Plant

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Portal

Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants (DMOZ Tools)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)

Dictionary

plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster

National Gardening Association Horticultural Dictionary (National Gardening Association)
OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Glossary

Botany Glossary (UC Museum of Paleontology)
Glossary of Botanical Terms (The Western Australian Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue)

Encyclopedia

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Plants (Backyard Gardner), Encyclopædia Britannica

Plants (OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer)
Green Plants (Tree of Life Web Project)

Search

Plants (WolframAlpha)

Science

Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Botany (DMOZ Tools)
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Life Cycle of Plants (Serenata Flowers)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)

When plants cry out for help, their neighbors start screaming, too (Kat Eschner, Popular Science)
Insect Herbivory Selects for Volatile-Mediated Plant-Plant Communication (Aino Kalske, Et al., Current Biology)

Wood wide web: The underground network of microbes that connects trees—mapped for first time (Gabriel Popkin, Science Magazine)

Can plants talk to each other? (Richard Karban, TED-Ed)
Plant Sensing and Communication (Richard Karban, University of Chicago Press)

Do Trees Talk to Each Other? (Richard Grant, Smithsonian Magazine)
The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate (Peter Wohlleben)
How Plants Secretly Talk to Each Other (Kat McGowan, Wired)
The Intelligent Plant: Scientists debate a new way of understanding flora (Michael Pollan, The New Yorker)

Technology

Bionic Plants (Anne Trafton, MIT News)
Bionic Plants (AAAS EurekAlert)
Plant Nanobionics Approach to Augment Photosynthesis and Biochemical Sensing (Juan Pablo Giraldo, Et al., Nature)

Nanobionic spinach plants can detect explosives (Anne Trafton, MIT News Office)

Plants Are Oldest Sensors in the World. Could They Be the Future of Computers? (Katharine Schwab, Fast Company)

Entrepreneurship

Let Your Plants Play Music, and Gardens of Sound Will Bloom (Arielle Pardes, Wired)
PlantWave Kickstarter, Data Garden

Preservation

Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia

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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Official Site)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Wikipedia)

Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)

History

Anna Atkins (Getty Museum)
Anna Atkins (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Anna Atkins (Wikipedia)

Museum

Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

Participation

Education

School Gardening: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Activities: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)

Plant Basics (Biology4Kids)
Plants Learner Guides (BBC)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)

Backyard Brains: Neuroscience for Everyone

Course

Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Occupation

Your Path to Landscape Architecture (American Society of Landscape Architects)

Organization

International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS)
Botanical Society of America
National Gardening Association

Event

International Botanical Congress Calendar

Blog

HR’S wat’s this plant? interactive plant identification

News

American Journal of Botany, Nature Plants, Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)

Document

USA.gov

Expression

Fun

Humor

Plants (Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia, Tim Hunkin)

Hobby

Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
Garden Community
National Gardening Association
Backyard Gardner
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)

Arts

The Kew Book of Botanical Illustration (Christabel King)
The Art of Botanical Illustration (University of Delaware)

Poem

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

Song Lyrics

Dance

returntotop

More…


Nature Plants - nature.com science feeds Nature Plants is a scientific journal publishing primary research papers concerned with all aspects of plant biology, technology, ecology and evolution.

  • Comparative evolutionary genetics of deleterious...
    by Roberto Lozano on January 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 15 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-00834-5Comparative genomics revealed similar distribution patterns of deleterious mutations in maize and sorghum but a post-domestication reduction of genetic load in sorghum, which is probably caused by sorghum’s high selfing rate and unique domestication history.

  • Unidirectional movement of small RNAs from shoots...
    by Shuai Li on January 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 15 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-00829-2A study using soybean–common bean grafting systems reveals that mobile sRNAs are predominantly produced in shoots and accumulate in roots by long-distance transport, while mobile mRNAs are produced in both shoots and roots, with a small proportion moved.

  • CUL3 E3 ligases in plant development and...
    by Zhaonan Ban on January 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 15 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-00833-6Cullin3–RING ligases (CRL3s) are a subclass of the vast family of ubiquitin E3 ligases. This Review comprehensively explores the role of CLR3 proteins in various biological processes, in light of exciting recent discoveries.

