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**Philosophy** Metaphysics, *Logic*, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics

# Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for *Cosma*. More…

## General

### Portal

Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, PhilPapers)

Logic Portal (Wikipedia)

*Dictionary*

logic: a science that deals with the principles and criteria of validity of inference and demonstration —Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms & Names

*Thesaurus*

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

*Glossary*

Glossary of First-Order Logic (Peter Suber, Earlham College)

*Encyclopedia*

Logicis the formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major areas: epistemology, ethics, metaphysics. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. —Wikipedia(Categories, Index of Articles)

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Britannica

*Introduction*

Logic (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)

What is Logic? (Steve Palmquist, Hong Kong Baptist University)

Factasia: Logic (R.B. Jones)

Logic: Finding The Right Patterns (Andrea Borghini, About.com)

*Outline*

## Preservation

### History

The History of Logic from Aristotle to Gödel and Its Relationship with Ontology (Raul Corazzon)

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Peter King & Stewart Shapiro)

The history of formal mathematical, logical, linguistic, and methodological ideas (Dictionary of the History of Ideas)

History of Logic (Wikipedia)

*Quotation*

### Museum

### Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

*Bibliography*

Logic (Sundar Sarukkai, Oxford Bibliographies)

John Halleck’s Logic Bibliography

## Participation

### Education

*Course*

A crash course in formal logic (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

### Community

*Organization*

Association for Symbolic Logic

Association for Informal Logic & Critical Thinking

*News*

Journal of Philosophical Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)

Journal of Symbolic Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)

PhilPapers: Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, Jagiellonian University)

Logic Eprints (arXiv, Los Alamos Mathematical Archive of eprints)

*Book*

### Government

*Document*

## Expression

### Fun

Zebra Puzzle (Wikipedia)

Riddles YouTube Channel (Ted-Ed)

The Philosophical Lexicon (Daniel Dennett and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen)

Philosophical Humor-An Oxymoron? (Cheryl and Michael Patton)

Patton’s Argument 101 (Cheryl and Michael Patton)

Patton’s Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)

The Socrates Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)

*Hobby*

Logic Puzzle (Wikipedia)

Logic Puzzles.org

Puzzles, Riddles & Brain Teasers (Brain Den)

*Poem*

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

### More…

## Latest Results The latest content available from Springer

- Plurals and Mereologyon October 26, 2020 at 12:00 am
Abstract In linguistics, the dominant approach to the semantics of plurals appeals to mereology. However, this approach has received strong criticisms from philosophical logicians who subscribe to an alternative framework based on plural logic. In the first part of the article, we offer a precise characterization of the mereological approach and the semantic background in which the debate can be meaningfully reconstructed. In the second part, we deal with the criticisms and […]

- What is the Meaning of Proofs?on October 22, 2020 at 12:00 am
Abstract The origins of proof-theoretic semantics lie in the question of what constitutes the meaning of the logical connectives and its response: the rules of inference that govern the use of the connective. However, what if we go a step further and ask about the meaning of a proof as a whole? In this paper we address this question and lay out a framework to distinguish sense and denotation of proofs. Two questions are central here. First of all, if we have two […]

- More Aboutness in Imaginationon October 8, 2020 at 12:00 am
Abstract In Berto’s logic for aboutness in imagination, the output content of an imaginative episode must be part of the initial content of the episode (Berto, Philos Stud 175:1871–1886, 2018). This condition predicts expressions of perfectly legitimate imaginative episodes to be false. Thus, this condition is too strict. Relaxing the condition to correctly model these cases requires to consider a language with predicates and constants. The paper extends Berto’s […]

- Revising Probabilities and Full Beliefson October 1, 2020 at 12:00 am
Abstract A new formal model of belief dynamics is proposed, in which the epistemic agent has both probabilistic beliefs and full beliefs. The agent has full belief in a proposition if and only if she considers the probability that it is false to be so close to zero that she chooses to disregard that probability. She treats such a proposition as having the probability 1, but, importantly, she is still willing and able to revise that probability assignment if she receives […]

- Inferences and Metainferences in STon September 3, 2020 at 12:00 am
Abstract In a recent paper, Barrio, Tajer and Rosenblatt establish a correspondence between metainferences holding in the strict-tolerant logic of transparent truth ST+ and inferences holding in the logic of paradox LP+. They argue that LP+ is ST+’s external logic and they question whether ST+’s solution to the semantic paradoxes is fundamentally different from LP+’s. Here we establish that by parity of reasoning, ST+ can be related to LP+’s dual logic K3+. We clarify […]