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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)


plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster

National Gardening Association Horticultural Dictionary (National Gardening Association)
OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Botany Glossary (UC Museum of Paleontology)
Glossary of Botanical Terms (The Western Australian Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue)


Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Plants (Backyard Gardner), Encyclopædia Britannica

Plants (OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer)
Green Plants (Tree of Life Web Project)


Plants (WolframAlpha)


Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)


Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia

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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Official Site)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Wikipedia)

Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)


Anna Atkins (Getty Museum)
Anna Atkins (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Anna Atkins (Wikipedia)


Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



School Gardening: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Activities: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)

Plant Basics (Biology4Kids)
Plants Learner Guides (BBC)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS)
Botanical Society of America
National Gardening Association


International Botanical Congress Calendar


HR’S wat’s this plant? interactive plant identification


American Journal of Botany, Nature Plants, Science Daily,, NPR Archives




Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)





Plants (Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia, Tim Hunkin)


Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
Garden Community
National Gardening Association
Backyard Gardner
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)


The Kew Book of Botanical Illustration (Christabel King)
The Art of Botanical Illustration (University of Delaware)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



    Nature Plants - science feeds Nature Plants is a scientific journal publishing primary research papers concerned with all aspects of plant biology, technology, ecology and evolution.

    • Stout camphor tree genome fills gaps in...
      by Shu-Miaw Chaw on January 9, 2019 at 12:00 am

      Stout camphor tree genome fills gaps in understanding of flowering plant genome evolutionStout camphor tree genome fills gaps in understanding of flowering plant genome evolution, Published online: 09 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0337-0A high-quality reference genome of the stout camphor tree reveals its genome evolution and supports that magnoliid and eudicot lineages share more common ancestry relative to monocots. […]

    • Scanning the horizon
      on January 9, 2019 at 12:00 am

      Scanning the horizonScanning the horizon, Published online: 09 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0353-0We live in uncertain times, but the changing of the year provides a time not only to look back on the year that has passed, but also to look forward to what might happen in the year to come. […]

    • Small is big in <i>Arabidopsis</i>...
      by Florent Waltz on January 9, 2019 at 12:00 am

      Small is big in Arabidopsis mitochondrial ribosomeSmall is big in <i>Arabidopsis</i> mitochondrial ribosome, Published online: 09 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0339-yThis study characterized the unique protein subunit composition and structure of Arabidopsis mitochondrial ribosomes using biochemical assays and cryo-electron microscopy. Ten subunits are pentatricopeptide (PPR) proteins, among which rPPR1 functions as a translation factor. […]

    • Identification of vacuolar phosphate efflux...
      by Lei Xu on January 9, 2019 at 12:00 am

      Identification of vacuolar phosphate efflux transporters in land plantsIdentification of vacuolar phosphate efflux transporters in land plants, Published online: 09 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0334-3Phosphorus is one of the essential nutrients for all living organisms. Plants and fungi store phosphate in their vacuoles. Multiple plant influx transporters have been reported to import phosphate to the vacuoles. Now, two new phosphate efflux transporters are shown to be important for […]

    • Traits enable domestication
      by Jun Lyu on January 9, 2019 at 12:00 am

      Traits enable domesticationTraits enable domestication, Published online: 09 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0355-yTraits enable domestication […]

    Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.

    • Plant peptide helps roots to branch out in the...
      on January 18, 2019 at 2:59 pm

      How do plants space out their roots? A research team has identified a peptide and its receptor that help lateral roots to grow with the right spacing. […]

    • Unraveling of 58-year-old corn gene mystery may...
      on January 18, 2019 at 1:32 pm

      In discovering a mutant gene that 'turns on' another gene responsible for the red pigments sometimes seen in corn, researchers solved an almost six-decades-old mystery with a finding that may have implications for plant breeding in the future. […]

    • Researchers race against extinction to uncover...
      on January 17, 2019 at 4:59 pm

      As the population of a fir tree in China dwindles, researchers are racing to replicate its cancer-fighting molecules. […]

    • A new way to transfer energy between cells
      on January 17, 2019 at 4:33 pm

      Researchers have described a new method for the transmission of electrons between proteins that refutes the evidence from experiments until now. This process, involved in the generation of energy in both animal and plant cells, will permit better understanding of the behavior of proteins in the cells, as well as giving a deeper understanding of the energy dysfunctions that cause diseases. […]

    • Water, not temperature, limits global forest...
      on January 16, 2019 at 8:06 pm

      The growth of forest trees all over the world is becoming more water-limited as the climate warms. The effect is most evident in northern climates and at high altitudes where the primary limitation on tree growth had been cold temperatures. The research details the first time that changes in tree growth in response to current climate changes have been mapped at a near-global scale. […] - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

    • How trees and turnips grow fatter
      on January 9, 2019 at 6:00 pm

      Two international research teams have identified key regulatory networks controlling how plants grow 'outwards', which could help us to grow trees to be more efficient carbon sinks and increase vegetable crop yields. […]

    • Fossils suggest flowers originated 50 million...
      on December 18, 2018 at 4:07 pm

      Scientists have described a fossil plant species that suggests flowers bloomed in the Early Jurassic, more than 174 million years ago, according to new research in the open-access journal eLife. […]

    • Local conditions shape plant communities
      on December 13, 2018 at 11:33 am

      The local environment plays a key role in determining what kinds of plants grow there, according to a new study that could change how threatened species are managed. […]

    • Researchers reverse engineer way pine trees...
      on December 12, 2018 at 3:31 pm

      Washington State University researchers have reverse engineered the way a pine tree produces a resin, which could serve as an environmentally friendly alternative to a range of fossil-fuel based products worth billions of dollars. […]

    • 229 new species described by the California...
      on December 5, 2018 at 6:24 pm

      In 2018, researchers at the California Academy of Sciences added 229 new plant and animal species to our family tree, enriching our understanding of Earth's complex web of life and strengthening our ability to make informed conservation decisions. The new species include 120 wasps, 34 sea slugs, 28 ants, 19 fish, seven flowering plants, seven spiders, four eels, three sharks, two water bears, one frog, one snake, one seahorse, one moss, and one liverwort plant. More than a dozen Academy […]