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Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants (DMOZ Tools)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)
plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).
Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia
Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Botany (DMOZ Tools)
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Life Cycle of Plants (Serenata Flowers)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)
When plants cry out for help, their neighbors start screaming, too (Kat Eschner, Popular Science)
Insect Herbivory Selects for Volatile-Mediated Plant-Plant Communication (Aino Kalske, Et al., Current Biology)
Do Trees Talk to Each Other? (Richard Grant, Smithsonian Magazine)
The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate (Peter Wohlleben)
How Plants Secretly Talk to Each Other (Kat McGowan, Wired)
The Intelligent Plant: Scientists debate a new way of understanding flora (Michael Pollan, The New Yorker)
Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.
Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia
Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)
Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
National Gardening Association
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Wiley: American Journal of Botany: Table of Contents Table of Contents for American Journal of Botany. List of articles from both the latest and EarlyView issues.
Resource availability alters fitness...
by Rachel MacTavish, Jill T. Anderson on February 26, 2020 at 7:44 pm
American Journal of Botany, Volume 107, Issue 2, Page 308-318, February 2020.
Contrasting environmental factors drive local...
by Damian Popovic, David B. Lowry on February 26, 2020 at 7:44 pm
American Journal of Botany, Volume 107, Issue 2, Page 298-307, February 2020.
Environmental variation impacts trait expression...
by Rebecca T. Batstone, Madeline A. E. Peters, Anna K. Simonsen, John R. Stinchcombe, Megan E. Frederickson on February 26, 2020 at 7:44 pm
American Journal of Botany, Volume 107, Issue 2, Page 195-208, February 2020.
Local adaptation mediates floral responses to...
by Sevan S. Suni, Benjamin Ainsworth, Robin Hopkins on February 26, 2020 at 7:44 pm
American Journal of Botany, Volume 107, Issue 2, Page 209-218, February 2020.
Light availability and rhizobium variation...
by Katy D. Heath, Justin C. Podowski, Stephanie Heniff, Christie R. Klinger, Patricia V. Burke, Dylan J. Weese, Wendy H. Yang, Jennifer A. Lau on February 26, 2020 at 7:44 pm
American Journal of Botany, Volume 107, Issue 2, Page 229-238, February 2020.
Nature Plants - nature.com science feeds Nature Plants is a scientific journal publishing primary research papers concerned with all aspects of plant biology, technology, ecology and evolution.
Prickly waterlily and rigid hornwort genomes shed...
by Yongzhi Yang on February 24, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Plants, Published online: 24 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-0594-6Genome assemblies of two aquatic species, prickly waterlily and rigid hornwort, clarify the early diversification and phylogeny of plants. Multiple independent polyploidization events are inferred in each of the five major angiosperm clades.
Aquatic angiosperm ambiguities answered
by Victor A. Albert on February 24, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Plants, Published online: 24 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-0607-5New genome sequences for early-branching, aquatic flowering plants provide fresh insights into angiosperm phylogeny as well as key resources for deciphering their genome adaptive landscapes.
SpCas9-NG self-targets the sgRNA sequence in...
by Ruiying Qin on February 24, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Plants, Published online: 24 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-0603-9The widely used SpCas9-NG tool can edit genomic targets, but unfortunately also the guide RNA sequences that are present in the transfer DNA and integrated into the plant genome. The authors propose a strategy to alleviate this self-editing risk.
Integration of ovular signals and exocytosis of a...
by Jiang-Guo Meng on February 13, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Plants, Published online: 13 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-0599-1Pollen tubes constantly search for and respond to female cues for guided growth and efficient sperm delivery. In this study, the researchers characterized three MLO genes in Arabidopsis whose mutants showed twisting pollen tubes and deficiency in ovule targeting. As an ancient and vital gene family in plants, MLOs are also involved in pathogen resistance and plant–environment interactions.
An atypical short-chain dehydrogenase–reductase...
by Cynthia L. Amstutz on February 13, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Plants, Published online: 13 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41477-020-0591-9The photoprotective mechanism qH requires the plastid lipocalin LCNP and ROQH1, a relaxation factor localized to the stroma lamellae membrane. Analyses under high and low light show that LCNP and ROQH1 perform dosage-dependent, antagonistic functions.
Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.
Biodiversity increases the efficiency of energy...
on February 26, 2020 at 6:13 pm
Plants obtain their energy from the sun. Other beings rely on eating to survive. Yet how does the energy flow inside ecosystems function and are there differences between ecosystems with many species in comparison to those with few species? Researchers have now examined these questions using a holistic approach by evaluating data gathered through a large-scale biodiversity experiment.
Seeds in Tibet face impacts from climate change
on February 25, 2020 at 10:17 pm
A new study examines how warming and increased precipitation (rain and snow) harms the seeds in the ground of the Tibetan Plateau and elsewhere.
Glacier algae creates dark zone at the margins of...
on February 25, 2020 at 4:44 pm
New research has revealed new insights into how the microscopic algae that thrives along the edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet causes widespread darkening.
Lava flows tell 600-year story of biodiversity...
on February 25, 2020 at 12:51 pm
A natural experiment created by an active volcano gives new insight into the long-term negative impacts of human colonization of tropical forest islands.
A promising new strategy to help broken bones...
on February 24, 2020 at 6:38 pm
To improve how broken bones heal in people with diabetes, researchers are leading work to develop an affordable oral therapy -- grown in plants.
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
Panamanian field expeditions examine how species...
on February 13, 2020 at 12:17 pm
Last month, two graduate students from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University traveled to one of the most species-rich landscapes in the world: a remote strip of tropical rainforest at the narrowest point in the Central American country of Panama.
Herringbone pattern in plant cell walls critical...
on February 4, 2020 at 4:20 pm
Plant cells tend to grow longer instead of wider due to the alignment of the many layers of cellulose that make up their cell walls, according to a new study that may have implications for biofuels research. The study, which appears online Feb. 4 in the Journal of Experimental Botany, reveals that the protein CSI1 and the alternating angle of the cell wall's layers, creating a herringbone pattern, are critical for cell growth.
Losing coastal plant communities to climate...
on February 3, 2020 at 7:50 am
Coastal plant communities are a crucial element of global sea defences but are increasingly threatened by the human-induced effects of climate change, according to new research.
Fungi as food source for plants
on January 29, 2020 at 3:23 pm
The number of plant species that extract organic nutrients from fungi could be much higher than previously assumed. This was discovered by researchers from the University of Bayreuth and the University of Copenhagen through isotope investigations on Paris quadrifolia, otherwise known as Herb Paris or True Lover's Knot. This forest-floor plant, which is widespread in Europe, is regarded in botany as a prototype for plants that have a specific exchange relationship with fungi, which in fact […]
The regulators active during iron deficiency
on January 24, 2020 at 3:43 pm
Iron deficiency is a critical situation for plants, which respond using specific genetic programmes. Biologists from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) and Michigan State University (MSU) used artificial intelligence methods to examine how to predict regulatory genetic sequences. They have now published the findings from their joint research work in the journal Plant Physiology.