Cosma / Communication / Content / Knowledge 1

It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge. — Enrico Fermi



Knowledge Management (YouTube Channel)


Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information on it. — Samuel Johnson


knowledge : the sum of what is known : the body of truth, information, and principles acquired by humankind — Merriam-Webster   See also OneLook


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, that can include descriptions, facts, information, and/or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to both the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic. In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology, and the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as “justified true belief.” There is however no single agreed upon definition of knowledge, and there are numerous theories to explain it. — Wikipedia

Knowledge (Encyclopædia Britannica)



Cosma has a number of 3D interfaces that enable truly spatial Knowledge Navigation and invite exploration of the Knowledge Resources inventory hosted on this site.

Cosma’s Knowledge Navigation & Exploration Center (Toy Worlds@Kuula)

This 360° image is the first in a series of Toy Worlds for exploring knowledge!

Click on objects to find out about them.
Use the menu or doors to visit other Toy Worlds.

You can also explore this Toy World on Kuula.

Learn more about Toy Worlds on this page.


Cosma’s Knowledge Navigation & Exploration Center (K-Places@Second Life)

There is also a Welcome Area in Second Life. If you have a SecondLife account and software, then you can click the image below to explore the Welcome Area and the four other rooms (Solar Extremes, Gaia’s Greenhouse, World Travel Lounge and Walk-in-Art).

Cosma Welcome Area SL

There is also a much older site that is an archive of the Knowledge Places (K-Places) project. The project began in 2006 and covered more than a million sq. meters of land in Second Life. The sites were made up of thematically organized spaces that used a variety of metaphors (Port, Park, Plaza, Pier, Palace and Paradise). You can find out much more about the overall project on the K-Places page.

The largest archival site is K-Park — it preserves the spaces and objects that were an interface to the Knowledge Realms on the Cosma Web site.

Knowledge Park@Maryport

There is also a “sky-space” situated above the ground-level sites — it preserves the spaces and objects that were an interface to the Knowledge Forms on the Cosma Web site.

Click on this image to explore it.

Knowledge Palace@Maryport

Here is a video of an extended walk-through of the K-Places archival sites.

This map shows where the archival sites are in Linden Village. If you have a Second Life account and the software is installed on your computer, then you can click the map to teleport there.

Knowledge Port & Knowledge Park Map



The beginning of knowledge is the discovery of something we do not understand. — Frank Herbert

Talks about Knowledge (TED: Ideas Worth Spreading)
Articles about Knowledge (Big Think)

Knowledge Quotes (BrainyQuote)




Wireless Philosophy (YouTube Channel)
Wi-Phi (Official Website)




A Brief History of Knowledge (Piero Scaruffi)


Museum of Knowledge, Corbusier’s Dream Project that Failed (The Tribute of India)


Knowledge (ArchiveGrid, OCLC)


DDC: 001 Knowledge (Library Thing)
Subject: Knowledge (Library Thing)

Subject: Knowledge (Open Library)

LCC: AZ 20 Scholarship and Learning (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Knowledge (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: AZ 20 Scholarship and Learning (Library of Congress)
Subject: Knowledge (Library of Congress)

Subject: Knowledge (WorldCat)




MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


MIT IAP 2000 Knowledge Systems 101: From Alexandria to Hitchhiker’s Guide (Hopper)3


The Evolution of Knowledge Communities and Their Impact on Self-Service (Lawrence Eng, HGI)
Knowledge Community (Science Direct)
Knowledge community (Wikipedia)


International Society for Knowledge Organization
Special Interest Group on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (ACM)


Knowledge Organization (International Society for Knowledge Organization)

Knowledge (JSTOR)
Knowledge (NPR Archives)


Knowledge (John Turri, Oxford Bibliographies)



Knowledge (





Final Exam Questions (Department of Computer Science, UC Davis)
Tough exam with answers (netjeff)
Final Exam (William Geoffrey Shotts)


Game of Knowledge (Board Game Geek)


Knowledge Can Take Many Forms – One of Them is Art (Clive Cazeaux, The Conversation)


The DIKW pyramid, also known variously as the DIKW hierarchy, wisdom hierarchy, knowledge hierarchy, information hierarchy, information pyramid, and the data pyramid, refers loosely to a class of models for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between the communication content types of data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. — Wikipedia

Most writers about the hierarchy refer to this passage from T. S. Eliot’s The Rock.

Where is the Life we have lost in living?
Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? — T. S. Eliot, The Rock



These are links to pages about closely related subjects.

DIKW Content Hierarchy

Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom

Communication Systems

Cosma provides access to Knowledge Resources organized around the elements of communication systems.

Media, Knowledge, Human and Noise

See also System and Content Outline

Knowledge Navigation, Knowledge Objects and Knowledge Places

Knowledge Form

Introduction, Inspiration, Foundation, Innovation, Preservation, Participation and Expression

Knowledge Realm

Cosmological, Physical, Terrestrial, Anthropological and Mystical



1.   This page is one of the most important pages on the Cosma Web site. Cosma is founded upon the premise that when Knowledge Resources are systematically identified, intuitively (re)organized, and then presented in a spatial format, everyone can master finding them quickly and easily. This premise has driven the development of Cosma. Of course, doing this involved thoroughly understanding a lot about “Knowledge” (e.g. Knowledge Management, Knowledge Theory, Knowledge Organization etc.) in fact, this led to treating “Knowledge” as the discipline that it can be, and that is represented on this page.

2.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.

3.   One stop in the saga of Mary E. Hopper’s mission to understand “Knowledge” as a discipline took her to MIT where she developed and presented this short course during her Post Doc in Comparative Media Studies.
Hopper, M. E. (2000, January). Knowledge Systems 101: From Alexandria to Hitchhiker’s Guide [Short Course]. Independent Activity Period (IAP), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.