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Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences. — Wikipedia



Cosmological Cosmos, Being


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



being : (1) the quality or state of having existence (2) something that is conceivable and hence capable of existing (3) something that actually exists (4) the totality of existing things (5) conscious existence : life (6) the qualities that constitute an existent thing (7) a living thing (sentient being, mythical being) — Webster

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Being is an extremely broad concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence. Anything that partakes in being is also called a “being”, though often this use is limited to entities that have subjectivity (as in the expression “human being”). So broad a notion has, inevitably, been elusive and controversial in the history of philosophy, beginning in western philosophy with attempts among the pre-Socratics to deploy it intelligibly. — Wikipedia

Being and Becoming in Modern Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy), Britannica


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Great chain of being is a hierarchical structure of all matter and life composed of a great number of hierarchical links, from the most basic and foundational elements up through the very highest perfection. In his natural order, earth (rock) is at the bottom of the chain: this element possesses only the attribute of existence. Each link succeeding upward contains the positive attributes of the previous link and adds (at least) one other. Rocks, as above, possess only existence; the next link up, plants, possess life and existence. Animals add not only motion, but appetite as well. Man is both mortal flesh, as those below him, and also spirit as those above. — Wikipedia

Great Chain of Being (Britannica)
Huston Smith and the Primordial Tradition: Four Levels of Reality (M.Alan Kazlev, The Great Chain of Being)
Great Chain of Being (Site Home)
Artist Pokes Fun At ‘Great Chain of Being’ With New Wadsworth Exhibit (Susan Dunne Susan Dunne, Hartford Courant)


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WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Teaching and Learning Ontology and Epistemology in Political Science (Stephen Bates & Laura Jenkins, Politics)


An Introduction to ontology (Barry Smith)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Metaphysician (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


Logic and Ontology News (Philosophy News)
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Artist Pokes Fun At ‘Great Chain of Being’ With New Wadsworth Exhibit (Susan Dunne Susan Dunne, Hartford Courant)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics


List of fictional species (Wikipedia)



Ontology after Quine An Emmy Noether Research Group

  • Workshop: Normativity in Philosophy
    by Rich Woodward on July 28, 2018 at 11:48 am

    The final workshop for our project will take place between Monday 30th July and Wednesday 1st August at Warburg Haus. The schedule is below: Monday 30th July  14:30 – 16:00 Esa Diaz Leon (Barcelona) 16:15 – 17:45 Robbie Williams (Leeds)   Tuesday 31st July 11:00 – 12:30 Moritz Schulz (Hamburg) 14:30 – 16:00 Florian Steinberger (Birkbeck) 16:15 – 17:45 Shamik Dasgupta (Berkeley)   Wednesday 1st … … Continue reading →

  • Workshop: Deflationism in Metaphysics
    by Rich Woodward on October 20, 2017 at 10:28 am

    Together with the Institute of Philosophy at the University of Vienna, we’ll be organizing a workshop on Deflationism in Metaphysics.  The workshop will take place at the Institute of Philosophy at the University of Vienna on December 15-16. The speakers will be: Friday, December 15 9:30-11:00 – Matti Eklund (Uppsala) 11:30-13:00 – Jade Fletcher (Leeds) 14:30-16:00 … … Continue reading →

  • Workshop: Biscuit Conditionals
    by Rich Woodward on October 2, 2017 at 2:13 pm

    We will soon host a workshop on “Biscuit Conditionals”, jointly organized with the Konstanz research group What if, and the Konstanz Emmy Noether group What is it to ask a question? A formal pragmatic investigation of interrogative force. The two-day workshop will take place on Friday 20th and Saturday 21st October in Hamburg. Here is the … … Continue reading →

  • Publications
    by Rich Woodward on June 12, 2017 at 8:10 pm

    Busy, busy, busy… Inga’s paper “Verbal Disputes and the Varieties of Verbalness” recently came out in Erkenntnis.  Julia’s paper “Biscuit Conditionals and Prohibited ‘then’” recently came out in Thought. Julia’s paper “Denial and Retraction — A Challenge for Theories of Predicates of Personal Taste” has just been accepted for publication in Synthese.  Delia’s paper “Verbalism and metalinguistic … … Continue reading →

  • Workshop: Figurative and Fictional Speech
    by Rich Woodward on June 12, 2017 at 7:54 pm

    PLEASE NOTE THE NEW SCHEDULE. We’ll be hosting a workshop on Figurative and Fictional Speech. The workshop will take place on Friday 22nd and Saturday 23rd September, and the speakers will be: Friday 22nd September14:30 – 16:00 Manolo Garcia-Carpintero: Assertions in Fictions16:15 – 17:45 François Recanati: Fictional, Metafictional, ParafictionalSaturday 23rd September11:00 – 12:30 Anne Bezuidenhout: Metaphor as joint communication14:30 – … … Continue reading →