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Philosophy Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, PhilPapers)
Logic Portal (Wikipedia)


logic : a science that deals with the principles and criteria of validity of inference and demonstration — Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms & Names


Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Glossary of First-Order Logic (Peter Suber, Earlham College)


Logic is the formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major areas: epistemology, ethics, metaphysics. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. — Wikipedia (Categories, Index of Articles)

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy


Logic (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)
What is Logic? (Steve Palmquist, Hong Kong Baptist University)
Factasia: Logic (R.B. Jones)
Logic: Finding The Right Patterns (Andrea Borghini, About.com)


Outline of Logic (Wikipedia)



The History of Logic from Aristotle to Gödel and Its Relationship with Ontology (Raul Corazzon)
The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Peter King & Stewart Shapiro)
The history of formal mathematical, logical, linguistic, and methodological ideas (Dictionary of the History of Ideas)
History of Logic (Wikipedia)


Quotations Page


The Logic Museum


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library


Logic (Sundar Sarukkai, Oxford Bibliographies)
John Halleck’s Logic Bibliography




A crash course in formal logic (YouTube Channel)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Association for Symbolic Logic
Association for Informal Logic & Critical Thinking


Journal of Philosophical Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)
Journal of Symbolic Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)

PhilPapers: Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, Jagiellonian University)
Logic Eprints (arXiv, Los Alamos Mathematical Archive of eprints)








Zebra Puzzle (Wikipedia)
Riddles YouTube Channel (Ted-Ed)

The Philosophical Lexicon (Daniel Dennett and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen)
Philosophical Humor-An Oxymoron? (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
Patton’s Argument 101 (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
Patton’s Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
The Socrates Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)


Logic Puzzle (Wikipedia)
Logic Puzzles.org
Puzzles, Riddles & Brain Teasers (Brain Den)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



Latest Results The latest content available from Springer

  • Negation on the Australian Plan
    on April 22, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract We present and defend the Australian Plan semantics for negation. This is a comprehensive account, suitable for a variety of different logics. It is based on two ideas. The first is that negation is an exclusion-expressing device: we utter negations to express incompatibilities. The second is that, because incompatibility is modal, negation is a modal operator as well. It can, then, be modelled as a quantifier over points in frames, restricted by accessibility […]

  • A Topological Approach to Full Belief
    on April 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Stalnaker (Philosophical Studies, 128(1), 169–199 2006) introduced a combined epistemic-doxastic logic that can formally express a strong concept of belief, a concept of belief as ‘subjective certainty’. In this paper, we provide a topological semantics for belief, in particular, for Stalnaker’s notion of belief defined as ‘epistemic possibility of knowledge’, in terms of the closure of the interior operator on extremally […]

  • Models for Hylomorphism
    on March 11, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract In a series of papers (Fine et al., 1982; Fine, Noûs28(2), 137–158; 1994, Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 23, 61–74, 1999) Fine develops his hylomorphic theory of embodiments. In this article, we supply a formal semantics for this theory that is adequate to the principles laid down for it in (Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 23, 61–74, 1999). In Section 1, we lay out the theory of embodiments as Fine presents it. In Section 2, we argue on […]

  • Algebraic Analysis of Demodalised Analytic...
    on February 13, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The logic DAI of demodalised analytic implication has been introduced by J.M. Dunn (and independently investigated by R.D. Epstein) as a variation on a time-honoured logical system by C.I. Lewis’ student W.T. Parry. The main tenet underlying this logic is that no implication can be valid unless its consequent is “analytically contained” in its antecedent. DAI has been investigated both proof-theoretically and model-theoretically, but no study so far […]

  • Rethinking Revision
    on February 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract We sketch a broadening of the Gupta-Belnap notion of a circular or revision theoretic definition into that of a more generalized form incorporating ideas of Kleene’s generalized or higher type recursion. This thereby connects the philosophically motivated, and derived, notion of a circular definition with an older form of definition by recursion using functionals, that is functions of functions, as oracles. We note that Gupta and Belnap’s notion of […]