  • Glycine max NNL1 restricts...
    by Bao Zhang on January 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 15 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-00832-7Soybean accessions display a variable number of nodules when colonized by rhizobia. The authors identify one locus controlling this trait, a typical TIR–NBS–LRR disease resistance gene called NNL1, and the corresponding bacterial effector called NopP.

  • Open transformation
    on January 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 15 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-00846-1January is traditionally a time for looking back over years past and making plans for the year to come. For Nature Plants, this means a first transformative step towards open access.


Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.

  • How plants produce defensive toxins without...
    on January 14, 2021 at 9:39 pm

    Scientists describe the biosynthesis and exact mode of action of diterpene glycosides in wild tobacco. These antiherbivory compounds attack the cell membrane. To protect themselves from their own toxins, tobacco plants store them in a non-toxic form. Autotoxicity and the protection against it seem to play a greater role in the evolution of plant defenses than previously thought.

  • Hard to crack research reveals how crop roots...
    on January 14, 2021 at 9:39 pm

    Scientists have discovered a signal that causes roots to stop growing in hard soils which can be 'switched off' to allow them to punch through compacted soil -- a discovery that could help plants to grow in even the most damaged soils.

  • Earth to reach temperature tipping point in next...
    on January 13, 2021 at 7:44 pm

    An international team looked at 20 years of data from throughout the world and found that record-breaking temperatures are contributing to a significant decrease in plants' ability to absorb human-caused carbon emissions.

  • Compound from medicinal herb kills brain-eating...
    on January 13, 2021 at 6:24 pm

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a deadly disease caused by the 'brain-eating amoeba' Naegleria fowleri, is becoming more common in some areas of the world, and it has no effective treatment. Now, researchers have found that a compound isolated from the leaves of a traditional medicinal plant, Inula viscosa or 'false yellowhead,' kills the amoebae by causing them to commit cell suicide in lab studies, which could lead to new treatments.

  • Red and green snow algae increase snowmelt in the...
    on January 13, 2021 at 5:06 pm

    Red and green algae that grow on snow in the Antarctic Peninsula cause significant extra snowmelt on par with melt from dust on snow in the Rocky Mountains, according to a first-of-its-kind scientific research study. This could have serious impacts on regional climate, snow and ice melt, freshwater availability and ecosystems, yet is not accounted for in current global climate models.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Researchers establish molecular link between rice...
    on January 4, 2021 at 3:00 pm

    Excess sodium ion (Na+), the most widespread soluble cation in salinized soil, can damage plants by the sequential osmotic stress and oxidative stress, especially for glycophyte crops including rice.

  • Flag leaves could help top off photosynthetic...
    on December 29, 2020 at 4:30 pm

    In rice plants, the flag leaf is the last to emerge, indicating the transition from crop growth to grain production. Photosynthesis in this leaf provides the majority of the carbohydrates needed for grain filling—so it is the most important leaf for yield potential. A team from the University of Illinois and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) found that some flag leaves of different varieties of rice transform light and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates better than others. This […]

  • Discovery of chemical clue may lead to solving...
    on December 23, 2020 at 5:16 pm

    The finding of relatively high levels of the antimicrobial compound clovamide in the leaves of a disease-resistant strain of cacao has significant implications for breeding trees that can tolerate black pod rot, according to Penn State researchers who conducted a novel study.

  • Delicious and disease-free: scientists attempting...
    on December 23, 2020 at 8:29 am

    UC Riverside scientists are betting an ancient solution will solve citrus growers' biggest problem by breeding new fruits with natural resistance to a deadly tree disease.

  • Light signal emitted during photosynthesis used...
    on December 22, 2020 at 8:37 am

    An international effort called Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency (RIPE) aims to transform crops' ability to turn sunlight and carbon dioxide into higher yields. To achieve this, scientists are analyzing thousands of plants to find out what tweaks to the plant's structure or its cellular machinery could increase production. University of Illinois researchers have revealed a new approach to estimate the photosynthetic capacity of crops to pinpoint these top-performing traits and speed […]