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Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)
plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).
Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia
Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)
Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.
Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia
Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)
Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
National Gardening Association
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)
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Inducible overexpression of <i>Ideal Plant...
by Mingming Liu on March 18, 2019 at 12:00 am
Inducible overexpression of Ideal Plant Architecture1 improves both yield and disease resistance in riceInducible overexpression of <i>Ideal Plant Architecture1</i> improves both yield and disease resistance in rice, Published online: 18 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0383-2Breeding crops with both high yield and disease resistance remains challenging. A study has now identified microRNA-156–Ideal Plant Architecture1 (IPA1) as a regulator of the crosstalk between growth […]
by Ian Small on March 8, 2019 at 12:00 am
Transplastomic Arabidopsis plants at lastTransplastomic <i>Arabidopsis</i> plants at last, Published online: 08 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0388-xAn efficient route to the transformation of Arabidopsis plastids will allow the full power of molecular genetics to be brought to bear on the study of this key compartment. […]
Antenna arrangement and energy transfer pathways...
by Xiaodong Su on March 8, 2019 at 12:00 am
Antenna arrangement and energy transfer pathways of a green algal photosystem-I–LHCI supercomplexAntenna arrangement and energy transfer pathways of a green algal photosystem-I–LHCI supercomplex, Published online: 08 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0380-5In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, multiple units of light-harvesting complex I bind to the photosystem-I core, forming larger antennae than in plants. The structure, solved by cryo-electron microscopy, reveals details of antenna […]
Disposable cuticle for young roots
by Guillaume Tena on March 8, 2019 at 12:00 am
Disposable cuticle for young rootsDisposable cuticle for young roots, Published online: 08 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0392-1Disposable cuticle for young roots […]
Plant sperm need a little help
by Jun Zhang on March 8, 2019 at 12:00 am
Plant sperm need a little helpPlant sperm need a little help, Published online: 08 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0385-0Fusion of lipid bilayers to deliver genetic information is a process common to both viral infection and fertilization, and the two share common molecular mechanisms. Now, identification of fusion-facilitators shows that plants have their own unique slant on the fusion process. […]
Algal library lends insights into genes for...
on March 18, 2019 at 9:02 pm
To identify genes involved in photosynthesis, researchers built a library containing thousands of single-celled algae, each with a different gene mutation. The library, which took nine years to construct, has already helped researchers identify 303 genes associated with photosynthesis including 21 newly discovered genes with high potential to provide new insights into this life-sustaining process. […]
Excessive phosphate fertilizer use can reduce...
on March 18, 2019 at 5:26 pm
Scientists set out to determine if nutrient history changed the function of soil microorganisms. The answer seems to be yes, and that soil treated with high amounts of phosphate can result in poorer plant performance, but even more intriguing, it appears that the soil microorganisms from this conditioned soil can negatively impact plant yield. […]
Using Thoreau, scientists measure the impact of...
on March 14, 2019 at 11:26 pm
A new study is using observations made by Henry David Thoreau -- 19th-century American naturalist, social reformer, and philosopher -- to explore the effects of climate change on tree leaf-out and, as a result, the emergence of spring wildflowers. […]
Pests and the plant defenses against them drive...
on March 14, 2019 at 7:15 pm
Researchers have been baffled by tropical rainforest diversity for over a century; 650 different tree species can exist in an area covering two football fields, yet similar species never grow next to each other. It seems like it's good to be different than your neighbors, but why? […]
Climate change limits forest recovery after...
on March 12, 2019 at 7:12 pm
New research suggests climate change makes it increasingly difficult for tree seedlings to regenerate following wildfires in low-elevation forests, which could contribute to abrupt forest loss. […]
Expansion of transposable elements offers clue to...
on March 19, 2019 at 12:20 pm
Species often experience a genetic bottleneck that diminishes genetic variation after speciation or introduction into a new area. Though bottlenecks in population size always reduce fitness and evolutionary potential, introduced species often become invasive. This is known as the genetic paradox of invasion. […]
Mystery solved—biologists explain the genetic...
on March 12, 2019 at 11:42 am
With a price tag of up to €30,000 per kilogram, saffron is the most expensive spice in the world. Sometimes it even exceeds the price of gold. Its typical aroma is produced by the apocarotenoid Safranal. Saffron is harvested from the flowers of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), which blooms solely in autumn. In order to yield one kilogram of saffron, 150,000 to 200,000 flowers must be harvested by hand—skilled pickers can collect 60 to 80 grams per day. Subsequently, the three […]
A new approach to keeping crops, people safe
on March 1, 2019 at 1:10 pm
Weeds cause tremendous damage in yield and productivity of crop plants. Losses from weeds account for more than $40 billion in annual revenue for corn and soybean crops alone in North America, according to the Weed Science Society of America. […]
Cell editors correct genetic errors
on March 1, 2019 at 12:56 pm
Almost all land plants employ an army of cellular editors who correct errors in their genetic information. Researchers at the University of Bonn have now transferred parts of this machinery into a bacterium. Their results confirm a controversial thesis on the functioning of this widespread mechanism. They have now been published in the journal Communications Biology of the Nature Publishing Group. […]
Understanding peppers and chilis from around the...
on February 21, 2019 at 2:01 pm
A comprehensive and multinational review of peppers/chilis (Capsicum species) with academic and scientific input from points across the globe, such as Argentina, Brazil, Taiwan, Mexico, Italy, Hungary, Austria, and the United States sets out to explore various aspects of interest concerning this horticulturally important crop. […]