Plant

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Portal

Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants (DMOZ Tools)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)

Dictionary

plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster

National Gardening Association Horticultural Dictionary (National Gardening Association)
OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Glossary

Botany Glossary (UC Museum of Paleontology)
Glossary of Botanical Terms (The Western Australian Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue)

Encyclopedia

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Plants (Backyard Gardner), Encyclopædia Britannica

Plants (OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer)
Green Plants (Tree of Life Web Project)

Search

Plants (WolframAlpha)

Science

Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Botany (DMOZ Tools)
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Life Cycle of Plants (Serenata Flowers)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)



When plants cry out for help, their neighbors start screaming, too (Kat Eschner, Popular Science)
Insect Herbivory Selects for Volatile-Mediated Plant-Plant Communication (Aino Kalske, Et al., Current Biology)



Wood wide web: The underground network of microbes that connects trees—mapped for first time (Gabriel Popkin, Science Magazine)




Can plants talk to each other? (Richard Karban, TED-Ed)
Plant Sensing and Communication (Richard Karban, University of Chicago Press)

Do Trees Talk to Each Other? (Richard Grant, Smithsonian Magazine)
The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate (Peter Wohlleben)
How Plants Secretly Talk to Each Other (Kat McGowan, Wired)
The Intelligent Plant: Scientists debate a new way of understanding flora (Michael Pollan, The New Yorker)

Technology



Bionic Plants (Anne Trafton, MIT News)
Bionic Plants (AAAS EurekAlert)
Plant Nanobionics Approach to Augment Photosynthesis and Biochemical Sensing (Juan Pablo Giraldo, Et al., Nature)



Nanobionic spinach plants can detect explosives (Anne Trafton, MIT News Office)





Plants Are Oldest Sensors in the World. Could They Be the Future of Computers? (Katharine Schwab, Fast Company)

Entrepreneurship



Let Your Plants Play Music, and Gardens of Sound Will Bloom (Arielle Pardes, Wired)
PlantWave Kickstarter, Data Garden

Preservation

Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia





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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Official Site)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Wikipedia)

Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)

History





Anna Atkins (Getty Museum)
Anna Atkins (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Anna Atkins (Wikipedia)

Museum

Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

Participation

Education


School Gardening: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Activities: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)

Plant Basics (Biology4Kids)
Plants Learner Guides (BBC)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)



Backyard Brains: Neuroscience for Everyone

Course





Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Occupation



Your Path to Landscape Architecture (American Society of Landscape Architects)

Organization

International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS)
Botanical Society of America
National Gardening Association

Event

International Botanical Congress Calendar

Blog

HR’S wat’s this plant? interactive plant identification

News

American Journal of Botany, Nature Plants, Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)

Document

USA.gov

Expression

Fun


Humor

Plants (Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia, Tim Hunkin)

Hobby


Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
Garden Community
National Gardening Association
Backyard Gardner
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)

Arts

The Kew Book of Botanical Illustration (Christabel King)
The Art of Botanical Illustration (University of Delaware)

Poem

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

Song Lyrics

Dance




returntotop

More…

Wiley: American Journal of Botany: Table of Contents Table of Contents for American Journal of Botany. List of articles from both the latest and EarlyView issues.


Nature Plants - nature.com science feeds Nature Plants is a scientific journal publishing primary research papers concerned with all aspects of plant biology, technology, ecology and evolution.

  • A single gene underlies the dynamic evolution of...
    by Niels A. Müller on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 01 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-0672-9Populus has young sex chromosomes despite ancient dioecy. This study shows that the ARR17 gene functions as a sex switch, triggering female development when on and male development when off. This single-gene system enables dynamic evolution of poplar sex chromosomes.

  • Benefits of intensive agricultural intercropping
    by David Tilman on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 01 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-0677-4The need for increased crop yields has led to growing interest and research in agricultural intensification, which has a myriad of environmental impacts. Intercropping can bring the benefits of intensification within a reasonable footprint.

  • DHH1/DDX6-like RNA helicases maintain ephemeral...
    by Thanin Chantarachot on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 01 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-0681-8Defence genes must be switched off when pathogen pressure is weak to favour growth and development programmes. Three RNA helicases participate in this repression by controlling how stress-specific mRNAs are stabilized and translated.

