Cosma / Communication / Content / Knowledge 1

It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge. — Enrico Fermi




Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information on it. — Samuel Johnson


knowledge : the sum of what is known : the body of truth, information, and principles acquired by humankind — Webster   See also OneLook


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, that can include descriptions, facts, information, and/or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to both the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic. In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology, and the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as “justified true belief.” There is however no single agreed upon definition of knowledge, and there are numerous theories to explain it. — Wikipedia

Knowledge (Encyclopædia Britannica)


Outline of Knowledge (Mary E. Hopper, Cosma)



Cosma features 3D interfaces to the knowledge resources inventory hosted on this site.

Toy Worlds@RoundMe

There are many Toy Worlds distributed across this site. You can read more about them on the Toy Worlds page. Here is the “Welcome Area” were you can start your journey!

Click the 360° image below to explore this Toy World, click the menu in the upper right for controls and click “i” buttons on/off for links to Cosma and other Web sites. Use “portals” to visit other Toy Worlds.

You can also explore this on RoundMe.

Places@Second Life

There is also a Welcome Area in Second Life. If you have a SecondLife account and software, then you can click the image below to explore the Welcome Area and the four other rooms (Solar Extremes, Gaia’s Greenhouse, World Travel Lounge and Walk-in-Art).

Cosma Welcome Area SL

More Worlds …



The beginning of knowledge is the discovery of something we do not understand. — Frank Herbert







History of Knowledge (Piero Scaruffi)
A Social History of Knowledge: From Gutenberg to Diderot (Burke, P., 2000)


Quotations Page


Knowledge and Learning (The British Museum)
Museum of Knowledge, Corbusier’s dream project that failed (The Tribute of India)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library


Knowledge (John Turri, Oxford Bibliographies)




International Baccalaureate (IB)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


MIT IAP 2000 Knowledge Systems 101: From Alexandria to Hitchhiker’s Guide (Hopper)3


Knowledge community (Gartner IT Glossary)
Knowledge community (Wikipedia)








Useless facts and funny unnecessary knowledge (Try this!)


Game of Knowledge (Board Game Geek)



Song Lyrics


The DIKW pyramid, also known variously as the DIKW hierarchy, wisdom hierarchy, knowledge hierarchy, information hierarchy, information pyramid, and the data pyramid, refers loosely to a class of models for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between the communication content types of data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. — Wikipedia

Most writers about the hierarchy refer to this passage from T. S. Eliot’s The Rock.

Where is the Life we have lost in living?
Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? — T. S. Eliot, The Rock



These are links to pages about closely related subjects.

DIKW Content Hierarchy

Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom

Communication Systems

Cosma provides access to Knowledge Resources organized around the elements of communication systems.

Media, Knowledge, Human and Noise

See also System and Content Outline

Knowledge Navigation, Knowledge Objects and Knowledge Places

Knowledge Form

Introduction, Inspiration, Foundation, Innovation, Preservation, Participation and Expression

Knowledge Realm

Cosmological, Physical, Terrestrial, Anthropological and Mystical



1.   This page is one of the most important pages on the Cosma Web site. Cosma is founded upon the premise that when Knowledge Resources are systematically identified, intuitively (re)organized, and then presented in a spatial format, everyone can master finding them quickly and easily. This premise has driven the development of Cosma. Of course, doing this involved thoroughly understanding a lot about “Knowledge” (e.g. Knowledge Management, Knowledge Theory, Knowledge Organization etc.) in fact, this led to treating “Knowledge” as the discipline that it can be, and that is represented on this page.

2.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.

3.   One stop in the saga of Mary E. Hopper’s mission to understand “Knowledge” as a discipline took her to MIT where she developed and presented this short course during her Post Doc in Comparative Media Studies.
Hopper, M. E. (2000, January). Knowledge systems 101: From Alexandria to Hitchhiker’s Guide [Short Course]. Independent Activity Period (IAP), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.