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System, Cycle, Structure, Complexity, Growth, Control, Disturbance, Entropy, Chaos


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Links on Complexity, Self-organization and Artificial Life (Principia Cybernetica)


complex : a group of obviously related units of which the degree and nature of the relationship is imperfectly known — Webster See also Dictionary of Cybernetics and Systems (Principia Cybernetica), OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Complexity is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways. There is no absolute definition of what complexity means; the only consensus among researchers is that there is no agreement about the specific definition of complexity. However, a characterization of what is complex is possible. The study of these complex linkages at various scales is the main goal of complex systems theory. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science (Editor-in-chief Robert A. Meyers, Springer), David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science, Britannica



Complex system is composed of many components which may interact with each other. In many cases it is useful to represent such a system as a network where the nodes represent the components and the links their interactions. Examples of complex systems are Earth’s global climate, organisms, the human brain, social and economic organizations (like cities), an ecosystem, a living cell, and ultimately the entire universe.

Complex system’s behavior is intrinsically difficult to model due to the dependencies, relationships, or interactions between their parts or between a given system and its environment. Systems that are “complex” have distinct properties that arise from these relationships, such as nonlinearity, emergence, spontaneous order, adaptation, and feedback loops, among others. Because such systems appear in a wide variety of fields, the commonalities among them have become the topic of their own independent area of research. — Wikipedia

Emergence occurs when “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts,” meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have. These properties come about because of interactions among the parts. In mathematical shorthand, W = P + I.

Emergence plays a central role in theories of integrative levels and of complex systems. For instance, the phenomenon of life as studied in biology is an emergent property of chemistry, and psychological phenomena emerge from the neurobiological phenomena of living things. — Wikipedia



Wolfram’s New Kind of Science (Stephen Wolfram)
Computational Sciences (Wolfram Alpha)



Complexity Timeline (Exploratorium)


Quotations Page


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Complexity Explorer (Santa Fe Institute, YouTube Channel)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



New England Complex Systems Institute


Complexity Journal (Edited By Peter Schuster and Alfred W. Hubler, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Journal of Complexity







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Wiley: Complexity: Table of Contents Table of Contents for Complexity. List of articles from both the latest and EarlyView issues.

Journal of Complexity A list of the latest news

  • Awards: Best Paper Award of the Journal of...
    on February 2, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Winners of the 2020 Best Paper Award

  • News: JoC partners with ReproZip on Computational...
    on May 4, 2020 at 11:00 pm

    Journal of Complexity is collaborating with ReproZip (RZ), to start a pilot that makes papers with associated code reproducible. RZ enables authors to create a self-contained zip file that includes the paper and the code. Anybody therefore will be able to reproduce the research on a different machine.

  • News: Computer Science Catalogue 2018-2019
    on December 6, 2018 at 8:50 pm

    Explore our journals in Computer Science

  • Awards: Joseph F. Traub - Prize
    on May 22, 2017 at 3:00 am

    Achievement in Information-Based Complexity Prize: List of all winners, call for nominations This annual prize is for outstanding achievement in information-based complexity. Beginning with 2016 the price has been renamed to JOSEPH F. TRAUB PRIZE FOR ACHIEVEMENT IN INFORMATION-BASED COMPLEXITY. The prize consists of $3000 and a plaque. The achievement can be based on work done in a single year, a number of years or over a lifetime. It can be published in any journal, number of journals, or […]

  • Awards: Joseph F. Traub - Young Researcher Award
    on May 21, 2017 at 11:00 pm

    Information-Based Complexity Young Researcher Award: List of all winners, call for nominations This annual award is for significant contributions to information-based complexity by a young researcher. Beginning with 2015 the award has been renamed to “JOSEPH F. TRAUB INFORMATION-BASED COMPLEXITY YOUNG RESEARCHER AWARD”. The prize will consist of $1000 and a plaque and will be awarded at a suitable location. Any researcher who has not reached their 35th birthday by September 30th the year […]