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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants (DMOZ Tools)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)


plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster

National Gardening Association Horticultural Dictionary (National Gardening Association)
OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Botany Glossary (UC Museum of Paleontology)
Glossary of Botanical Terms (The Western Australian Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue)


Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Plants (Backyard Gardner), Encyclopædia Britannica

Plants (OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer)
Green Plants (Tree of Life Web Project)


Plants (WolframAlpha)


Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Botany (DMOZ Tools)
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Life Cycle of Plants (Serenata Flowers)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)

When plants cry out for help, their neighbors start screaming, too (Kat Eschner, Popular Science)
Insect Herbivory Selects for Volatile-Mediated Plant-Plant Communication (Aino Kalske, Et al., Current Biology)

Wood wide web: The underground network of microbes that connects trees—mapped for first time (Gabriel Popkin, Science Magazine)

Can plants talk to each other? (Richard Karban, TED-Ed)
Plant Sensing and Communication (Richard Karban, University of Chicago Press)

Do Trees Talk to Each Other? (Richard Grant, Smithsonian Magazine)
The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate (Peter Wohlleben)
How Plants Secretly Talk to Each Other (Kat McGowan, Wired)
The Intelligent Plant: Scientists debate a new way of understanding flora (Michael Pollan, The New Yorker)


Bionic Plants (Anne Trafton, MIT News)
Bionic Plants (AAAS EurekAlert)
Plant Nanobionics Approach to Augment Photosynthesis and Biochemical Sensing (Juan Pablo Giraldo, Et al., Nature)

Nanobionic spinach plants can detect explosives (Anne Trafton, MIT News Office)

Plants Are Oldest Sensors in the World. Could They Be the Future of Computers? (Katharine Schwab, Fast Company)


Let Your Plants Play Music, and Gardens of Sound Will Bloom (Arielle Pardes, Wired)
PlantWave Kickstarter, Data Garden


Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia

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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Official Site)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Wikipedia)

Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)


Anna Atkins (Getty Museum)
Anna Atkins (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Anna Atkins (Wikipedia)


Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



School Gardening: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Activities: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)

Plant Basics (Biology4Kids)
Plants Learner Guides (BBC)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)

Backyard Brains: Neuroscience for Everyone


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Your Path to Landscape Architecture (American Society of Landscape Architects)


International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS)
Botanical Society of America
National Gardening Association


International Botanical Congress Calendar


HR’S wat’s this plant? interactive plant identification


American Journal of Botany, Nature Plants, Science Daily,, NPR Archives




Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)





Plants (Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia, Tim Hunkin)


Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
Garden Community
National Gardening Association
Backyard Gardner
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)


The Kew Book of Botanical Illustration (Christabel King)
The Art of Botanical Illustration (University of Delaware)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics




Wiley: American Journal of Botany: Table of Contents Table of Contents for American Journal of Botany. List of articles from both the latest and EarlyView issues.

Nature Plants - science feeds Nature Plants is a scientific journal publishing primary research papers concerned with all aspects of plant biology, technology, ecology and evolution.

  • A photoregulatory mechanism of the circadian...
    by Xu Wang on October 14, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 14 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-021-01002-zCryptochromes (CRYs) perform various functions in both plants and animals, including photoperception and circadian regulation. Now it is shown in Arabidopsis that blue light induces liquid–liquid phase separation of CRY2, co-condensing the interacting m6A writer and altering epitranscriptome with respect to the circadian clock.

  • Global profiling of RNA–chromatin interactions...
    by Lanxia Li on October 14, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 14 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-021-01004-xGenome-wide profiles of RNA–chromatin interactions in Arabidopsis reveal the types of RNAs that mediate cis, intra-chromosomal and inter-chromosomal interactions and suggest the formation of co-regulatory gene expression networks in response to stresses.

  • Plant defence to sequential attack is adapted to...
    by Daan Mertens on October 14, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 14 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-021-00999-7Plants have developed defences against herbivores, but with multiple threats at different times, those defences may be compromised. This experiment finds that plants adapt over time to anticipate prevalent herbivores and common patterns of attack.

