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Philosophy Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, PhilPapers)
Logic Portal (Wikipedia)


logic : a science that deals with the principles and criteria of validity of inference and demonstration — Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms & Names


Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Glossary of First-Order Logic (Peter Suber, Earlham College)


Logic is the formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major areas: epistemology, ethics, metaphysics. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. — Wikipedia (Categories, Index of Articles)

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy


Logic (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)
What is Logic? (Steve Palmquist, Hong Kong Baptist University)
Factasia: Logic (R.B. Jones)
Logic: Finding The Right Patterns (Andrea Borghini, About.com)


Outline of Logic (Wikipedia)



The History of Logic from Aristotle to Gödel and Its Relationship with Ontology (Raul Corazzon)
The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Peter King & Stewart Shapiro)
The history of formal mathematical, logical, linguistic, and methodological ideas (Dictionary of the History of Ideas)
History of Logic (Wikipedia)


Quotations Page


The Logic Museum


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library


Logic (Sundar Sarukkai, Oxford Bibliographies)
John Halleck’s Logic Bibliography




A crash course in formal logic (YouTube Channel)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Association for Symbolic Logic
Association for Informal Logic & Critical Thinking


Journal of Philosophical Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)
Journal of Symbolic Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)

PhilPapers: Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, Jagiellonian University)
Logic Eprints (arXiv, Los Alamos Mathematical Archive of eprints)








Zebra Puzzle (Wikipedia)
Riddles YouTube Channel (Ted-Ed)

The Philosophical Lexicon (Daniel Dennett and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen)
Philosophical Humor-An Oxymoron? (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
Patton’s Argument 101 (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
Patton’s Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
The Socrates Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)


Logic Puzzle (Wikipedia)
Logic Puzzles.org
Puzzles, Riddles & Brain Teasers (Brain Den)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



Latest Results The latest content available from Springer

  • Alethic Reference
    on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract I put forward precise and appealing notions of reference, self-reference, and well-foundedness for sentences of the language of first-order Peano arithmetic extended with a truth predicate. These notions are intended to play a central role in the study of the reference patterns that underlie expressions leading to semantic paradox and, thus, in the construction of philosophically well-motivated semantic theories of truth.

  • Realism and Empirical Equivalence
    on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to investigate various notions of empirical equivalence in relation to the two main arguments for realism in the philosophy of science, namely the no-miracles argument and the indispensability argument. According to realism, one should believe in the existence of the theoretical entities (such as numbers and electrons) postulated by empirically adequate theories. According to the no-miracles argument, one should do so because truth […]

  • Reference and Truth
    on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract I apply the notions of alethic reference introduced in previous work in the construction of several classical semantic truth theories. Furthermore, I provide proof-theoretic versions of those notions and use them to formulate axiomatic disquotational truth systems over classical logic. Some of these systems are shown to be sound, proof-theoretically strong, and compare well to the most renowned systems in the literature.

  • Brouwer’s Weak Counterexamples and the Creative...
    on May 9, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract I survey Brouwer’s weak counterexamples to classical theorems, with a view to discovering (i) what useful mathematical work is done by weak counterexamples; (ii) whether they are rigorous mathematical proofs or just plausibility arguments; (iii) the role of Brouwer’s notion of the creative subject in them, and whether the creative subject is really necessary for them; (iv) what axioms for the creative subject are needed; (v) what relation there is between […]

  • Between Atomism and Superatomism
    on April 29, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract There are at least three vaguely atomistic principles that have come up in the literature, two explicitly and one implicitly. First, standard atomism is the claim that everything is composed of atoms, and is very often how atomism is characterized in the literature. Second, superatomism is the claim that parthood is well-founded, which implies that every proper parthood chain terminates, and has been discussed as a stronger alternative to standard atomism. Third, […]