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Philosophy Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, PhilPapers)
Logic Portal (Wikipedia)


logic : a science that deals with the principles and criteria of validity of inference and demonstration — Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms & Names


Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Glossary of First-Order Logic (Peter Suber, Earlham College)


Logic is the formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major areas: epistemology, ethics, metaphysics. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. — Wikipedia (Categories, Index of Articles)

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy


Logic (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)
What is Logic? (Steve Palmquist, Hong Kong Baptist University)
Factasia: Logic (R.B. Jones)
Logic: Finding The Right Patterns (Andrea Borghini, About.com)


Outline of Logic (Wikipedia)



The History of Logic from Aristotle to Gödel and Its Relationship with Ontology (Raul Corazzon)
The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Peter King & Stewart Shapiro)
The history of formal mathematical, logical, linguistic, and methodological ideas (Dictionary of the History of Ideas)
History of Logic (Wikipedia)


Quotations Page


The Logic Museum


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library


Logic (Sundar Sarukkai, Oxford Bibliographies)
John Halleck’s Logic Bibliography




A crash course in formal logic (YouTube Channel)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Association for Symbolic Logic
Association for Informal Logic & Critical Thinking


Journal of Philosophical Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)
Journal of Symbolic Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)

PhilPapers: Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, Jagiellonian University)
Logic Eprints (arXiv, Los Alamos Mathematical Archive of eprints)








Zebra Puzzle (Wikipedia)
Riddles YouTube Channel (Ted-Ed)

The Philosophical Lexicon (Daniel Dennett and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen)
Philosophical Humor-An Oxymoron? (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
Patton’s Argument 101 (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
Patton’s Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
The Socrates Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)


Logic Puzzle (Wikipedia)
Logic Puzzles.org
Puzzles, Riddles & Brain Teasers (Brain Den)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



Latest Results The latest content available from Springer

  • Intuitionism and the Modal Logic of Vagueness
    on February 13, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Intuitionistic logic provides an elegant solution to the Sorites Paradox. Its acceptance has been hampered by two factors. First, the lack of an accepted semantics for languages containing vague terms has led even philosophers sympathetic to intuitionism to complain that no explanation has been given of why intuitionistic logic is the correct logic for such languages. Second, switching from classical to intuitionistic logic, while it may help with the Sorites, does […]

  • Expectation Biases and Context Management with...
    on February 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract This paper examines distinctive discourse properties of preposed negative yes/no questions (NPQs), such as Isn’t Jane coming too?. Unlike with other yes/no questions, using an NPQ ∼ p? invariably conveys a bias toward a particular answer, where the polarity of the bias is opposite of the polarity of the question: using the negative question ∼ p? invariably expresses that the speaker previously expected the positive answer p to be correct. A prominent […]

  • On Hierarchical Propositions
    on February 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract There is an apparent dilemma for hierarchical accounts of propositions, raised by Bruno Whittle (Journal of Philosophical Logic, 46, 215–231, 2017): either such accounts do not offer adequate treatment of connectives and quantifiers, or they eviscerate the logic. I discuss what a plausible hierarchical conception of propositions might amount to, and show that on that conception, Whittle’s dilemma is not compelling. Thus, there are good reasons why […]

  • Logics of Synonymy
    on January 9, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract We investigate synonymy in the strong sense of content identity (and not just meaning similarity). This notion is central in the philosophy of language and in applications of logic. We motivate, uniformly axiomatize, and characterize several “benchmark” notions of synonymy in the messy class of all possible notions of synonymy. This class is divided by two intuitive principles that are governed by a no-go result. We use the notion of a scenario to get a […]

  • Truthmaker Semantics for Relevant Logic
    on January 7, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract I develop and defend a truthmaker semantics for the relevant logic R. The approach begins with a simple philosophical idea and develops it in various directions, so as to build a technically adequate relevant semantics. The central philosophical idea is that truths are true in virtue of specific states. Developing the idea formally results in a semantics on which truthmakers are relevant to what they make true. A very natural notion of conditionality is added, giving […]