Cosma / Communication / Media / Computation / Software / Program

And programming computers was so fascinating. You create your own little universe, and then it does what you tell it to do. — Vint Cerf


Introduction1 (YouTube Channel) (Official Website)


program : a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism (as a computer) — Merriam-Webster   See also OneLook

Programming (FOLDOC: Free Online Dictionary of Computing)


Computer program (also software, or just a program) is a sequence of instructions written to perform a specified task with a computer. A computer requires programs to function, typically executing the program’s instructions in a central processor. The program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to execute the instructions. The same program in its human-readable source code form, from which executable programs are derived (e.g., compiled), enables a programmer to study and develop its algorithms. — Wikipedia



Talks about Computer Programming (TED: Ideas Worth Spreading)
Articles about Computer Programming (Big Think)




Programming language is any set of rules that converts strings, or graphical program elements in the case of visual programming languages, to various kinds of machine code output. — Wikipedia

Simply Coding (YouTube Channel)

Programming Languages (Wolfram Alpha)

List of Programming Languages (Wikipedia)



Computer Programming Items (Etsy)
Computer Programming Gifts (Zazzle)




As soon as we started programming, we found to our surprise that it wasn’t as easy to get programs right as we had thought. Debugging had to be discovered. I can remember the exact instant when I realized that a large part of my life from then on was going to be spent in finding mistakes in my own programs. — Maurice Wilkes, Memoirs of a Computer Pioneer

Computer Languages History (Éric Lévénez)
The Programming Languages Genealogy Project (Everything2)
“Mother Tongues” Lineage Chart (Wired Infographic) (PDF Version)


DDC: 005 Computer Programming (Library Thing)
Subject: Computer Programming (Library Thing)

Subject: Computer Programming (Open Library)

LCC: QA 76.6 Computer Programming (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: QA 76.6 Computer Programming (Library of Congress)
Subject: Computer Programming (Library of Congress)

Subject: Computer Programming (WorldCat)




An apprentice carpenter may want only a hammer and saw, but a master craftsman employs many precision tools. Computer programming likewise requires sophisticated tools to cope with the complexity of real applications, and only practice with these tools will build skill in their use. — Robert L. Kruse, Data Structures and Program Design in C (YouTube Channel) (Official Website)

Computer Science Curriculum (Carnegie Mellon University)

Computer Science Field Guide: Programming Languages (Computer Science Education Research Group, University of Canterbury, Official Website)
Computer Science Field Guide: Coding Introduction (Computer Science Education Research Group, University of Canterbury, Official Website)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Introduction to Computer Science and Programming (John Guttag, MIT Opencourseware)

Programming Courses (edX)



Computer Programmers (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)


ACM Special Interest Group on Programming Languages (ACM SIGPLAN)


ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology
Computer Programming (JSTOR)
Computer Programming News (Science Daily)



Computer Program (




Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.


Function Communications Computation Storage Creation Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Type, Print Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Record Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS, SS) Database Application AI, VW

Format Multimedia (Video, Animation) Image (Object) Scent, Flavor, Audio (Text) Haptic, “Other



1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.