Brain

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brain : the portion of the vertebrate central nervous system enclosed in the skull and continuous with the spinal cord through the foramen magnum that is composed of neurons and supporting and nutritive structures (as glia) and that integrates sensory information from inside and outside the body in controlling autonomic function (as heartbeat and respiration), in coordinating and directing correlated motor responses, and in the process of learning — Webster

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Brain The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate’s body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. — Wikipedia

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Scientific American: Mind & Brain Science news and technology updates from Scientific American


  • Neurodegenerative disease: A proteostatic boost
    by Darran Yates on January 19, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Neurodegenerative disease: A proteostatic boostNeurodegenerative disease: A proteostatic boost, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.3Amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced proteotoxicity is linked to a mitochondrial stress response that may be conserved across species, and promoting mitochondrial proteostasis counteracts Aβ aggregation in worms and an Alzheimer disease mouse model. […]

  • Learning and memory: You only learn once
    by Natasha Bray on January 19, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Learning and memory: You only learn onceLearning and memory: You only learn once, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.4When mice explore a new context, neurons in the locus coeruleus that project to hippocampal regions CA3 enable the learning of the new environment. […]

  • Mitochondria at the neuronal presynapse in health...
    by Michael J. Devine on January 19, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Mitochondria at the neuronal presynapse in health and diseaseMitochondria at the neuronal presynapse in health and disease, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.170Mitochondria may be actively recruited to presynapses to supply energy, buffer calcium and, potentially, fulfil other functions. In this Review, Devine and Kittler examine the importance of this presynaptic population of mitochondria in the maintenance of neuronal homeostasis and how dysfunctional presynaptic […]

  • Neuroimmunology: Brain police
    by Sian Lewis on January 19, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Neuroimmunology: Brain policeNeuroimmunology: Brain police, Published online: 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.5Microglial surveillance of the brain is dependent on maintenance of microglia membrane potential by the K+ channel THIK1, which is potentiated by ATP released at sites of tissue injury acting on P2Y12 receptors. […]

  • Dual function of thalamic low-vigilance state...
    by Vincenzo Crunelli on January 11, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Dual function of thalamic low-vigilance state oscillations: rhythm-regulation and plasticityDual function of thalamic low-vigilance state oscillations: rhythm-regulation and plasticity, Published online: 11 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.151During low-vigilance states, thalamic neurons exhibit diverse rhythmic activities that contribute to specific parts of the electroencephalogram rhythm. In this perspective, Crunelli and colleagues propose that thalamic oscillations of these low-vigilance […]