Scientific laws are statements that describe or predict a range of natural phenomena. Each scientific law is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspect of the Universe. The term law has diverse usage in many cases (approximate, accurate, broad, or narrow theories) across all fields of natural science (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy, etc.). Scientific laws summarize and explain a large collection of facts determined by experiment, and are tested based on their ability to predict the results of future experiments. They are developed either from facts or through mathematics, and are strongly supported by empirical evidence. It is generally understood that they reflect causal relationships fundamental to reality, and are discovered rather than invented.
Laws reflect scientific knowledge that experiments have repeatedly verified (and never falsified). Their accuracy does not change when new theories are worked out, but rather the scope of application, since the equation (if any) representing the law does not change. As with other scientific knowledge, they do not have absolute certainty (as mathematical theorems or identities do), and it is always possible for a law to be overturned by future observations. A law can usually be formulated as one or several statements or equations, so that it can be used to predict the outcome of an experiment, given the circumstances of the processes taking place.
Laws differ from hypotheses and postulates, which are proposed during the scientific process before and during validation by experiment and observation. Hypotheses and postulates are not laws since they have not been verified to the same degree and may not be sufficiently general, although they may lead to the formulation of laws. A law is a more solidified and formal statement, distilled from repeated experiment. Laws are narrower in scope than scientific theories, which may contain one or several laws. Science distinguishes a law or theory from facts. Calling a law a fact is ambiguous, an overstatement, or an equivocation. Although the nature of a scientific law is a question in philosophy and although scientific laws describe nature mathematically, scientific laws are practical conclusions reached by the scientific method; they are intended to be neither laden with ontological commitments nor statements of logical absolutes.
According to the unity of science thesis, all scientific laws follow fundamentally from physics. Laws which occur in other sciences ultimately follow from physical laws. Often, from mathematically fundamental viewpoints, universal constants emerge from a scientific law. — Wikipedia
Archimedes Principle Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Avogadro’s Law Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Ohm’s Law Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Newton’s Laws of Motion Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Newton’s Law of Gravity Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Newton’s Law of cooling Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Coulomb’s Law Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Stefan-Boltzmann Law Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Pascal’s Principle Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Hooke’s Law Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Bernoulli’s Theorem Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Boyle’s Law Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Charles’s Law Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Law of Conservation Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Tyndall Effect Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
Graham’s Law Encyclopædia Britannica | Wikipedia
What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics? (Jim Lucas, Live Science)
Second Law of Thermodynamics (Stephen Wolfram, A New Kind of Science)
Second Law of Thermodynamics (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Second Law of Thermodynamics (Wikipedia)
Jules Henri Poincaré made clear the importance of paying attention to the invariance of laws of physics under different transformations, and was the first to present the Lorentz transformations in their modern symmetrical form. Poincaré discovered the remaining relativistic velocity transformations and recorded them in a letter to Hendrik Lorentz in 1905. Thus he obtained perfect invariance of all of Maxwell’s equations, an important step in the formulation of the theory of special relativity. In 1905, Poincaré first proposed gravitational waves (ondes gravifiques) emanating from a body and propagating at the speed of light as being required by the Lorentz transformations. — Wikipedia
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Careers in Physical Sciences (Physics World)
Note: Okay, no, these don’t really break any “Laws of Physics,” but it’s good for a bit ‘o fun anyway — enjoy!
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Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid