Plant

Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Life / Plant

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Introduction1

Plants (OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer)
Green Plants (Tree of Life Web Project)

Dictionary

plant : any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls — Webster

National Gardening Association Horticultural Dictionary (National Gardening Association)
OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Glossary

Botany Glossary (UC Museum of Paleontology)
Glossary of Botanical Terms (The Western Australian Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue)

Encyclopedia

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is today generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for “green plants”). This includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals, and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of “plant” exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).

Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Plants (Backyard Gardner), Encyclopædia Britannica

Portal

Plant Exploration and Introduction Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Agriculture, Botany, Horticulture Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)
Gardening & Botany Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Plants (DMOZ Tools)
Plants Portal (Wikipedia)

Search

Plants (WolframAlpha)

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Inspiration

Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!

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Innovation

Science

Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Botany Resources (Library of Congress)
Botany Digital Library (Academic Info)
Internet Directory for Botany
Botany (DMOZ Tools)
Outline of Botany (Wikipedia)
Biology of Plants (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Life Cycle of Plants (Serenata Flowers)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)

When plants cry out for help, their neighbors start screaming, too (Kat Eschner, Popular Science)
Insect Herbivory Selects for Volatile-Mediated Plant-Plant Communication (Aino Kalske, Et al., Current Biology)

Wood wide web: The underground network of microbes that connects trees—mapped for first time (Gabriel Popkin, Science Magazine)

Can plants talk to each other? (Richard Karban, TED-Ed)
Plant Sensing and Communication (Richard Karban, University of Chicago Press)

Do Trees Talk to Each Other? (Richard Grant, Smithsonian Magazine)
The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate (Peter Wohlleben)
How Plants Secretly Talk to Each Other (Kat McGowan, Wired)
The Intelligent Plant: Scientists debate a new way of understanding flora (Michael Pollan, The New Yorker)

Technology

Bionic Plants (Anne Trafton, MIT News)
Bionic Plants (AAAS EurekAlert)
Plant Nanobionics Approach to Augment Photosynthesis and Biochemical Sensing (Juan Pablo Giraldo, Et al., Nature)

Nanobionic spinach plants can detect explosives (Anne Trafton, MIT News Office)

Plants Are Oldest Sensors in the World. Could They Be the Future of Computers? (Katharine Schwab, Fast Company)

Entrepreneurship

Let Your Plants Play Music, and Gardens of Sound Will Bloom (Arielle Pardes, Wired)
PlantWave Kickstarter, Data Garden

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Preservation

Botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. — Wikipedia

Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Official Site)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Wikipedia)

Botanic gardens ‘best hope’ for saving endangered plants (Helen Briggs, BBC News)
Botanic Gardens Search (Botanic Gardens Conservation International)
Botanical garden (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Botanical garden (Wikipedia)
List of botanical gardens (Wikiepdia)

History

Anna Atkins (Getty Museum)
Anna Atkins (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Anna Atkins (Wikipedia)

Museum

Plants, Lichens and Algae (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

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Participation

Education

School Gardening: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Activities: A Guide to Selected Resources (Library of Congress)
School Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)

Plant Basics (Biology4Kids)
Plants Learner Guides (BBC)
Botany Coloring Book (Paul G Young)

Backyard Brains: Neuroscience for Everyone

Course

Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Occupation

Your Path to Landscape Architecture (American Society of Landscape Architects)

Organization

International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS)
Botanical Society of America
National Gardening Association

Event

International Botanical Congress Calendar

Blog

HR’S wat’s this plant? interactive plant identification

News

American Journal of Botany, Nature Plants, Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Plants Database (US Department of Agriculture)

Document

USA.gov

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Expression

Fun

Humor

Plants (Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia, Tim Hunkin)

Hobby

Horticulture & Gardening Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Gardening Resources (Library of Congress)
Gardening Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Kitchen Gardens Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Gardening Portal (Wikipedia)
Garden Community
National Gardening Association
Backyard Gardner
Plant Finder (Missouri Botanical Garden)

Arts

The Kew Book of Botanical Illustration (Christabel King)
The Art of Botanical Illustration (University of Delaware)

Poem

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

Song Lyrics

Dance

returntotop


More News …

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Which ornamental plants perform best for...
    on August 9, 2022 at 6:32 pm

    Guides suggest some species are better than others for pollinators, but when you get to the plant nursery you're confronted by half a dozen cultivars of the same species. How do you pick between them?

