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Philosophy Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, PhilPapers)
Logic Portal (Wikipedia)


logic : a science that deals with the principles and criteria of validity of inference and demonstration — Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms & Names


Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Glossary of First-Order Logic (Peter Suber, Earlham College)


Logic is the formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major areas: epistemology, ethics, metaphysics. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. — Wikipedia (Categories, Index of Articles)

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy


Logic (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)
What is Logic? (Steve Palmquist, Hong Kong Baptist University)
Factasia: Logic (R.B. Jones)
Logic: Finding The Right Patterns (Andrea Borghini, About.com)


Outline of Logic (Wikipedia)



The History of Logic from Aristotle to Gödel and Its Relationship with Ontology (Raul Corazzon)
The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Peter King & Stewart Shapiro)
The history of formal mathematical, logical, linguistic, and methodological ideas (Dictionary of the History of Ideas)
History of Logic (Wikipedia)


Quotations Page


The Logic Museum


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library


Logic (Sundar Sarukkai, Oxford Bibliographies)
John Halleck’s Logic Bibliography




A crash course in formal logic (YouTube Channel)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Association for Symbolic Logic
Association for Informal Logic & Critical Thinking


Journal of Philosophical Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)
Journal of Symbolic Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)

PhilPapers: Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, Jagiellonian University)
Logic Eprints (arXiv, Los Alamos Mathematical Archive of eprints)








Zebra Puzzle (Wikipedia)
Riddles YouTube Channel (Ted-Ed)

The Philosophical Lexicon (Daniel Dennett and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen)
Philosophical Humor-An Oxymoron? (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
Patton’s Argument 101 (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
Patton’s Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
The Socrates Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)


Logic Puzzle (Wikipedia)
Logic Puzzles.org
Puzzles, Riddles & Brain Teasers (Brain Den)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



Latest Results The latest content available from Springer

  • Blame it on me
    on June 10, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract In this paper, we develop a formalisation of the main ideas of the work of Van de Poel on responsibility. Using the basic concepts through which the meanings of responsibility are defined, we construct a logic which enables to express sentences like “individual i is accountable for φ”, “individual i is blameworthy for φ” and “individual i has the obligation to see to it that φ”. This formalization clarifies the […]

  • Implicit and Explicit Stances in Logic
    on June 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract We identify a pervasive contrast between implicit and explicit stances in logical analysis and system design. Implicit systems change received meanings of logical constants and sometimes also the notion of consequence, while explicit systems conservatively extend classical systems with new vocabulary. We illustrate the contrast for intuitionistic and epistemic logic, then take it further to information dynamics, default reasoning, and other areas, to show its wide […]

  • Modal Expansionism
    on June 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract There are various well-known paradoxes of modal recombination. This paper offers a solution to a variety of such paradoxes in the form of a new conception of metaphysical modality. On the proposed conception, metaphysical modality exhibits a type of indefinite extensibility. Indeed, for any objective modality there will always be some further, broader objective modality; in other terms, modal space will always be open to expansion. […]

  • Expectation Biases and Context Management with...
    on May 7, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract This paper examines distinctive discourse properties of preposed negative yes/no questions (NPQs), such as Isn’t Jane coming too?. Unlike with other yes/no questions, using an NPQ ∼ p? invariably conveys a bias toward a particular answer, where the polarity of the bias is opposite of the polarity of the question: using the negative question ∼ p? invariably expresses that the speaker previously expected the positive answer p to be correct. A prominent […]

  • On Hierarchical Propositions
    on April 26, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract There is an apparent dilemma for hierarchical accounts of propositions, raised by Bruno Whittle (Journal of Philosophical Logic, 46, 215–231, 2017): either such accounts do not offer adequate treatment of connectives and quantifiers, or they eviscerate the logic. I discuss what a plausible hierarchical conception of propositions might amount to, and show that on that conception, Whittle’s dilemma is not compelling. Thus, there are good reasons why […]