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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Release of paused RNA polymerase II at specific...
    by Gaetano Ivan Dellino on May 20, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0421-zRelease of paused Pol II at specific intronic loci or chromatin domains favors the formation of abnormal DNA recombination, leading to cancer-associated chromosomal translocations. […]

  • Genomic prediction of maize yield across European...
    by Emilie J. Millet on May 20, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0414-yThe authors present a new genomic prediction method for maize germplasm evaluation under genotype × environment interaction, in which genotype × environment interaction of grain yield components is modeled as genotypic sensitivity to environmental drivers. […]

  • Genome-scale screens identify JNK–JUN signaling...
    by Qing V. Li on May 20, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0408-9CRISPR screens identify JNK–JUN family genes as repressors of definitive endoderm differentiation in human pluripotent stem cells. JUN co-occupies stem cell enhancers with OCT4, NANOG, SMAD2 and SMAD3 and inhibits the exit from pluripotency. […]

  • Author Correction: New genetic signals for lung...
    by Nick Shrine on May 20, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0438-3Author Correction: New genetic signals for lung function highlight pathways and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associations across multiple ancestries […]

  • Publisher Correction: Landscape of B cell...
    by Xihao Hu on May 17, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 17 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0437-4Publisher Correction: Landscape of B cell immunity and related immune evasion in human cancers […] - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Researchers demonstrate double-lock protection...
    on May 20, 2019 at 4:32 pm

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers have used CRISPR technology to probe the mechanisms that guide the developmental trajectories of stem cells in the brain. The results show that crucial cellular switches are doubly protected against unintended activation. […]

  • Zebrafish help researchers explore alternatives...
    on May 20, 2019 at 4:04 pm

    Blood diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma are currently treated with bone marrow transplants—a transfer of blood stem cells from a healthy person to a patient in need. But the demand for patient-matched blood stem cells far exceeds their availability, and many patients go without. To bypass the need for donations, University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers are using zebrafish and human cells to determine how to grow blood stem cells in a laboratory dish. […]

  • Synthetic biologists hack bacterial sensors
    on May 20, 2019 at 4:04 pm

    Rice University synthetic biologists have hacked bacterial sensing with a plug-and-play system that could be used to mix-and-match tens of thousands of sensory inputs and genetic outputs. The technology has wide-ranging implications for medical diagnostics, the study of deadly pathogens, environmental monitoring and more. […]

  • SABER tech gives DNA and RNA visualization a boost
    on May 20, 2019 at 3:54 pm

    Researchers have been using "Fluorescence in situ hybridization" (FISH) analysis for decades to literally fish for specific DNA and RNA sequences in intact cells and tissues within their vast seas of nucleic acid molecules. Because of its ability to light specific sequences up under the microscope at the exact locations at which they reside, FISH has come to be a go-to method in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities, investigation of the 3-D organization of genomes in cells' nuclei, […]

  • Climate change has long-term impact on species...
    on May 20, 2019 at 3:33 pm

    Historic climate change events can have a lasting impact on the genetic diversity of a species, reveals a new study published in Current Biology. This unexpected finding emerged from an analysis of the alpine marmot's genome. […]