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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Stories in the DNA
    on September 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 30 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-00719-5Genetic tools can help uncover evolutionary histories, migration patterns and admixture events of domesticated animals and their wild ancestors. The genetic window into the past can help shape breeding strategies and inform animal agricultural practices that should lead to a more resilient and sustainable future.

  • Targeting LSD1 and FOXA1 in prostate cancer
    by Soleilmane Omarjee on September 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 30 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0702-6FOXA1 is a key pioneer factor in androgen-receptor activity but has been an elusive drug target. A new study shows that inhibition of the associated cofactor LSD1 modifies the methylation state of FOXA1, thus resulting in chromatin dissociation and tumor inhibition, even in models of treatment-resistant prostate cancer.

  • Setting new boundaries with transcription and CTCF
    by Erika C. Anderson on September 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 30 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0704-4How do boundary elements divide chromosomes into domains? A new study uses random genomic insertions to show how small genomic fragments can shape chromatin folding through the interplay of loop extrusion and compartmentalization. Spoiler: context matters.

  • Discovering functional evolutionary dependencies...
    by Marco Mina on September 28, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 28 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0703-5Computational analysis of over 9,000 cancer genomes, coupled with functional validation in cell lines, highlights combinations of mutations required for tumor progression. This integrated approach provides a framework to stratify patients on the basis of interdependent genetic aberrations.

  • Mutations disrupting neuritogenesis genes confer...
    by Sheng Chih Jin on September 28, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 28 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0695-1Whole-exome sequencing of 250 parent–offspring trios identifies an enrichment of rare damaging de novo mutations in individuals with cerebral palsy and implicates genetically mediated dysregulation of early neuronal connectivity in the etiology of this disorder. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Acropora spp. coral still thrives in the holdout...
    on September 30, 2020 at 6:00 pm

    Coral Gardens Reef in Belize remains a refuge for Acropora spp. coral despite widespread devastation in other areas of the western North Atlantic/Caribbean, according to a study published September 30, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Lisa Greer from Washington and Lee University, Virginia, U.S., and colleagues.

  • Problems with reproduction in birds
    on September 30, 2020 at 4:57 pm

    In birds and other species alike, pairs can face considerable difficulties with reproduction. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen have now shown in an extensive analysis of 23,000 zebra finch eggs that infertility is mainly due to males, while high embryo mortality is more a problem of the females. Inbreeding, age of the parents and conditions experienced when growing up had surprisingly little influence on reproductive failures.

  • Biodiversity: where the world is making...
    on September 30, 2020 at 4:54 pm

    The future of biodiversity hangs in the balance. World leaders are gathering to review international targets and make new pledges for action to stem wildlife declines. Depending on whether you are a glass half-full or half-empty person, you're likely to have different views on their progress so far.

  • Zebrafish embryos help prove what happens to...
    on September 30, 2020 at 4:48 pm

    A variety of nanoparticles are designed for targeted drug delivery, but unfortunately only a very small proportion of the injected nanoparticles reach the target site such as solid tumors. The reason behind the low targeting efficiency is often considered a "black box" and had thus been little explored for many years.

  • Blueprint to more productive cattle herds
    on September 30, 2020 at 3:00 pm

    Genome technology has unlocked new cattle breeding methods which could improve fertility and lead to increases in profitability, sustainability and productivity.