Sphere

Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Sphere

—————————

Introduction1

Encyclopedia

Geosphere may be taken as the collective name for the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

In Aristotelian physics, the term was applied to four spherical natural places, concentrically nested around the center of the Earth, as described in the lectures Physica and Meteorologica. They were believed to explain the motions of the four terrestrial elements: Earth, Water, Air and Fire.

In modern texts and in Earth system science, geosphere refers to the solid parts of the Earth; it is used along with atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere to describe the systems of the Earth (the interaction of these systems with the magnetosphere is sometimes listed). In that context, the term lithosphere is used instead of geosphere or solid Earth. The lithosphere only refers to the uppermost layers of the solid Earth (oceanic and continental crustal rocks and uppermost mantle). — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

———————-

Innovation

Science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history.

There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth’s environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.

The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the Earth’s interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. — Wikipedia

Geoscience Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
What is geoscience? (American Geosciences Institute)

Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth’s “spheres”—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere, and, even, the magnetosphere —as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth’s spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution of these systems, and their stability or instability. Subsets of Earth system science include systems geology and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth system science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science.[18] — Wikipedia

————————–

Preservation

History

Earth Sciences History Journal (The History of Earth Sciences Society)
The History of Earth Sciences Society

Museum

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Official Site)
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Wikipedia)

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

—————————

Participation

Education

Science on a Sphere (NOAA)
Science on a Sphere Datasets (NOAA)
Science on a Sphere (YouTube Playlists, NOAA)
Science on a Sphere (Wikipedia)

Earth System Science in a Nutshell (Martin Ruzek, Universities Space Research Association)

Course

Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)
Crash Course Kids Earth Science: Earth’s Spheres and Natural Resources

Earth System Science 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (UC Irvine OpenCourseWare, YouTube)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

Occupation

Geoscience Careers (American Geosciences Institute)

Organization

American Geosciences Institute

News

Nature Geoscience

Earth Magazine (American Geosciences Institute)
Phys.org

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Earth Observatory (NASA)
NASA Earth Observatory (Wikipedia)
NASA Earth Science

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Document

USA.gov

———————-

Expression

Fun

returntotop


More News …

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Examining the 1,800-plus 'young' volcanoes in the...
    on November 3, 2021 at 4:52 pm

    They're born. They live once, erupting for a period that might last for days, years or decades. Then, they go dark and die.

  • What on earth? Fragments of ancient ocean floor,...
    on May 3, 2021 at 4:21 pm

    Separately and to the untrained eye, they are not particularly distinguished rocks—the backdrop to several holes at the Forest Park Golf Course, part of an excavation to improve the water system at Lake Ashburton, or left behind in abandoned quarries and mines around the area.

  • First global study shows uneven urbanization...
    on January 6, 2021 at 3:11 pm

    The world has experienced dramatic urbanization in recent decades. According to the latest report from the United Nations (UN), the global population in 2018 was 7.6 billion and the urban population was 4.2 billion. By 2050, the global population is expected to soar to 9.7 billion, with 68% of the population living in urban areas.

  • COVID-19 and other pandemics are the effects of...
    on December 10, 2020 at 5:04 pm

    There is increasing awareness that the COVID-19 pandemic is the consequence of environmental and societal crises. A new paper just published in the scientific journal Science of the Total Environment by international research fellows of the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research (KLI), an Austrian independent center for advanced studies in the life and sustainability sciences, presents an interdisciplinary approach to analyze the COVID-19 pandemic as a phenomenon affecting […]

  • Lightning strikes more than 100 million times per...
    on July 23, 2020 at 3:29 pm

    Researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama have published dramatic maps showing the locations of lightning strikes across the tropics in Global Change Biology. Based on ground and satellite data, they estimate that more than 100 million lighting strikes on land each year will radically alter forests and other ecosystems in the region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.


Nature Geoscience - Issue - nature.com science feeds Each month, Nature Geoscience will bring you top-quality research papers, reviews and opinion pieces - in print and online.

  • Carbon fixation rates in groundwater similar to...
    by Will A. Overholt on June 30, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Geoscience, Published online: 30 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41561-022-00968-5Direct measurements of carbon fixation rates in groundwater suggest a substantial contribution of in situ primary production to subsurface ecosystem processes.

  • Global patterns of daily CO2 emissions...
    by Zhu Liu on June 30, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Geoscience, Published online: 30 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41561-022-00965-8Observed daily changes in CO2 emissions from across the globe reveal the sectors and countries where pandemic-related emissions declines were most pronounced in 2020.

  • Daily monitoring reveals global CO2...
    on June 30, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Geoscience, Published online: 30 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41561-022-00987-2Monitoring of the daily global CO2 emissions in 2020 reveals the spatial–temporal pattern of the drop in emissions due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The daily CO2 emission changes also reveal different patterns of human activities and fossil CO2 emissions across countries, sectors and periods.

  • Transient mobilization of subcrustal carbon...
    by Thomas M. Gernon on June 23, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Geoscience, Published online: 23 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41561-022-00967-6A change in the style of rifting in the North Atlantic led to carbon fluxes from subcrustal melting that helped trigger the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, according to geochemical analyses of volcanic sequences as well as melting and tectonic modelling.

  • Eruption at basaltic calderas forecast by magma...
    by Federico Galetto on June 23, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Geoscience, Published online: 23 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41561-022-00960-zUsing magma inflow rate improves eruption forecasting on timescales of weeks to months for basaltic caldera systems, compared with using surface deformation alone, according to analysis of 45 unrest case studies and viscoelastic modelling.

——–
Related

Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

——
Notes

1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.