Pages and Subpages
Cosma provides access to content resources organized around these basic elements of a Communication System: Media (channel), Knowledge (message), Human (sender/receiver) and Noise (interference). See also Outline (Site Map)
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
Noise means any unwanted sound. In both analog and digital electronics, noise is an unwanted perturbation to a wanted signal; it is called noise as a generalisation of the audible noise heard when listening to a weak radio transmission. Signal noise is heard as acoustic noise if played through a loudspeaker; it manifests as ‘snow’ on a television or video image. Noise can block, distort, change or interfere with the meaning of a message in human, animal and electronic communication. — Wikipedia
Communication Noise In any communication model, noise is interference with the decoding of messages sent over a channel by an encoder. There are many examples of noise:
Environmental Noise Noise that physically disrupts communication, such as standing next to loud speakers at a party, or the noise from a construction site next to a classroom making it difficult to hear the professor.
Physiological-Impairment Noise Physical maladies that prevent effective communication, such as actual deafness or blindness preventing messages from being received as they were intended.
Semantic Noise Different interpretations of the meanings of certain words. For example, the word “weed” can be interpreted as an undesirable plant in your yard, or as a euphemism for marijuana.
Syntactical Noise Mistakes in grammar can disrupt communication, such as abrupt changes in verb tense during a sentence.
Organizational Noise Poorly structured communication can prevent the receiver from accurate interpretation. For example, unclear and badly stated directions can make the receiver even more lost.
Cultural Noise Stereotypical assumptions can cause misunderstandings, such as unintentionally offending a non-Christian person by wishing them a “Merry Christmas”.
Psychological Noise Certain attitudes can also make communication difficult. For instance, great anger or sadness may cause someone to lose focus on the present moment. Disorders such as Autism may also severely hamper effective communication. — Wikipedia
aeinews.org sound-related environmental new, science, policy
Whale earwax ties 150 years of stress changes to...
by aeinews on December 12, 2018 at 3:55 pm
A fascinating new study sheds light on changing stress levels in baleen whales over the course of the past 150 years. Earwax from fin, humpback, and blue whales accumulates over their lifetimes, a bit like tree rings, and the researchers were able to track cortisol levels by sampling the layers in earwax plugs from museum collections. This […]
Cue the lawyers: NOAA approves five Atlantic...
by aeinews on December 2, 2018 at 7:40 am
NOAA has issued Incidental Harassment Authorizations to five oil and gas exploration companies, each of which plans to engage in several weeks to several months worth of surveys off the US Atlantic coast during the one-year permit period, which extends through 2019. When the Trump administration initially announced its rollback of the Obama-era decision to […]
Court adds new hurdles for BC oil sands pipeline...
by aeinews on November 13, 2018 at 7:57 pm
Over the past decade, plans for a big expansion of the Trans Mountain pipeline in British Columbia have garnered pushback from ocean advocates. In late 2016, the plan gained its final approval from the Canadian government (see AEI coverage), but in late August, a Federal Appeals Court overturned that approval, citing the government’s failure to assess the effects […]
Slowdowns could reduce noise impacts of increased...
by aeinews on November 13, 2018 at 5:36 pm
Several recent studies highlight the heightened risks of increased Arctic shipping, along with some opportunities to minimize the effects of shipping noise on specific Arctic species and populations. With the retreat of sea ice, both the Northwest Passage (along Canada’s northern coast) and the Northern Sea Route (along Russia’s northern coast) are seeing increases in commercial […]
Don’t get too worked up over Trump’s splashy...
by aeinews on January 6, 2018 at 4:53 pm
An AEI big-picture commentary Once again, a Presidential announcement about offshore oil development has sent the media and environmental advocates into a spasm of headlines and press releases that presumes the words being uttered in DC actually reflect on-the-ground (or in this case, under-the-waves) reality. In late 2016, there was effusive praise for an effectively symbolic Obama decision to not offer leases […]