on April 16, 2021 at 1:10 pm

    The first draft of the human genome was published 20 years ago in 2001, took nearly three years and cost between US$500 million and $1 billion. The Human Genome Project has allowed scientists to read, almost end to end, the 3 billion pairs of DNA bases—or "letters"—that biologically define a human being.

  • Bearded dragon embryos become females either...
    on April 15, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    Bearded dragon embryos can use two different sets of genes to become a female lizard—one activated by the sex chromosomes and the other activated by high temperatures during development. Sarah Whiteley and Arthur Georges of the University of Canberra report these new findings April 15th in the journal PLOS Genetics.

  • Study uses plankton genomes as global biosensors...
    on April 15, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    By analyzing gains and losses in the genes of phytoplankton samples collected in all major ocean regions, researchers at the University of California, Irvine have created the most nuanced and high-resolution map yet to show where these photosynthetic organisms either thrive or are forced to adapt to limited quantities of key nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus and iron.