Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Realm > Terrestrial > Sphere > Life > Plant


Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!



Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants (DMOZ Tools)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)


plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster

National Gardening Association Horticultural Dictionary (National Gardening Association)
OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Botany Glossary (UC Museum of Paleontology)
Glossary of Botanical Terms (The Western Australian Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue)


Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Plants (Backyard Gardner), Encyclopædia Britannica

Plants (OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer)
Green Plants (Tree of Life Web Project)


Plants (WolframAlpha)


Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Botany (DMOZ Tools)
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Life Cycle of Plants (Serenata Flowers)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)


Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia

Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Official Site)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Wikipedia)

Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)


Anna Atkins (Getty Museum)
Anna Atkins (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Anna Atkins (Wikipedia)


Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



School Gardening: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Activities: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)

Plant Basics (Biology4Kids)
Plants Learner Guides (BBC)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS)
Botanical Society of America
National Gardening Association


International Botanical Congress Calendar


HR’S wat’s this plant? interactive plant identification


American Journal of Botany, Nature Plants, Science Daily,, NPR Archives




Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)





Plants (Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia, Tim Hunkin)


Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
Garden Community
National Gardening Association
Backyard Gardner
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)


The Kew Book of Botanical Illustration (Christabel King)
The Art of Botanical Illustration (University of Delaware)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



    Feed has no items.

Nature Plants - science feeds Nature Plants is a scientific journal publishing primary research papers concerned with all aspects of plant biology, technology, ecology and evolution.

  • The emerging and uncultivated potential of CRISPR...
    by Yingxiao Zhang on July 15, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 15 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0461-5A Review informatively summaries the recent development and breakthroughs of CRISPR technology, with a focus on progresses, challenges and potential utility in plant science. […]

  • <i>Musa balbisiana</i> genome reveals...
    by Zhuo Wang on July 15, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 15 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0452-6A high-quality draft genome assembly of Musa balbisiana (the banana B-genome) is reported. Comparative genomic and gene functional analyses provide insights into the subgenome evolution and functional divergence between the A- and B-subgenomes. […]

  • Author Correction: Duplication of a domestication...
    by Sebastian Soyk on July 10, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 10 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0488-7Author Correction: Duplication of a domestication locus neutralized a cryptic variant that caused a breeding barrier in tomato […]

  • Grazing animals drove domestication of grain crops
    by Robert N. Spengler III on July 8, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 08 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0470-4Herbacious grain annuals in the mid-Holocene period were typically so hard to forage and eat that their use by humans was seen as a ‘last resort’, but this Perspective argues that a switch from animal to human dispersal allowed for domestication into the crops that became the foundation for societies around the world. […]

  • Fossil evidence of core monocots in the Early...
    by Clément Coiffard on July 8, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 08 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41477-019-0468-yThe Early Cretaceous record of monocots is poor compared to other angiosperms. A well-preserved fossil monocot from the Crato plattenkalk limestone supports the possibility of an early radiation of monocots into the tropics of Northern Gondwana. […]

Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.

  • Tornadoes, windstorms pave way for lasting plant...
    on July 18, 2019 at 3:24 pm

    When tornadoes touch down, we brace for news of property damage, injuries, and loss of life, but the high-speed wind storms wreak environmental havoc, too. They can cut through massive swaths of forest, destroying trees and wildlife habitat, and opening up opportunities for invasive species to gain ground. […]

  • Ants that defend plants receive sugar and protein
    on July 18, 2019 at 3:03 am

    The aggressiveness of ants in arid environments with scarce food supply helps protect plants against herbivorous arthropods. […]

  • Spawn of the triffid? Tiny organisms give us...
    on July 17, 2019 at 5:27 pm

    Two newly discovered organisms point to the existence of an ancient organism that resembled a tiny version of the lumbering, human-eating science fiction plants known as 'triffids.' […]

  • Plant probe could help estimate bee exposure to...
    on July 17, 2019 at 12:43 pm

    Bee populations are declining, and neonicotinoid pesticides continue to be investigated -- and in some cases banned -- because of their suspected role as a contributing factor. However, limitations in sampling and analytical techniques have prevented a full understanding of the connection. Now, researchers describe a new approach to sample neonicotinoids and other pesticides in plants, which could explain how bees are exposed to the substances. […]

  • Timing is everything for the mutualistic...
    on July 16, 2019 at 9:41 pm

    Ant-acacia plants attract ants by offering specialized food and hollow thorns in which the ants live, while the ant colony in turn defends its acacia against herbivores. This mutualistic relationship only occurs in older plants. New findings by plant biologists identify the genetic pathway that appears to regulate the timing of the acacia's ant-sustaining arsenal. […] - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • DNA analysis reveals cryptic underwater ecosystem...
    on July 11, 2019 at 4:18 pm

    They look like smears of pink bubblegum on the rocks off British Columbia's coast, indistinguishable from one another. […]

  • Decades-long butterfly study shows common species...
    on July 9, 2019 at 6:00 pm

    The most extensive and systematic insect monitoring program ever undertaken in North America shows that butterfly abundance in Ohio declined yearly by 2%, resulting in an overall 33% drop for the 21 years of the program. […]

  • Carnivorous plants: No escape for mosquitoes
    on July 9, 2019 at 11:44 am

    Physically bound to a specific location, plants have to devise special ways to secure their supply of vital nutrients. Most plants have developed a root system to the nutrients they need in order to survive out of the soil. But what if nutrient-poor soils fail to provide the necessities of life? Carnivorous plants such as the Venus flytrap have found a way out of this dilemma. […]

  • Scientists decode DNA secrets of world's toughest...
    on July 9, 2019 at 10:03 am

    UC Riverside scientists have decoded the genome of black-eyed peas, offering hope for feeding Earth's expanding population, especially as the climate changes. […]

  • Nonnative pear trees are showing up in US forests
    on June 28, 2019 at 8:05 pm

    A popular imported tree that became a neighborhood favorite in the 1990s now threatens to crowd out native trees in some Eastern forests. […]