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Lynn Margulis 1938-2011: Gaia Is A Tough Bitch (John Brockman, The Edge)



Gaia’s Realm

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Overview of Gaia Theory (Gaia


Gaia : the hypothesis that the living and nonliving components of earth function as a single system in such a way that the living component regulates and maintains conditions (such as the temperature of the ocean or composition of the atmosphere) so as to be suitable for life : after Greek Gaîa, a primordial earth goddess in Greek myth, literally, “earth” — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Gaia also spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities. Gaia is the ancestral mother of all life: the primal Mother Earth goddess. She is the immediate parent of Uranus (the sky), from whose sexual union she bore the Titans (themselves parents of many of the Olympian gods) and the Giants, and of Pontus (the sea), from whose union she bore the primordial sea gods. Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Terra. — Wikipedia

Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.

The hypothesis was formulated by the chemist James Lovelock and co-developed by the microbiologist Lynn Margulis in the 1970s. Lovelock named the idea after Gaia, the primordial goddess who personified the Earth in Greek mythology. In 2006, the Geological Society of London awarded Lovelock the Wollaston Medal in part for his work on the Gaia hypothesis.

Topics related to the hypothesis include how the biosphere and the evolution of organisms affect the stability of global temperature, salinity of seawater, atmospheric oxygen levels, the maintenance of a hydrosphere of liquid water and other environmental variables that affect the habitability of Earth.

The Gaia hypothesis was initially criticized for being teleological and against the principles of natural selection, but later refinements aligned the Gaia hypothesis with ideas from fields such as Earth system science, biogeochemistry and systems ecology.

The fourth international conference on the Gaia hypothesis, sponsored by the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority and others, was held in October 2006 at the Arlington, VA campus of George Mason University. This conference approached the Gaia hypothesis as both science and metaphor as a means of understanding how we might begin addressing 21st century issues such as climate change and ongoing environmental destruction. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica




Gaia Theory: Model and Metaphor for the 21st Century


James Lovelock: we should give up on saving the planet (The Guardian)
Gaia Hypothesis (Wikipedia)
James Lovelock (Official Site)
James Lovelock (Wikipedia)


Overview of Gaia Theory (Gaia


Gaia Philosophy (Wikipedia)


Gaia Hypothesis and Earth System Science (Wikipedia)


Scientists finally have an explanation for the Gaia puzzle (James Dyke and Tim Lenton, The Conversation)
Gaia 2.0 (Timothy M. Lenton & Bruno Latour, AAAS Science Magazine)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

News, NPR Archives







Visual Arts

Art, Myth and the Environment in Focus in Gaia in the Anthropocene (PIPA Institute)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics


Gaianism (Wikipedia)


Gaia (The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction)


Gaia (Greek Mythology, Theoi)


A Religion of Nature, Earth, Gaia (World Pantheism)


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