Brain

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brain : the portion of the vertebrate central nervous system enclosed in the skull and continuous with the spinal cord through the foramen magnum that is composed of neurons and supporting and nutritive structures (as glia) and that integrates sensory information from inside and outside the body in controlling autonomic function (as heartbeat and respiration), in coordinating and directing correlated motor responses, and in the process of learning — Webster

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Brain The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate’s body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. — Wikipedia

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Scientific American: Mind & Brain Science news and technology updates from Scientific American


  • Time to get tough
    by Natasha Bray on April 18, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Time to get toughTime to get tough, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0005-4In mice, aggression is regulated by the circadian suprachiasmatic nucleus through at least two neural pathways. […]

  • Intrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regeneration
    by Marcus Mahar on April 17, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Intrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regenerationIntrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regeneration, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0001-8Peripheral axon injury initiates a regenerative response that is absent in CNS axons. Mahar and Cavalli describe the mechanisms that initiate and coordinate the programme of transcriptional and epigenetic changes that enable axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system. […]

  • Neural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbs
    by Sian Lewis on April 17, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Neural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbsNeural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbs, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.39A combination of electrochemical neuromodulation of spinal leg circuits and physical training in a robotic rehabilitation system restored volitional locomotion in rodents with severe spinal cord injury. […]

  • Feeding circuit development and early-life...
    by Lori M. Zeltser on April 17, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Feeding circuit development and early-life influences on future feeding behaviourFeeding circuit development and early-life influences on future feeding behaviour, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.23The extent and contribution of maternal influence to the developing hypothalamus to later feeding behaviour remain controversial. In this Opinion, Zeltser proposes that crosstalk between developing circuits regulating different modalities of food intake shapes susceptibility to […]

  • The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an...
    by Andreea C. Bostan on April 11, 2018 at 12:00 am

    The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated networkThe basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated network, Published online: 11 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0002-7The basal ganglia and the cerebellum were thought to communicate via the cerebral cortex. In this Review, Andreea Bostan and Peter Strick discuss findings indicating that these subcortical areas are in fact interconnected and, along with the cerebral cortex, form an integrated network. […]