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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)


plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster

National Gardening Association Horticultural Dictionary (National Gardening Association)
OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Botany Glossary (UC Museum of Paleontology)
Glossary of Botanical Terms (The Western Australian Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue)


Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Plants (Backyard Gardner), Encyclopædia Britannica

Plants (OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer)
Green Plants (Tree of Life Web Project)


Plants (WolframAlpha)


Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)


Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia

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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Official Site)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Wikipedia)

Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)


Anna Atkins (Getty Museum)
Anna Atkins (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Anna Atkins (Wikipedia)


Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



School Gardening: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Activities: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)

Plant Basics (Biology4Kids)
Plants Learner Guides (BBC)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS)
Botanical Society of America
National Gardening Association


International Botanical Congress Calendar


HR’S wat’s this plant? interactive plant identification


American Journal of Botany, Nature Plants, Science Daily,, NPR Archives




Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)





Plants (Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia, Tim Hunkin)


Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
Garden Community
National Gardening Association
Backyard Gardner
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)


The Kew Book of Botanical Illustration (Christabel King)
The Art of Botanical Illustration (University of Delaware)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



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    Nature Plants - science feeds Nature Plants is a scientific journal publishing primary research papers concerned with all aspects of plant biology, technology, ecology and evolution.

    • Inducible overexpression of <i>Ideal Plant...
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    • Expansion of transposable elements offers clue to...
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    • Mystery solved—biologists explain the genetic...
      on March 12, 2019 at 11:42 am

      With a price tag of up to €30,000 per kilogram, saffron is the most expensive spice in the world. Sometimes it even exceeds the price of gold. Its typical aroma is produced by the apocarotenoid Safranal. Saffron is harvested from the flowers of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), which blooms solely in autumn. In order to yield one kilogram of saffron, 150,000 to 200,000 flowers must be harvested by hand—skilled pickers can collect 60 to 80 grams per day. Subsequently, the three […]

    • A new approach to keeping crops, people safe
      on March 1, 2019 at 1:10 pm

      Weeds cause tremendous damage in yield and productivity of crop plants. Losses from weeds account for more than $40 billion in annual revenue for corn and soybean crops alone in North America, according to the Weed Science Society of America. […]

    • Cell editors correct genetic errors
      on March 1, 2019 at 12:56 pm

      Almost all land plants employ an army of cellular editors who correct errors in their genetic information. Researchers at the University of Bonn have now transferred parts of this machinery into a bacterium. Their results confirm a controversial thesis on the functioning of this widespread mechanism. They have now been published in the journal Communications Biology of the Nature Publishing Group. […]

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