Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
microscope : an instrument for making enlarged images of minute objects — Webster
Microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. There are many types of microscopes, and they may be grouped in different ways. One way is to describe the way the instruments interact with a sample to create images, either by sending a beam of light or electrons to a sample in its optical path, or by scanning across, and a short distance from, the surface of a sample using a probe. The most common microscope (and the first to be invented) is the optical microscope, which uses light to pass through a sample to produce an image. Other major types of microscopes are the fluorescence microscope, the electron microscope (both, the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope) and the various types of scanning probe microscopes. — Wikipedia
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well-known branches of microscopy: optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy.
Optical microscopy and electron microscopy involve the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of electromagnetic radiation/electron beams interacting with the specimen, and the collection of the scattered radiation or another signal in order to create an image. This process may be carried out by wide-field irradiation of the sample (for example standard light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) or by scanning a fine beam over the sample (for example confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). Scanning probe microscopy involves the interaction of a scanning probe with the surface of the object of interest. The development of microscopy revolutionized biology, gave rise to the field of histology and so remains an essential technique in the life and physical sciences. — Wikipedia
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SABER tech gives DNA and RNA visualization a boost
on May 20, 2019 at 3:54 pm
Researchers have been using "Fluorescence in situ hybridization" (FISH) analysis for decades to literally fish for specific DNA and RNA sequences in intact cells and tissues within their vast seas of nucleic acid molecules. Because of its ability to light specific sequences up under the microscope at the exact locations at which they reside, FISH has come to be a go-to method in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities, investigation of the 3-D organization of genomes in cells' nuclei, […]
New method simplifies the search for protein...
on May 20, 2019 at 3:00 pm
For a drug to intervene in cells or entire organs that are not behaving normally it must first bind to specific protein receptors in the cell membranes. Receptors can change their molecular structure in a multitude of ways during binding—and only the right structure will "unlock" the drug's therapeutic effect. […]
Virulence factor of the influenza A virus mapped...
on May 20, 2019 at 1:56 pm
The influenza A viruses, which are responsible for deadly pandemics in the past, still remain a major global public health problem today. Molecules known as virulence factors are produced by bacteria, viruses, and fungi to help them to infect host cells. One of virulence factors found in the influenza A viruses is hemagglutinin (HA). Researchers at Kanazawa University have recently studied the structure of HA of avian influenza virus, H5N1, using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM). […]
Nanoscale sculpturing leads to unusual packing of...
on May 17, 2019 at 8:34 pm
From the ancient pyramids to modern buildings, various three-dimensional (3-D) structures have been formed by packing shaped objects together. At the macroscale, the shape of objects is fixed and thus dictates how they can be arranged. For example, bricks attached by mortar retain their elongated rectangular shape. But at the nanoscale, the shape of objects can be modified to some extent when they are coated with organic molecules, such as polymers, surfactants (surface-active agents), and DNA. […]
Polymers jump through hoops on pathway to...
on May 17, 2019 at 7:07 pm
Recyclable plastics that contain ring-shaped polymers may be a key to developing sustainable synthetic materials. Despite some promising advances, researchers said, a full understanding of how to processes ring polymers into practical materials remains elusive. In a new study, researchers identified a mechanism called "threading" that takes place when a polymer is stretched—a behavior not witnessed before. This new insight may lead to new processing methods for sustainable polymer […]