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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
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Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Neuronal impact of patient-specific aberrant...
    by Erin Flaherty on November 29, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 29 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0539-zTranscriptome and functional studies in human iPSC-derived neurons suggest that the phenotypic effects of NRXN1 deletions can occur through reduction in wild-type NRXN1α isoform levels and expression of mutant NRXN1α isoforms.

  • A year in genetics
    on November 29, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 29 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0553-1As the year comes to a close and we start to look ahead to 2020, we thought that we would highlight some of our favorite Nature Genetics papers from 2019. This snapshot also captures some of the topics and themes in genetics that we are most excited to see develop in the near future.

  • Histone hyperacetylation disrupts core gene...
    by Berkley E. Gryder on November 29, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 29 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0534-4High levels of histone acetylation at rhabdomyosarcoma SEs, including SOX8, are detrimental to transcription via exclusion of RNA Pol II, but not BRD4, from phase condensates.

  • Mapping and predicting gene–enhancer...
    by Daniel J. Gaffney on November 29, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 29 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0540-6A new study presents a powerful experimental approach, CRISPRi-FlowFISH, for mapping regulatory interactions, and uses it to characterize thousands of putative enhancer–gene pairs. The results suggest that most current approaches for predicting enhancer–gene interactions perform poorly, but a simple mathematical model combining distance with enhancer activity shows promise.

  • Activity-by-contact model of enhancer–promoter...
    by Charles P. Fulco on November 29, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 29 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0538-0Combining CRISPRi-FlowFISH to perturb enhancers with an activity-by-contact model to predict complex connections allows systematic mapping of enhancer–gene connections in a given cell type, on the basis of chromatin-state measurements. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • The wild relatives of major vegetables, needed...
    on December 13, 2019 at 7:34 pm

    Growing up in the wild makes plants tough. Wild plants evolve to survive the whims of nature and thrive in difficult conditions, including extreme climate conditions, poor soils, and pests and disease. Their better-known descendants—the domesticated plants that are critical to a healthy diet—are often not nearly as hardy. The genes that make crop wild relatives robust have the potential to make their cultivated cousins—our food plants—better prepared for a harsh climate […]

  • Florida's black bears remain off-limits from...
    on December 13, 2019 at 3:50 pm

    The Florida black bear will remain off-limits from hunters, but only for now.

  • Scientists develop a way to increase winter wheat...
    on December 13, 2019 at 2:49 pm

    Agricultural chemists from RUDN University have developed a new way to deal with cleavers, a weed that is the main enemy of winter wheat crops. They found a combination of herbicides that, as the experiments have shown, increases the yield of winter wheat by 46-60 percent. The results are published in Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science.

  • Chimpanzees may have evolved resistance to HIV...
    on December 13, 2019 at 1:41 pm

    Simian immunodeficiency virus, the monkey- and ape-infecting virus that HIV originated from, may have influenced the genetics of chimpanzees, finds a new UCL-led study.

  • Study: The human lifespan is written into our DNA
    on December 13, 2019 at 1:31 pm

    Humans have a "natural" lifespan of around 38 years, according to a new method we have developed for estimating the lifespans of different species by analyzing their DNA.