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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)


plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster

National Gardening Association Horticultural Dictionary (National Gardening Association)
OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Botany Glossary (UC Museum of Paleontology)
Glossary of Botanical Terms (The Western Australian Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue)


Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Plants (Backyard Gardner), Encyclopædia Britannica

Plants (OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer)
Green Plants (Tree of Life Web Project)


Plants (WolframAlpha)


Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)


Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia

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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Official Site)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Wikipedia)

Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)


Anna Atkins (Getty Museum)
Anna Atkins (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Anna Atkins (Wikipedia)


Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



School Gardening: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Activities: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)

Plant Basics (Biology4Kids)
Plants Learner Guides (BBC)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS)
Botanical Society of America
National Gardening Association


International Botanical Congress Calendar


American Journal of Botany, Nature Plants, Science Daily,, NPR Archives




Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)





Plants (Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia, Tim Hunkin)


Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
Garden Community
National Gardening Association
Backyard Gardner
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)


The Kew Book of Botanical Illustration (Christabel King)
The Art of Botanical Illustration (University of Delaware)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



    Nature Plants - science feeds Nature Plants is a scientific journal publishing primary research papers concerned with all aspects of plant biology, technology, ecology and evolution.

    • Author Correction: NIN interacts with NLPs to...
      by Jie-shun Lin on November 16, 2018 at 12:00 am

      Author Correction: NIN interacts with NLPs to mediate nitrate inhibition of nodulation in Medicago truncatulaAuthor Correction: NIN interacts with NLPs to mediate nitrate inhibition of nodulation in <i>Medicago truncatula</i>, Published online: 16 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0319-2Author Correction: NIN interacts with NLPs to mediate nitrate inhibition of nodulation in Medicago truncatula […]

    • Cytokinin modulates context-dependent chromatin...
      by Kevin C. Potter on November 12, 2018 at 12:00 am

      Cytokinin modulates context-dependent chromatin accessibility through the type-B response regulatorsCytokinin modulates context-dependent chromatin accessibility through the type-B response regulators, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0290-yThe authors map chromatin accessibility after cytokinin treatment in Arabidopsis using fluorescence activated nuclei sorting and ATAC-seq. Regions of chromatin accessibility changes are preferentially located upstream of genes that […]

    • Organelle DNA degradation contributes to the...
      by Tsuneaki Takami on November 12, 2018 at 12:00 am

      Organelle DNA degradation contributes to the efficient use of phosphate in seed plantsOrganelle DNA degradation contributes to the efficient use of phosphate in seed plants, Published online: 12 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0291-xIn certain types of plant cells, organelle DNA accounts for a substantial proportion of cellular total DNA. Thus, it is hypothesized that organelle DNA could not only serve as the genetic material but also function as a ‘nutrient reservoir’. Now, […]

    • Whole-genome landscape of <i>Medicago...
      by Yann Pecrix on November 5, 2018 at 12:00 am

      Whole-genome landscape of Medicago truncatula symbiotic genesWhole-genome landscape of <i>Medicago truncatula</i> symbiotic genes, Published online: 05 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0286-7A substantially improved genome assembly of Medicago truncatula generated using PacBio sequencing allows for the analyses about genome rearrangements, transposable elements, new players and candidate genomic regions involved in nodule development. […]

    • A skeleton key to domestication
      by Jun Lyu on November 2, 2018 at 12:00 am

      A skeleton key to domesticationA skeleton key to domestication, Published online: 02 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0305-8A skeleton key to domestication […]

    Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.

    • Symbiosis a driver of truffle diversity
      on November 14, 2018 at 7:43 pm

      Truffles are the fruiting bodies of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal symbionts residing on host plant roots. In many Ascomycota and Basidiomycota lineages, truffle-forming species have evolved independently in nearly every major group. This suggests that symbiosis drives evolution of truffle diversity and selects for specific traits. […]

    • Researchers discover novel 'to divide or to...
      on November 14, 2018 at 6:20 pm

      Scientists have uncovered a novel mechanism in plants that controls an important decision step in stomatal lineage to divide asymmetrically or to differentiate. This is a decisive step for the formation of stomata, tiny pores on the plant surface, produced by asymmetric cell division. […]

    • Tropical trees in the Andes are moving up --...
      on November 14, 2018 at 6:20 pm

      In the most comprehensive study of its kind, biologists have found that tropical and subtropical forests across South America's Andes Mountains are responding to warming temperatures by migrating to higher, cooler elevations, but probably not quickly enough to avoid the loss of their biodiversity, functional collapse, or even extinction. […]

    • Recommending plants to benefit and attract...
      on November 14, 2018 at 6:20 pm

      Pollinating insects are integral to the health of all terrestrial ecosystems and agriculture worldwide. As homeowners attempt to conserve pollinators through horticulture practices, they often seek the advice and guidance of horticulture retail employees regarding what plants they can successfully include on their properties to maximize their intended benefit to pollinators as well as to their home ecosystems. […]

    • Rainforest vine compound starves pancreatic...
      on November 14, 2018 at 5:03 pm

      Pancreatic cancer cells are known for their ability to thrive under extreme conditions of low nutrients and oxygen, a trait known in the cancer field as 'austerity.' The cells' remarkable resistance to starvation is one reason why pancreatic cancer is so deadly. Now researchers have identified a compound from a Congolese plant that has strong ''antiausterity'' potential, making pancreatic cancer cells susceptible to nutrient starvation. […] - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

    • Scientists debunk potential link to crop cold...
      on November 12, 2018 at 8:59 pm

      When temperatures drop, the enzyme Rubisco that fuels plant growth and yield gets sluggish. Many crops compensate by producing more Rubisco; however, scientists speculated that some crops may lack space in their leaves to boost the production of this enzyme, making them more susceptible to cold. A new study from the University of Illinois and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology refutes this theory but found these crops are far from reaching their photosynthetic potential. […]

    • Sequencing pollen DNA to discover insect...
      on November 12, 2018 at 2:50 pm

      Metabarcoding, a technique of mass DNA sequencing, allows for tracing migratory routes of insects, an understudied subject due to technical limitations. A small DNA fragment of the pollen that insects transport is used as a barcode to identify the plant species they visited previously. A new study shows that transcontinental pollination mediated by migrating insects is possible and, therefore, various plants located very far apart can mix. […]

    • Researchers map daffodil's chloroplast genome for...
      on November 6, 2018 at 2:02 pm

      Gardeners might end up never planting the wrong bulb again after the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) and Reading University successfully mapped a daffodil's chloroplast genome for the first time. […]

    • Seed banking not an option for over a third of...
      on November 2, 2018 at 5:00 pm

      In paper published today in Nature Plants, researchers at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, detail for the first time the scale of threatened species that are unable to be conserved in seed banks. The paper reveals that when looking at threatened species, 36 per cent of 'critically endangered' species produce recalcitrant seeds . This means they can't tolerate the drying process and therefore cannot be frozen, the key process they need to go through to be safely 'banked'. […]

    • Drought fighter found in soil
      on October 30, 2018 at 2:23 pm

      Some discoveries happen by accident. Consider how Sept. 28, 1928, unfolded: Alexander Fleming, back in the lab after a vacation with the family, was sorting through dirty Petri dishes that hadn't been cleaned before he went away. A mold growing on one of the dishes caught his attention—and so began the story of the world's first antibiotic: penicillin. […]