Plant

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Portal

Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants (DMOZ Tools)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)

Dictionary

plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster

National Gardening Association Horticultural Dictionary (National Gardening Association)
OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Glossary

Botany Glossary (UC Museum of Paleontology)
Glossary of Botanical Terms (The Western Australian Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue)

Encyclopedia

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Plants (Backyard Gardner), Encyclopædia Britannica

Plants (OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer)
Green Plants (Tree of Life Web Project)

Search

Plants (WolframAlpha)

Science

Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Botany (DMOZ Tools)
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Life Cycle of Plants (Serenata Flowers)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)

When plants cry out for help, their neighbors start screaming, too (Kat Eschner, Popular Science)
Insect Herbivory Selects for Volatile-Mediated Plant-Plant Communication (Aino Kalske, Et al., Current Biology)

Wood wide web: The underground network of microbes that connects trees—mapped for first time (Gabriel Popkin, Science Magazine)

Can plants talk to each other? (Richard Karban, TED-Ed)
Plant Sensing and Communication (Richard Karban, University of Chicago Press)

Do Trees Talk to Each Other? (Richard Grant, Smithsonian Magazine)
The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate (Peter Wohlleben)
How Plants Secretly Talk to Each Other (Kat McGowan, Wired)
The Intelligent Plant: Scientists debate a new way of understanding flora (Michael Pollan, The New Yorker)

Technology

Bionic Plants (Anne Trafton, MIT News)
Bionic Plants (AAAS EurekAlert)
Plant Nanobionics Approach to Augment Photosynthesis and Biochemical Sensing (Juan Pablo Giraldo, Et al., Nature)

Nanobionic spinach plants can detect explosives (Anne Trafton, MIT News Office)

Plants Are Oldest Sensors in the World. Could They Be the Future of Computers? (Katharine Schwab, Fast Company)

Entrepreneurship

Let Your Plants Play Music, and Gardens of Sound Will Bloom (Arielle Pardes, Wired)
PlantWave Kickstarter, Data Garden

Preservation

Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia

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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Official Site)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Wikipedia)

Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)

History

Anna Atkins (Getty Museum)
Anna Atkins (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Anna Atkins (Wikipedia)

Museum

Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

Participation

Education

School Gardening: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Activities: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)

Plant Basics (Biology4Kids)
Plants Learner Guides (BBC)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)

Backyard Brains: Neuroscience for Everyone

Course

Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Occupation

Your Path to Landscape Architecture (American Society of Landscape Architects)

Organization

International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS)
Botanical Society of America
National Gardening Association

Event

International Botanical Congress Calendar

Blog

HR’S wat’s this plant? interactive plant identification

News

American Journal of Botany, Nature Plants, Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)

Document

USA.gov

Expression

Fun

Humor

Plants (Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia, Tim Hunkin)

Hobby

Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
Garden Community
National Gardening Association
Backyard Gardner
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)

Arts

The Kew Book of Botanical Illustration (Christabel King)
The Art of Botanical Illustration (University of Delaware)

Poem

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

Song Lyrics

Dance

returntotop

More…

Wiley: American Journal of Botany: Table of Contents Table of Contents for American Journal of Botany. List of articles from both the latest and EarlyView issues.


Nature Plants - nature.com science feeds Nature Plants is a scientific journal publishing primary research papers concerned with all aspects of plant biology, technology, ecology and evolution.

  • Active suppression of leaflet emergence as a...
    by Krishna Reddy Challa on July 26, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 26 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-021-00965-3Do simple leaves have the potential to become compound leaves? In Arabidopsis, the combined action of CINCINNATA-like TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (CIN-TCP) transcription factors and class II KNOTTED1-LIKE (KNOX-II) transcription factors suppresses leaflet initiation in simple leaves. Downregulation of these genes leads to super-compound leaves.

  • Prolonged drought imparts lasting compositional...
    by Christian Santos-Medellín on July 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 22 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-021-00967-1Microbial symbioses can help plants mitigate environmental stresses and plant microbiome compositions are influenced, for example, by drought stress. The investigated temporal shifts of the rice root microbiome under various durations of drought show the progression of microbiome composition in response to stress and a long-lasting effect of severe conditions.

  • Genomics accelerated isolation of a new stem rust...
    by Narayana M. Upadhyaya on July 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 22 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-021-00971-5New emerged variants of stem rust threaten wheat production globally. Here, mutational genomics is used to characterize a new resistance gene named Sr27 both in wheat and in triticale, and the corresponding secreted effector in the pathogen, AvrSr27.