  • Cannabis labelling is associated with...
    by Sophie Watts on October 14, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 14 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-021-01003-yBy quantifying over 100 Cannabis samples for terpene and cannabinoid content and genotyping them for over 100,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, this study finds that Cannabis labelling is associated with genetic variants in terpene synthase genes.

  • Growing concerns for COP26
    on October 14, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 14 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41477-021-01012-xAnthropogenic climate change is often portrayed as a consequence of industrialization powered by fossil fuel consumption. However, agriculture also plays a role in this complex system of causes and effects.

Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.

  • Plankton head polewards
    on October 15, 2021 at 10:42 pm

    Ocean warming caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will prompt many species of marine plankton to seek out new habitats, in some cases as a matter of survival. Researchers expect many organisms to head to the poles and form new communities -- with unforeseeable consequences for marine food webs.

  • Big differences found in male and female jojoba...
    on October 14, 2021 at 6:20 pm

    Hot desert sex has resulted in major genetic differences between male and female jojoba plants -- one of only 6 percent of plants that require a male and female plant to reproduce. New research suggests male and female jojoba plants have diverged so much, that the jojoba plant has more novel sex genes than any other known living organism. The discovery may help researchers develop a DNA test to identify male and female jojoba plants, which cannot be distinguished from each other as seedlings - […]

  • First global estimate of importance of...
    on October 13, 2021 at 7:21 pm

    Without pollinators, a third of flowering plant species would produce no seeds and half would suffer an 80% or more reduction in fertility. Therefore, even though auto-fertility is common, it by no means fully compensates for reductions in pollination service in most plant species.

  • Primates’ ancestors may have left trees to...
    on October 13, 2021 at 3:40 pm

    When an asteroid struck 66 million years ago and wiped out dinosaurs not related to birds and three-quarters of life on Earth, early ancestors of primates and marsupials were among the only tree-dwelling (arboreal) mammals that survived, according to a new study.

  • Photosynthesizing algae injected into the blood...
    on October 13, 2021 at 3:40 pm

    Leading a double life in water and on land, frogs have many breathing techniques -- through the gills, lungs, and skin -- over the course of their lifetime. Now scientists have developed another method that allows tadpoles to 'breathe' by introducing algae into their bloodstream to supply oxygen. The method provided enough oxygen to effectively rescue neurons in the brains of oxygen-deprived tadpoles. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Scientists can switch on plants' response to light
    on October 6, 2021 at 9:21 am

    Scientists have figured out how plants respond to light and can flip this genetic switch to encourage food growth. The discovery could help increase food supply for an expanding population with shrinking opportunities for farming.

  • Hidden mangrove forest in the Yucatan Peninsula...
    on October 4, 2021 at 7:00 pm

    Deep in the heart of the Yucatan Peninsula, an ancient mangrove ecosystem flourishes more than 200 kilometers (124 miles) from the nearest ocean. This is unusual because mangroves—salt-tolerant trees, shrubs, and palms—are typically found along tropical and subtropical coastlines.

  • The defensive arsenal of plant roots
    on September 23, 2021 at 4:41 pm

    Plants adapt to their nutritional needs by modifying the permeability of their roots through the production or degradation of a cork-like layer called suberin. By studying the regulation of this protective layer in Arabidopsis thaliana, an international team, led by scientists from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, has discovered four molecular factors responsible for the genetic activation of suberin. The identification of these factors allowed the production of plants with roots […]

  • Which species will be our urban neighbours?
    on September 14, 2021 at 12:20 pm

    All over the world, people are moving out of rural areas, and cities are growing. What will be the impact on resident species that live in these cities? Which will be our new plant and animal neighbors, which will have to leave town, and what does that mean for us humans?

  • How citizen scientists are restoring NSW's...
    on September 9, 2021 at 1:04 pm

    Citizen scientist volunteers known as the "storm squad" collected seagrass fragments to successfully rehabilitate populations of NSW's endangered Posidonia australis.