Cosma / Communication
Human’s advanced abilities in the use of symbols and tools is what makes them so unique, so it is not at all surprising that the discipline that concerns itself with the use of symbols as tools is one that can subsume all other disciplines and encompass the entirety of humanity’s accomplishments.–M. E. Hopper 1
Communication, the exchange of meanings between individuals through a common system of symbols. — Encyclopædia Britannica
Communication studies is an academic field that deals with processes of communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols over distances in space and time. Hence, communication studies encompasses a wide range of topics and contexts ranging from face-to-face conversation to speeches to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies, as a discipline, is also often interested in how audiences interpret information and the political, cultural, economic, and social dimensions of speech and language in context. — Wikipedia
Communication theory is a proposed description of communication phenomena, the relationships among them, a storyline describing these relationships, and an argument for these three elements. Communication theory provides a way of talking about and analyzing key events, processes, and commitments that together form communication. Theory can be seen as a way to map the world and make it navigable; communication theory gives us tools to answer empirical, conceptual, or practical communication questions. — Wikipedia
Communication (Wiki Of Science)
Communication Theories (CommunicationTheory.org)
Communication Theory as a Field (Wikipedia)
Reflection on Communication Theory as a Field (Robert T. Craig, Communiquer)
International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy (Klaus Bruhn Jensen & Robert T. Craig)
Encyclopedia of Communication Theory (Stephen W. Littlejohn & Karen A. Foss)
A Taxonomy of Concepts in Communication (Reed H Blake; Edwin O Haroldsen)
Some communication systems models are based upon theory while others are based upon empirical research studies. This image shows a model that was based upon qualitative research findings obtained during my doctoral research. It was dubbed”Knowledge Ecology” during the initial research in the 1980s. Then it was elaborated and generalized to “Communication Ecology” while I was a Post Doc and co-organizer of the Communications Forum at MIT in the 1990s. Finally, it was renamed “Communication Systems Anatomy” and further elaborated while I was a faculty member at Lesley University in the 2000s. The overall organization of the content of Cosma, this website, is based upon this model. — M. E. Hopper
Here are links where you can find out more about each element.
Communication Science is a field in which research methods are used to construct scientifically testable theories about how non-verbal and verbal communications are created, transmitted and received. Researchers concentrate on ways messages shape and change behavior in regards to attitude change, social change and politics. Global communication is also an important aspect of this field. — Learn.org
Communication Technology, also known as information technology, refers to all equipment and programs that are used to process and communicate information. Professionals in the field specialize in the development, installation, and service of these hardware and software systems. Individuals who enter this field develop an understanding in the conceptions, production, evaluation, and distribution of communication technology devices. — Learn.org
Communication, transportation, information technology and commerce have been intertwined since the beginning of human history, and they remain closely related.
The success of the first electronic telegraph line in 1844 opened an era of modern communication. Before the telegraph there existed no separation between transportation and communication. Information traveled only as fast as the messenger who carried it. — D. J. Czitrom, Media and the American Mind
This reality was even codified in the Dewey Decimal library classification system:
Introduction to Communication (Course Hero)
Survey of Communication Study (Laura K. Hahn and Scott T. Paynton, Professor, Humboldt State University)
A First Look at Communication Theory (Em Griffin, Andrew Ledbetter and Glenn Sparks)
An Introduction to Communication Studies (Sheila Steinberg)
International Communication Association
World Communication Association
International Association for Media and Communication Research
National Communication Association
American Communication Association
Communication arts encompasses the art of human communication. Communication arts broadly includes studies and professions that deal with graphic and visual design such as graphic design, graphic arts, art direction, corporate design and other areas. People who work in communication arts include photographers, illustrators, typographers and graphic designers. Fields in communication arts also include journalism, screenwriting, public speaking, digital video production, feature writing and even film and television studies. — Reference*
The DIKW pyramid, also known variously as the DIKW hierarchy, wisdom hierarchy, knowledge hierarchy, information hierarchy, information pyramid, and the data pyramid, refers loosely to a class of models for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between the communication content types of data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. — Wikipedia
Most writers about the hierarchy refer to this passage from T. S. Eliot’s The Rock.
These are links to pages about closely related subjects.
DIKW Content Hierarchy
Cosma provides access to Knowledge Resources organized around the elements of communication systems.
Historically Associated Subjects
1. The debate about whether communication should be called a “master discipline” could fill volumes. Even the question as to whether or not to use the words “master” or “discipline” at all could fill stacks of books. Many tomes have already been written about the relationship between the subject of communication and a myriad of other subjects that are related to it in some way or another. I could certainly fill a book about how and why I came to to call communication a master discipline, and I might do it someday. However, I’m too busy finishing Cosma to do it now. That’s why, for now, I will just say that I spent decades trying a multitude of ways to “lay out” thousands of subjects on a map such that they would make sense as a coherent whole, and communication was the only subject that could fit the bill of being in the center and encompassing the others from an organizational standpoint — it was a pragmatic and aesthetic decision. Furthermore, given the state of humanity at the present time and for the foreseeable future, as well as human nature in general, how can promoting the subject of communication in such a way be a bad thing?
3. Many of the resources on this page as well as the organizaion of it and the rest of this site coalesced while I was co-organizing, managing and summarizing events for the MIT Communications Forum during my Post Doc in the MIT Comparative Media Studies program. The MIT Communications Forum sponsored panel discussions and symposiums concerning a very wide range of topics related to communication.