  • Drought dampens microbiome development
    by Yi Song on July 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 22 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-021-00977-zPlants restructure their microbiomes as a ‘cry for help’ against biotic and abiotic stress. A recent study shows that prolonged drought stress causes a permanent shift in the rhizosphere microbiome, and provides clues to which drought-induced microbiome changes might sustain plant health.

  • Author Correction: The plant ESCRT component...
    by Hongbo Li on July 20, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 20 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-021-00984-0Author Correction: The plant ESCRT component FREE1 shuttles to the nucleus to attenuate abscisic acid signalling


Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.

  • Plant root-associated bacteria preferentially...
    on July 26, 2021 at 3:39 pm

    Researchers have discovered that bacteria from the plant microbiota are adapted to their host species. They show how root-associated bacteria have a competitive advantage when colonizing their native host, which allows them to invade an already established microbiota.

  • Blushing plants reveal when fungi are growing in...
    on July 23, 2021 at 2:52 pm

    Scientists have created plants whose cells and tissues 'blush' with beetroot pigments when they are colonized by fungi that help them take up nutrients from the soil. This is the first time this vital, 400 million year old process has been visualized in real time in full root systems of living plants. Understanding the dynamics of plant colonisation by fungi could help to make food production more sustainable in the future.

  • Scientists identify five new plant species in...
    on July 23, 2021 at 2:52 pm

    Scientists have identified five new plant species in the Bolivian Andes. The species are all part of the genus Jacquemontia, which are twining or trailing plants with pretty blue flowers.

  • RNA breakthrough creates crops that can grow 50...
    on July 22, 2021 at 3:29 pm

    A new RNA breakthrough is allowing plants to yield dramatically more crops and increase drought tolerance, which could have an impact on food scarcity and production as climate change threatens ecosystems. In initial tests, adding a gene encoding for a protein called FTO to both rice and potato plants increased their yield by 50 percent in field tests -- and the plants grew significantly larger, produced longer root systems and were better able to tolerate drought stress.

  • Epicenter of major Amazon droughts and fires saw...
    on July 19, 2021 at 11:16 pm

    Triggered by the 2015-16 El Niño, extreme drought and associated mega-wildfires caused the death of around 2.5 billion trees and plants and emitted 495 million tons of CO2 from an area that makes up just 1.2 per cent of the entire Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and 0.01 per cent of the whole biome.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • New biomechanical method draws roots into deeper...
    on July 20, 2021 at 2:13 pm

    Tree roots are drawn towards moist soil, a phenomenon known as hydrotropism. Near surface watering therefore causes roots to stay close to the surface instead of growing deep into the ground. Biomechanical engineers from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed a new, easily applied method, the "gravel cylinder," to attract the tree roots towards deeper, moister soil layers. This should make trees more resistant to the consequences of climate change.

  • DNA duplication linked to the origin and...
    on July 19, 2021 at 3:06 pm

    Plants are DNA hoarders. Adhering to the maxim of never throwing anything out that might be useful later, they often duplicate their entire genome and hang on to the added genetic baggage. All those extra genes are then free to mutate and produce new physical traits, hastening the tempo of evolution.

  • Some Alpine plants have north–south genetic...
    on July 14, 2021 at 12:27 pm

    Acanthocalyx is a small herbaceous genus in the Caprifoliaceae that is endemic to the high-altitude regions in the Himalaya–Hengduan Mountain (HHM) region. It is considered as an ideal group to study how geomorphological features of the HHM region affect the pattern of distribution and genetic differentiation of alpine plants, especially the influence of the north–south floristic boundary in the Hengduan Mountains.

  • New approach can add diversity to crop species...
    on July 1, 2021 at 3:00 pm

    Breeding better crops through genetic engineering has been possible for decades, but the use of genetically modified plants has been limited by technical challenges and popular controversies. A new approach potentially solves both of those problems by modifying the energy-producing parts of plant cells and then removing the DNA editing tool so it cannot be inherited by future seeds. The technique was recently demonstrated through proof-of-concept experiments published in the journal Nature […]

  • Study on plant roots challenges nature of...
    on June 10, 2021 at 7:41 pm

    The specific traits of a plant's roots determine the climatic conditions under which a particular plant prevails. A new study led by the University of Wyoming sheds light on this relationship—and challenges the nature of ecological trade-offs.