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Philosophy Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, PhilPapers)
Logic Portal (Wikipedia)


logic : a science that deals with the principles and criteria of validity of inference and demonstration — Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms & Names


Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Glossary of First-Order Logic (Peter Suber, Earlham College)


Logic is the formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major areas: epistemology, ethics, metaphysics. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. — Wikipedia (Categories, Index of Articles)

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy


Logic (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)
What is Logic? (Steve Palmquist, Hong Kong Baptist University)
Factasia: Logic (R.B. Jones)
Logic: Finding The Right Patterns (Andrea Borghini, About.com)


Outline of Logic (Wikipedia)



The History of Logic from Aristotle to Gödel and Its Relationship with Ontology (Raul Corazzon)
The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Peter King & Stewart Shapiro)
The history of formal mathematical, logical, linguistic, and methodological ideas (Dictionary of the History of Ideas)
History of Logic (Wikipedia)


Quotations Page


The Logic Museum


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library


Logic (Sundar Sarukkai, Oxford Bibliographies)
John Halleck’s Logic Bibliography




A crash course in formal logic (YouTube Channel)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Association for Symbolic Logic
Association for Informal Logic & Critical Thinking


Journal of Philosophical Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)
Journal of Symbolic Logic (Association for Symbolic Logic)

PhilPapers: Logic and Philosophy of Logic (Edited by Aleksandra Samonek, Jagiellonian University)
Logic Eprints (arXiv, Los Alamos Mathematical Archive of eprints)








Zebra Puzzle (Wikipedia)
Riddles YouTube Channel (Ted-Ed)

The Philosophical Lexicon (Daniel Dennett and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen)
Philosophical Humor-An Oxymoron? (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
Patton’s Argument 101 (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
Patton’s Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)
The Socrates Argument Clinic (Cheryl and Michael Patton)


Logic Puzzle (Wikipedia)
Logic Puzzles.org
Puzzles, Riddles & Brain Teasers (Brain Den)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



Latest Results The latest content available from Springer

  • A More Unified Approach to Free Logics
    on February 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Free logics is a family of first-order logics which came about as a result of examining the existence assumptions of classical logic. What those assumptions are varies, but the central ones are that (i) the domain of interpretation is not empty, (ii) every name denotes exactly one object in the domain and (iii) the quantifiers have existential import. Free logics usually reject the claim that names need to denote in (ii), and of the systems considered in this paper, […]

  • Roads to Necessitarianism
    on February 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract We show that each of three natural sets of assumptions about the conditional entails necessitarianism: that anything possible is necessary. Since most agree that this conclusion is obviously false, this shows that at least one member of each set of assumptions must be rejected. All of these assumptions are, however, widely accepted and well-motivated. This creates a puzzle which we leave open.

  • Some Forms of Collectively Bringing About or...
    on January 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract One of the best known approaches to the logic of agency are the ‘stit’ (‘seeing to it that’) logics. Often, it is not the actions of an individual agent that bring about a certain outcome but the joint actions of a set of agents, collectively. Collective agency has received comparatively little attention in ‘stit’. The paper maps out several different forms, several different senses in which a particular set of agents, collectively, can be said to bring […]

  • Team Semantics for Interventionist...
    on December 19, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Team semantics is a highly general framework for logics which describe dependencies and independencies among variables. Typically, the (in)dependencies considered in this context are properties of sets of configurations or data records. We show how team semantics can be further generalized to support languages for the discussion of interventionist counterfactuals and causal dependencies, such as those that arise in manipulationist theories of causation (Pearl, […]

  • Between Atomism and Superatomism
    on December 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract There are at least three vaguely atomistic principles that have come up in the literature, two explicitly and one implicitly. First, standard atomism is the claim that everything is composed of atoms, and is very often how atomism is characterized in the literature. Second, superatomism is the claim that parthood is well-founded, which implies that every proper parthood chain terminates, and has been discussed as a stronger alternative to standard atomism. Third, […]