Jovian Planet

Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Physical / Universe / Solar System / Jovian Planet



Jovian planets, after Jupiter, are also called giant planets or gas giants. However, many astronomers apply the latter term only to Jupiter and Saturn, classifying Uranus and Neptune, which have different compositions, as ice giants. Both names are potentially misleading: all of the giant planets consist primarily of fluids above their critical points, where distinct gas and liquid phases do not exist. The principal components are hydrogen and helium in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, and water, ammonia and methane in the case of Uranus and Neptune. — Wikipedia

Jovian Planets (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)




Gas giant planet is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. Gas giants are also called failed stars because they contain the same basic elements as a star. Jupiter and Saturn are gas giants. — Wikipedia

Ice giant planet is composed mainly of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Uranus and Neptune are ice giants. — Wikipedia




Pioneer programs were two series of United States lunar and planetary space probes exploration. The first program, which ran from 1958 to 1960, unsuccessfully attempted to send spacecraft to orbit the Moon, successfully sent one spacecraft to fly by the Moon, and successfully sent one spacecraft to investigate interplanetary space between the orbits of Earth and Venus. The second program, which ran from 1965 to 1992, sent four spacecraft to measure interplanetary space weather, two to explore Jupiter and Saturn, and two to explore Venus. The two outer planet probes, Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11, became the first of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity that will allow them to leave the Solar System. — Wikipedia

The Pioneer Missions (AMES, NASA)
Pioneer Mission (NASA)
Pioneer 10 and 11 (Planetary Society)

Pioneer 10 Mission (JPL, NASA)
Pioneer 10 (Wikipedia)

Pioneer 11 Mission (JPL, NASA)
Pioneer 11 (Wikipedia)

Voyager Program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic interstellar probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. They were launched in 1977 to take advantage of a favorable alignment of Jupiter and Saturn, to fly near them while collecting data for transmission back to Earth. After launch the decision was taken to send Voyager 2 near Uranus and Neptune. — Wikipedia

Voyager 1 & 2 (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, YouTube Playlist)

Voyager Mission (NASA)
Voyager Mission (JPL, NASA)

Voyager Mission (Planetary Society)
Voyager Program (Wikipedia)

Voyager 1 (NASA)
Voyager 2 (NASA)


Library of Congress # QB400 Jovian Planets (UPenn Online Books)

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching



International Astronomical Union (IAU)
The Planetary Society


Gas Giant (Astronomy Magazine)
Jovian Planet (
Jovian Planet (NPR Archives)



Jovian Planet (



Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.