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plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster   See also   OneLook


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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia

Plant (Encyclopædia Britannica)


More News … - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Functions of transcription factors in maize...
    on November 16, 2022 at 4:49 pm

    Maize (Zea mays) is an important food, feed, and bioenergy crop that plays a pivotal strategic role in food security, while insect pests seriously affect the yield and quality of maize. Benzoxazinoids (BXDs) and volatile terpenes are insect-resistant defensive compounds in maize. BXDs are toxic to insects and they directly inhibit insect growth and development, and volatile terpenes attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects.

  • Condensation of transcriptional regulator SEUSS...
    on November 15, 2022 at 2:56 pm

    A joint study by Prof. Fang Xiaofeng from Tsinghua University and Prof. Lin Rongcheng from the Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) found that the transcriptional regulator SEUSS (SEU) plays a key role via its condensation during hyperosmotic stress in Arabidopsis.

  • Regulatory effects of jasmonate on root growth...
    on November 14, 2022 at 3:12 pm

    Jasmonate is a critical phytohormone that regulates plant development and adaptation to external conditions. In response to an exposure biotic or abiotic stress, jasmonate accumulates in plants, leading to root growth inhibition and/or root hair elongation. Therefore, jasmonate-regulated root growth and root hair development is vital for plant development and adaptations to environmental conditions. However, the molecular basis of jasmonate-mediated root growth and root hair development is […]

  • Hundred-year-old riddle in botany reveals key...
    on November 10, 2022 at 7:00 pm

    The green world that we live in would not have been possible without hidden changes to the plant body over the last 400 million years. To grow beyond just centimeters tall outside of the wettest places on land, plants had to re-arrange their water-conducting tissues to keep them safe from drought.

  • Defect in cellular respiration renders sac fungi...
    on November 3, 2022 at 7:11 pm

    If a fungus has to take a circuitous route to achieve cellular respiration, it lacks the energy to build fruiting bodies.

Nature Plants Nature Plants is concerned with all aspects of plants be it their evolution, development or metabolism, their interactions with the environment, or their societal significance. Publishing monthly it will have a particular interest in studies that advance knowledge and inform development across a diversity of areas.

  • Maize root system architecture improvement for...
    on November 18, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 18 November 2022; doi:10.1038/s41477-022-01277-wAppropriate root system architecture (RSA) is essential for efficient water and nutrient use, especially in high-density planting conditions in intensive maize cropping systems. Modern maize breeding has favoured steeper, narrower root systems. We identified two auxin-related genes, ZmRSA3.1 and ZmRSA3.2, which can potentially be used for future improvement of maize RSA.

  • Discovery of genes conferring host resistance to...
    on November 18, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 18 November 2022; doi:10.1038/s41477-022-01273-0Sweet potato weevils (SPWs) pose one of the greatest challenges to sweet potato production worldwide; however, the genetic basis of SPW resistance remains unclear. This study identifies two major SPW resistance genes in sweet potato and provides new insights into the mechanisms by which sweet potato defends against SPWs.

  • Genome-wide dissection of changes in maize root...
    by Wei Ren on November 17, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 17 November 2022; doi:10.1038/s41477-022-01274-zThe root-related changes in maize domestication, improvement and modern breeding were systematically investigated, and candidate genes related to maize root system architecture were identified for future genetic improvement.

  • Natural allelic variation confers high resistance...
    by Xu Liu on November 14, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 14 November 2022; doi:10.1038/s41477-022-01272-1Sweet potato weevils (SPWs) pose one of the most significant challenges to sweet potato production. This study identifies two major SPW-resistant genes, SPWR1/2, and provides new insights into the mechanism of sweet potato defence against SPWs.

  • Mapping of the plant SnRK1 kinase signalling...
    by Jelle Van Leene on November 14, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 14 November 2022; doi:10.1038/s41477-022-01269-wSnRK1 is a key metabolic sensor that controls plant development and stress responses. This study integrates phosphoproteomics, affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry, proximity labelling and crosslinking mass spectrometry to obtain more insight into its upstream regulation and downstream target processes.

Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.

  • Less intensively managed grasslands have higher...
    on November 25, 2022 at 6:20 pm

    Researchers have shown -- for the first time -- that less intensively managed British grazed grasslands have on average 50% more plant species and better soil health than intensively managed grassland. The new study could help farmers increase both biodiversity and soil health, including the amount of carbon in the soil of the British countryside.

  • Genome studies uncover a new branch in fungal...
    on November 23, 2022 at 5:51 pm

    About 600 seemingly disparate fungi that had resisted categorization have been shown to have a common ancestor, according to a a research team that used genome sequencing to give these peculiar creatures a new classification home.

  • Glass-like shells of diatoms help turn light into...
    on November 22, 2022 at 5:53 pm

    A new study has revealed how the glass-like shells of diatoms help these microscopic organisms perform photosynthesis in dim conditions. A better understanding of how these phytoplankton harvest and interact with light could lead to improved solar cells, sensing devices and optical components.

  • Secretion secrets revealed: Pathogen effector...
    on November 22, 2022 at 5:53 pm

    A recent study has discovered and characterized secreted proteins from the pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. These proteins, called effectors, offer clues into the manipulation tactics this bacterium uses to subdue its plant host. The study found that these effectors can be present in both the plant and insect host.

  • Plant roots change shape and branch out for water
    on November 17, 2022 at 7:12 pm

    Researchers have discovered how plant roots adapt their shape to maximize their uptake of water, pausing branching when they lose contact with water and only resuming once they reconnect with moisture, ensuring they can survive even in the driest conditions.

Wiley: American Journal of Botany: Table of Contents Table of Contents for American Journal of Botany. List of articles from both the latest and EarlyView issues.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.