  • Multiplexed heritable gene editing using RNA...
    by Evan E. Ellison on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 01 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-0670-yAn efficient and multiplexed in planta gene editing approach is developed by infecting Cas9 transgenic plants with an RNA virus that expresses single guide RNAs carrying sequences that confer cell-to-cell mobility.

  • Immunity gate-keepers
    by Rémy Merret on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 01 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-0679-2Plants need to respond swiftly against attacks, but when pathogen pressure is weak, defence genes must be repressed as they impede development and growth. Three RNA helicases are now found to control decapping-dependant mRNA decay and negatively regulate plant immunity.


Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.

  • New biosensor visualizes stress in living plant...
    on June 1, 2020 at 7:21 pm

    Plant biologists have developed a new nanosensor that monitors foundational mechanisms related to stress and drought. The new biosensor allows researchers to analyze changes in real time as they happen involving kinases, enzymes that catalyze key biological activities in proteins. Certain kinases are essential since they are known to be activated in response to drought conditions, triggering the protective closure of small pores on leaf surfaces known as stoma.

  • Dry air drives overlooked changes in how plants...
    on June 1, 2020 at 3:33 pm

    New research suggests dry air combined with warmer temperatures may prompt bigger than expected changes in how water moves through plants. The adjustment may allow plants to survive with less water in future droughts, while downshifting how much carbon they absorb.

  • A hormone -- plant style
    on May 29, 2020 at 7:06 pm

    Researchers have now found a method that might make the production of a biologically significant precursor of jasmonic acid more efficient and cheaper. Their innovation: they imitate how plants produce the hormone. The result is 12-OPDA, a central precursor of jasmonic acid. In the long term, it could also be a potential precursor for high-quality perfume.

  • Global environmental changes leading to shorter,...
    on May 28, 2020 at 8:10 pm

    Ongoing environmental changes are transforming forests worldwide, resulting in shorter and younger trees. Researchers found that a range of factors, including rising temperatures and carbon dioxide levels, have caused a dramatic decrease in the age and stature of forests.

  • Exchange of arms between chromosomes using...
    on May 27, 2020 at 8:43 pm

    The CRISPR/Cas molecular scissors work like a fine surgical instrument and can be used to modify genetic information in plants. Research teams have now not only exchanged single genes, but recombined entire chromosomes with the CRISPR/Cas technology. In this way, desired properties can be combined in crops.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Contaminated soils determine root characteristics
    on May 29, 2020 at 4:02 pm

    Tree roots have multiple essential functions for their growth and survival. Acquiring nutrients and water from the soil, storing food and anchoring the plant in a substratum are what keep plants alive. In addition, root traits adapt themselves to physical limitation: they grow longer and thinner in dry soils in order to seek faraway water and they stay shorter in compact soils. Thanks to these powers, roots are an important pillar in tree survival strategy.

  • Birds, bees and butter: New study shows...
    on May 26, 2020 at 7:19 am

    Shea yields are likely to benefit from a diversity of trees and shrubs in parkland habitats in West Africa, according to a new study led by scientists from Trinity College Dublin. The findings have important implications for managing a crop that is typically harvested and sold by women in rural areas, and which helps finance education for children.

  • New native grass species have been discovered on...
    on May 22, 2020 at 2:55 pm

    The team of researchers from the project Flora ibericaX(2) have discovered two new native grasses on the Iberian Peninsula and in Menorca, respectively. These two species, which are new to science, have been featured in Systematic Botany. The article is the fruit of the collaboration between the Area of Botany and the University of Seville Herbarium, the Systematic and Evolution Unit for Vascular Plants at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, and researchers from other institutions in the […]

  • 'Bee' thankful for the evolution of pollen
    on May 20, 2020 at 4:25 pm

    Have pollen. Must travel.

  • Early humans thrived in this drowned South...
    on May 15, 2020 at 6:25 pm

    Early humans lived in South African river valleys with deep, fertile soils filled with grasslands, floodplains, woodlands, and wetlands that abounded with hippos, zebras, antelopes, and many other animals, some extinct for millennia.