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Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants (DMOZ Tools)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)
plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).
Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia
Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Botany (DMOZ Tools)
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Life Cycle of Plants (Serenata Flowers)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)
Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.
Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia
Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)
Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
National Gardening Association
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Nature Plants - nature.com science feeds Nature Plants is a scientific journal publishing primary research papers concerned with all aspects of plant biology, technology, ecology and evolution.
Author Correction: Inducible overexpression of...
by Mingming Liu on May 16, 2019 at 12:00 am
Nature Plants, Published online: 16 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0447-3Author Correction: Inducible overexpression of Ideal Plant Architecture1 improves both yield and disease resistance in ric […]
on May 10, 2019 at 12:00 am
Nature Plants, Published online: 10 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0433-9Cryo-electron microscopy is currently one of the most productive structural techniques, especially for large protein complexes such as photosystems. This success is built on a very long history of technological advances. […]
A genetics screen highlights emerging roles for...
by Ting Li on May 10, 2019 at 12:00 am
Nature Plants, Published online: 10 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0419-7A study uses a forward genetic screen to identify three new regulators (URT1, CPL3 and RST1) for post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). These regulators may suppress PTGS by protecting the 3’ end of transgene transcripts. […]
Duplication of a domestication locus neutralized...
by Sebastian Soyk on May 6, 2019 at 12:00 am
Nature Plants, Published online: 06 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0422-zTomato breeding with a desirable MADS-box mutation to improve harvesting can often result in unwanted traits due to negative epistatis with cryptic mutations. A dosage mechanism involving a duplication of a second gene to overcoming the negative epistasis is dissected, enabling the design of gene editing strategies to predictably improve harvesting. […]
Control of retrograde signalling by protein...
by Guo-Zhang Wu on May 6, 2019 at 12:00 am
Nature Plants, Published online: 06 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0415-yRetrograde signalling ensures message communication between organelles and the nucleus. A pivotal regulator of plant retrograde signalling, GENOMES UNCOUPLED1, is now found to regulate protein import into chloroplast during chloroplast biogenesis or under stress conditions. […]
Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.
Measuring plant improvements to help farmers...
on May 16, 2019 at 5:17 pm
Today, scientists have shown a new technology can more quickly scan an entire field of plants to capture improvements in their natural capacity to harvest energy from the sun. […]
Algal blooms in Lake Erie's central basin could...
on May 16, 2019 at 3:46 pm
Harmful algal blooms pose a unique toxic threat in Lake Erie's central basin, new research has found. Not only do blooms routinely occur in this area, which previously was not thought to be an area of concern, they can also produce types of cyanobacterial toxins that aren't typically detected through routine water-safety monitoring, according to a new study. […]
How plants are working hard for the planet
on May 16, 2019 at 3:45 pm
As the planet warms, plants are working to slow the effect of human-caused climate change -- and new research has assessed how plants are responding to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2). […]
Breakthrough technique for studying gene...
on May 16, 2019 at 12:24 pm
An open-source RNA analysis platform has been successfully used on plant cells for the first time -- a breakthrough that could herald a new era of fundamental research and bolster efforts to engineer more efficient food and biofuel crops. The technology, called Drop-seq is a method for measuring the RNA present in individual cells, allowing scientists to see what genes are being expressed and how this relates to the specific functions of different cell types. […]
As bumblebee diets narrow, ours could too
on May 15, 2019 at 5:02 pm
A new study reveals the loss of plant diversity harms the humble bumblebee at a critical stage in its development from egg to adult. […]
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
How one fern can soak up so much arsenic—and...
on May 17, 2019 at 12:17 pm
Arsenic-contaminated soil and groundwater pose risks to millions of Americans and hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Cleaning up the toxic metal is a laborious and expensive process, with some remediations of arsenic reaching into the hundreds of millions of dollars. […]
3-D printing to save dogs' day
on May 14, 2019 at 11:08 am
3-D printed models of dog skulls are helping University of Queensland vets to save animals and educate tomorrow's veterinary students. […]
Wax helps plants to survive in the desert
on April 29, 2019 at 1:54 pm
In 1956, Würzburg botanist Otto Ludwig Lange observed an unusual phenomenon in the Mauritanian desert in West Africa: He found plants whose leaves could withstand heat up to 56 degrees Celsius. At the time, the professor was unable to say which mechanisms were responsible for preventing the leaves from drying out at these temperatures. More than 50 years later, the botanists Markus Riederer and Amauri Bueno from Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (JMU) in Bavaria, Germany, […]
Interplay of pollinators and pests influences...
on April 12, 2019 at 10:57 am
Brassica rapa plants pollinated by bumblebees evolve more attractive flowers. But this evolution is compromised if caterpillars attack the plant at the same time. As bees pollinate them less effectively, the plants increasingly self-pollinate. In a greenhouse evolution experiment, scientists at the University of Zurich have shown just how much the effects of pollinators and pests influence each other. […]
A detailed eucalypt family tree helps us see how...
on April 9, 2019 at 1:30 pm
Eucalypts dominate Australia's landscape like no other plant group in the world. […]