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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



The Particle Adventure: Interactive Adventure of the Inner Workings of the Atom (Particle Data Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboatory)
Online Particle Physics Information (SLAC Library)


particle : any of the basic units of matter and energy (such as a molecule, atom, proton, electron, or photon) — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Particle is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass. They vary greatly in size or quantity, from subatomic particles like the electron, to microscopic particles like atoms and molecules, to macroscopic particles like powders and other granular materials. Particles can also be used to create scientific models of even larger objects depending on their density, such as humans moving in a crowd or celestial bodies in motion. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of theoretical high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopedia of experimental high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopædia Britannica



Particle (WolframAlpha)


Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behavior. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Standard Model (CERN)
Particle Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Quantum Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Particle Physics (Wolfram Alpha)
Quantum Physics (Wolfram Alpha)


Particle Physics Timeline (The Particle Adventure)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Contemporary Physics Project


Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics (MIT OCW Physics)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Particle Physics (AAAS EurekAlert!)
Particle Physics (Science News)
Quantum Physics (
Quantum Physics (ScienceDaily)
NPR Archives






Quantum Physics News The latest news on quantum physics, wave particle duality, quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation, and quantum computing.

  • New blueprint for more stable quantum computers
    on January 22, 2021 at 5:42 pm

    Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) have put forward a detailed plan of how faster and better defined quantum bits—qubits—can be created. The central elements are magnetic atoms from the class of so-called rare-earth metals, which would be selectively implanted into the crystal lattice of a material. Each of these atoms represents one qubit. The researchers have demonstrated how these qubits can be activated, entangled, used as memory bits, and read out. They have now published […]

  • Using the unpredictable nature of quantum...
    on January 22, 2021 at 2:36 pm

    A team of researchers from the U.K., Germany and Russia has used the unpredictable nature of quantum mechanics to create a device capable of generating truly random numbers. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the group describes using aspects of quantum theory to develop a framework for building a truly random number generator.

  • Researchers propose new method for accurate...
    on January 22, 2021 at 1:18 pm

    Recently, researchers from the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have proposed a novel measurement method of the electro-optic (EO) coefficient based on the χ(2) nonlinear optical technology to measure the linear EO coefficients of KH2PO4 (KDP) and K(H1−xDx)2PO4 (DKDP) precisely. Relevant results were published in Optics Express on Jan. 18, 2021.

  • Bringing atoms to a standstill: Researchers...
    on January 21, 2021 at 9:35 pm

    It's cool to be small. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have miniaturized the optical components required to cool atoms down to a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero, the first step in employing them on microchips to drive a new generation of super-accurate atomic clocks, enable navigation without GPS, and simulate quantum systems.

  • Researchers improve data readout by using...
    on January 21, 2021 at 2:18 pm

    Researchers say they have been able to greatly improve the readout of data from digital memories—thanks to quantum entanglement.

Quantum Physics News -- ScienceDaily News on quantum physics. Read current research on everything from quantum mechanics to quantum dots. Was Albert Einstein right?

  • Bringing atoms to a standstill: Miniaturizing...
    on January 21, 2021 at 9:31 pm

    Scientists have miniaturized the optical components required to cool atoms down to a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero, the first step in employing them on microchips to drive a new generation of super-accurate atomic clocks, enable navigation without GPS, and simulate quantum systems.

  • Innovations through hair-thin optical fibers
    on January 21, 2021 at 6:19 pm

    Scientists have built hair-thin optical fiber filters in a very simple way. They are not only extremely compact and stable, but also color-tunable. This means they can be used in quantum technology and as sensors for temperature or for detecting atmospheric gases.

  • Alpha particles lurk at the surface of...
    on January 21, 2021 at 6:17 pm

    Scientists have found evidence of alpha particles at the surface of neutron-rich heavy nuclei, providing new insights into the structure of neutron stars, as well as the process of alpha decay.

  • Light-controlled Higgs modes found in...
    on January 20, 2021 at 12:43 am

    Researchers have discovered a short-lived form of the famous Higgs boson -- subject of a groundbreaking search at the Large Hadron Collider -- within an iron-based superconductor. This Higgs mode can be accessed and controlled by laser light flashing on the superconductor at trillions of pulses per second.

  • Light-induced twisting of Weyl nodes switches on...
    on January 19, 2021 at 5:20 pm

    Scientists have discovered a new light-induced switch that twists the crystal lattice of the material, switching on a giant electron current that appears to be nearly dissipationless.