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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants (DMOZ Tools)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)


plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster

National Gardening Association Horticultural Dictionary (National Gardening Association)
OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Botany Glossary (UC Museum of Paleontology)
Glossary of Botanical Terms (The Western Australian Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue)


Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Plants (Backyard Gardner), Encyclopædia Britannica

Plants (OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer)
Green Plants (Tree of Life Web Project)


Plants (WolframAlpha)


Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Botany (DMOZ Tools)
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Life Cycle of Plants (Serenata Flowers)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)


Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia

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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Official Site)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Wikipedia)

Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)


Anna Atkins (Getty Museum)
Anna Atkins (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Anna Atkins (Wikipedia)


Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



School Gardening: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Activities: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)

Plant Basics (Biology4Kids)
Plants Learner Guides (BBC)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS)
Botanical Society of America
National Gardening Association


International Botanical Congress Calendar


HR’S wat’s this plant? interactive plant identification


American Journal of Botany, Nature Plants, Science Daily,, NPR Archives




Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)





Plants (Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia, Tim Hunkin)


Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
Garden Community
National Gardening Association
Backyard Gardner
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)


The Kew Book of Botanical Illustration (Christabel King)
The Art of Botanical Illustration (University of Delaware)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



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Nature Plants - science feeds Nature Plants is a scientific journal publishing primary research papers concerned with all aspects of plant biology, technology, ecology and evolution.

  • Author Correction: Inducible overexpression of...
    by Mingming Liu on May 16, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 16 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0447-3Author Correction: Inducible overexpression of Ideal Plant Architecture1 improves both yield and disease resistance in ric […]

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    on May 10, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 10 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0433-9Cryo-electron microscopy is currently one of the most productive structural techniques, especially for large protein complexes such as photosystems. This success is built on a very long history of technological advances. […]

  • A genetics screen highlights emerging roles for...
    by Ting Li on May 10, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 10 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0419-7A study uses a forward genetic screen to identify three new regulators (URT1, CPL3 and RST1) for post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). These regulators may suppress PTGS by protecting the 3’ end of transgene transcripts. […]

  • Duplication of a domestication locus neutralized...
    by Sebastian Soyk on May 6, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 06 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0422-zTomato breeding with a desirable MADS-box mutation to improve harvesting can often result in unwanted traits due to negative epistatis with cryptic mutations. A dosage mechanism involving a duplication of a second gene to overcoming the negative epistasis is dissected, enabling the design of gene editing strategies to predictably improve harvesting. […]

  • Control of retrograde signalling by protein...
    by Guo-Zhang Wu on May 6, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 06 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0415-yRetrograde signalling ensures message communication between organelles and the nucleus. A pivotal regulator of plant retrograde signalling, GENOMES UNCOUPLED1, is now found to regulate protein import into chloroplast during chloroplast biogenesis or under stress conditions. […]

Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.

  • Resilience of Yellowstone's forests tested by...
    on May 20, 2019 at 7:30 pm

    Researchers describe what happens when Yellowstone -- adapted to recurring fires every 100 to 300 years -- instead burns twice in fewer than 30 years. Yellowstone as we know it faces an uncertain future, the researchers say, and one of the big questions they hope to answer is whether the forests can recover. […]

  • How plant viruses can be used to ward off pests...
    on May 20, 2019 at 3:56 pm

    Imagine a technology that could target pesticides to treat specific spots deep within the soil, making them more effective at controlling infestations while limiting their toxicity to the environment. Researchers have taken a step toward that goal. They discovered that a particular plant virus can deliver pesticide molecules deeper below the ground, targeting places normally beyond their reach. […]

  • Measuring plant improvements to help farmers...
    on May 16, 2019 at 5:17 pm

    Today, scientists have shown a new technology can more quickly scan an entire field of plants to capture improvements in their natural capacity to harvest energy from the sun. […]

  • Algal blooms in Lake Erie's central basin could...
    on May 16, 2019 at 3:46 pm

    Harmful algal blooms pose a unique toxic threat in Lake Erie's central basin, new research has found. Not only do blooms routinely occur in this area, which previously was not thought to be an area of concern, they can also produce types of cyanobacterial toxins that aren't typically detected through routine water-safety monitoring, according to a new study. […]

  • How plants are working hard for the planet
    on May 16, 2019 at 3:45 pm

    As the planet warms, plants are working to slow the effect of human-caused climate change -- and new research has assessed how plants are responding to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2). […] - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • How one fern can soak up so much arsenic—and...
    on May 17, 2019 at 12:17 pm

    Arsenic-contaminated soil and groundwater pose risks to millions of Americans and hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Cleaning up the toxic metal is a laborious and expensive process, with some remediations of arsenic reaching into the hundreds of millions of dollars. […]

  • 3-D printing to save dogs' day
    on May 14, 2019 at 11:08 am

    3-D printed models of dog skulls are helping University of Queensland vets to save animals and educate tomorrow's veterinary students. […]

  • Wax helps plants to survive in the desert
    on April 29, 2019 at 1:54 pm

    In 1956, Würzburg botanist Otto Ludwig Lange observed an unusual phenomenon in the Mauritanian desert in West Africa: He found plants whose leaves could withstand heat up to 56 degrees Celsius. At the time, the professor was unable to say which mechanisms were responsible for preventing the leaves from drying out at these temperatures. More than 50 years later, the botanists Markus Riederer and Amauri Bueno from Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (JMU) in Bavaria, Germany, […]

  • Interplay of pollinators and pests influences...
    on April 12, 2019 at 10:57 am

    Brassica rapa plants pollinated by bumblebees evolve more attractive flowers. But this evolution is compromised if caterpillars attack the plant at the same time. As bees pollinate them less effectively, the plants increasingly self-pollinate. In a greenhouse evolution experiment, scientists at the University of Zurich have shown just how much the effects of pollinators and pests influence each other. […]

  • A detailed eucalypt family tree helps us see how...
    on April 9, 2019 at 1:30 pm

    Eucalypts dominate Australia's landscape like no other plant group in the world. […]