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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



The Particle Adventure: Interactive Adventure of the Inner Workings of the Atom (Particle Data Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboatory)
Online Particle Physics Information (SLAC Library)


particle : any of the basic units of matter and energy (such as a molecule, atom, proton, electron, or photon) — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Particle is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass. They vary greatly in size or quantity, from subatomic particles like the electron, to microscopic particles like atoms and molecules, to macroscopic particles like powders and other granular materials. Particles can also be used to create scientific models of even larger objects depending on their density, such as humans moving in a crowd or celestial bodies in motion. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of theoretical high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopedia of experimental high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopædia Britannica



Particle (WolframAlpha)


Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behavior. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Standard Model (CERN)
Particle Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Quantum Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Particle Physics (Wolfram Alpha)
Quantum Physics (Wolfram Alpha)


Particle Physics Timeline (The Particle Adventure)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Contemporary Physics Project


Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics (MIT OCW Physics)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Particle Physics (AAAS EurekAlert!)
Particle Physics (Science News)
Quantum Physics (
Quantum Physics (ScienceDaily)
NPR Archives






Quantum Physics News The latest news on quantum physics, wave particle duality, quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation, and quantum computing.

  • Understanding the thermodynamic cost of...
    on May 7, 2021 at 3:01 pm

    Clocks are essential building blocks of modern technology, from computers to GPS receivers. They are also essentially engines, irreversibly consuming resources in order to generate accurate ticks. But what resources have to be expended to achieve a desired accuracy? In our latest study, published in Physical Review X, we answer this question by measuring, for the first time, the entropy generated by a minimal clock.

  • Capturing a single photon of light: Harnessing...
    on May 7, 2021 at 12:45 pm

    Scientists at Raytheon BBN Technologies have developed a new way to detect a single photon, or particle of light—a development with big applications for sensors, communications and exponentially more powerful quantum computer processors.

  • Team directs and measures quantum drum duet
    on May 6, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    Like conductors of a spooky symphony, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have "entangled" two small mechanical drums and precisely measured their linked quantum properties. Entangled pairs like this might someday perform computations and transmit data in large-scale quantum networks.

  • Evading the uncertainty principle in quantum...
    on May 6, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    The uncertainty principle, first introduced by Werner Heisenberg in the late 1920's, is a fundamental concept of quantum mechanics. In the quantum world, particles like the electrons that power all electrical product can also behave like waves. As a result, particles cannot have a well-defined position and momentum simultaneously. For instance, measuring the momentum of a particle leads to a disturbance of position, and therefore the position cannot be precisely defined.

  • New boost in quantum technologies
    on May 6, 2021 at 4:30 pm

    In an international collaboration, researchers at the University of Stuttgart were able to detect quantum bits in two-dimensional materials for the first time. Nature Materials publishes this research in its May 6, 2021 issue.

Quantum Physics News -- ScienceDaily News on quantum physics. Read current research on everything from quantum mechanics to quantum dots. Was Albert Einstein right?

  • Evading the uncertainty principle in quantum...
    on May 6, 2021 at 6:21 pm

    In quantum mechanics, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle dictates that the position and speed of an object cannot both be known fully precisely at the same time. Researchers now show that two vibrating drumheads, the size of a human hair, can be prepared in a quantum state which evades the uncertainty principle.

  • Homing in on the smallest possible laser
    on May 6, 2021 at 6:21 pm

    Physicists have succeeded in generating an unusual quantum state in charge carrier complexes that are closely linked to light particles and located in ultrathin semiconductor sheets. This process produces light similar to that of a laser. The phenomenon could be used to create the smallest possible solid-state lasers.

  • Quantum drum duet measured
    on May 6, 2021 at 6:20 pm

    Like conductors of a spooky symphony, researchers have 'entangled' two small mechanical drums and precisely measured their linked quantum properties. Entangled pairs like this might someday perform computations and transmit data in large-scale quantum networks.

  • Microalgae biofuels: Changing carbohydrates into...
    on May 6, 2021 at 2:54 pm

    Engineers have developed a technique to repartition carbon resources from carbohydrates to lipids in microalgae. It is hoped that this method can be applied to biofuel production.

  • Laser pulses with record-breaking intensity
    on May 6, 2021 at 2:54 pm

    Researchers have demonstrated a record-high laser pulse intensity of over 1023 W/cm2 using a petawatt laser. It took more than a decade to reach this laser intensity. These ultrahigh intensity light pulses will enable exploration of complex interactions between light and matter in ways not possible before.