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These are organized by form and function.

Communications Computation Storage Authoring Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Typewriter Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Recorder Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS) Database Application AI, World

These are types of media formats.

Multimedia (Video, Animation), Image (Object), Scent, Flavor, Audio (Text), Haptic, “Other


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



virtual world : computer-based simulated environment intended for its users to inhabit and interact via avatars (primarily software) — Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Virtual world is an online community that takes the form of a computer-based simulated environment through which users can interact with one another and use and create objects. The term has become largely synonymous with interactive 3D virtual environments, where the users take the form of avatars visible to others. In general, virtual worlds allow for multiple users. The computer accesses a computer-simulated world and presents perceptual stimuli to the user, who in turn can manipulate elements of the modeled world and thus experience a degree of telepresence. Such modeled worlds and their rules may draw from the reality or fantasy worlds. Example rules are gravity, topography, locomotion, real-time actions, and communication. Communication between users can range from text, graphical icons, visual gesture, sound, and rarely, forms using touch, voice command, and balance senses. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



History of Virtual Worlds (MediaShift, PBS)
Virtual Worlds Timeline (Avatar Planet)
Virtual Worlds History (Wikipedia)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Hypergrid Business
NPR Archives







The Unlikely Story of Microsoft’s Surprise Minecraft Buyout (Daniel Goldberg and Linus Larsson, Wired)
Minecraft (Official Site), Minecraft (Wikipedia)


LEGO’s ‘Minecraft’ competitor is real and ready to download (Jon Fingas, Engadget)
LEGO Worlds Steam Early Access (
LEGO Worlds (


World of WarCraft (Official Site), World of Warcraft (Wikipedia)



Hypergrid Business Covering virtual reality, immersive worlds, and other emerging technologies

  • Fire and Ice has new a region server and website
    by David Kariuki on April 17, 2021 at 10:23 pm

    The Fire and Ice grid now has a new better performing server, allowing region owners to offer role play games, racing games, performing arts, and other computationally demanding activities to their visitors. These changes will boost performance of regions by reducing workload, said grid owner Sara Payne, who is also

  • New record high in OpenSim land area; second...
    by David Kariuki on April 15, 2021 at 6:47 pm

    OpenSim land area increased by 2,326 regions this past month to a new record high and the fifth month in a row where reported land area grew. However, active users fell for the second month running, with a net loss of 452 active users in the last 30 days. ZetaWorlds

  • Gloebit payments still down in yet another...
    by Maria Korolov on April 15, 2021 at 2:14 pm

    The Gloebit outage has entered its second week and there is still no word about when it will be back up Gloebit is the most popular payment platform for OpenSim grids, in use on about 50 virtual worlds. The service was launched five years ago by Christopher Colosi, who used

  • ArtGate lets artist connect with community in...
    by Danielle Festa on April 14, 2021 at 1:20 pm

    Editor’s Note: The ArtGate International 2021 kicks off with an opening ceremony tomorrow night, followed by three days of virtual art events. The art exhibition is open to the public and there is no cost to attend the event. A virtual reality headset will make the experience more immersive, but

  • More unicorns likely in community-based VR...
    by David Kariuki on April 11, 2021 at 8:22 pm

    Last month, Rec Room — a virtual reality app that lets users build virtual environments and games which they can play virtually with others across mobile and PC platforms — became the latest virtual reality startup to achieve a unicorn status,  which means it reached a $1 billion valuation. Experts