  • Analysis of global tree population explains...
    on August 9, 2022 at 1:23 pm

    Local species richness, the number of species that coexist in a local community, is a key measure of biodiversity. Scientists have known for more than 200 years that large numbers of local species live near the equator, then decline toward the middle and higher latitudes. However, why local species richness differs from place to place remains largely unknown.

  • Researchers show potential for improved water-use...
    on August 8, 2022 at 7:43 pm

    Water deficit is currently one of the most significant limiting factors for global agricultural productivity, a factor further exacerbated by global climate change, according to a 2019 water report from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. As a result, researchers worldwide have been working to improve water-use efficiency in crops to better cope with water-scarce conditions.

  • Figuring out how wild wheat protects itself from...
    on August 8, 2022 at 5:41 pm

    Wheat is a staple crop that provides 20% of the world population's caloric and human protein intake. Although wheat is essential for human and livestock diets, these plants are continuously preyed upon by insect herbivores which often cause severe damage and result in significant losses in yield. Furthermore, the gradual increase in global temperatures has promoted the expansion of pest populations to new regions as well as their reproduction rate.

  • Researchers reveal how parasitic plants evolved
    on July 26, 2022 at 11:52 am

    Parasitic plants are extraordinary plants with unique physiology, ecology, and evolutionary histories, and little is known about their origin and evolution. Initially, certain autotrophs evolved to be facultative hemiparasitic plants which obtained only water and mineral nutrients from their hosts as supplements. Some of the facultative hemiparasitic plants later became obligate parasitic plants that had to depend on their hosts to complete their life cycles. Gradually, holoparasitic plants […]


Nature Plants Nature Plants is concerned with all aspects of plants be it their evolution, development or metabolism, their interactions with the environment, or their societal significance. Publishing monthly it will have a particular interest in studies that advance knowledge and inform development across a diversity of areas.

  • ALBA proteins confer thermotolerance through...
    by Jinjin Tong on July 11, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 11 July 2022; doi:10.1038/s41477-022-01175-1Heat stress transcription factors (HSFs) play critical roles in response to heat stress. This study reveals a new regulatory mechanism in Arabidospis by which ALBA proteins stabilize HSFs in cytoplasmic granules under heat stress.

  • TOP1α fine-tunes TOR-PLT2 to maintain root tip...
    by Hao Zhang on July 11, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 11 July 2022; doi:10.1038/s41477-022-01179-xPhotosynthesis promotes the expression of TOPOISOMERASE1α, which in turn represses TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) expression at the root tip. Glucose-TOR regulates cell division at the quiescent centre, and phosphorylates and stabilizes PLETHORA2 in columella cells to maintain root tip homeostasis.

  • DNA demethylation and hypermethylation are both...
    by Y. Pecrix on July 11, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 11 July 2022; doi:10.1038/s41477-022-01188-wThe development of root nodules implies tissue-specific epigenetic modifications of the plant genome, key for proper symbiotic gene expression and nodule activity. This study reveals the DNA methylation dynamics during nodule development.

  • A Dof-CLE circuit controls phloem organization
    by Pingping Qian on July 11, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 11 July 2022; doi:10.1038/s41477-022-01176-0This study shows that Dof transcription factors in the phloem precursors not only induce formation of phloem, but also cause secretion of CLE peptides, which in turn inhibit phloem formation in neighbourhing cells by post-transcriptionally decreasing Dofs.

  • Phloem research in full flow
    by George Janes on July 11, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Plants, Published online: 11 July 2022; doi:10.1038/s41477-022-01180-4In the phloem of vascular plants, distinct cell types are arranged in precise positions to ensure effective loading, transport and unloading of photosynthates and signalling molecules. Feedback between transcription factors and mobile peptides triggers and controls the differentiation of phloem at the growing root tip.


Botany News -- ScienceDaily Botany news. Read about the latest research on experimental crops, dramatic changes in forest growth, ancient flowering plants and more.

  • How a harmful fungus renders its host plant...
    on August 10, 2022 at 4:36 pm

    The fungus Ustilago maydis attacks corn and can cause significant damage to its host. To do this, it first ensures that the plant offers little resistance to the infection. The surgical precision it applies is shown by a new study.

  • Even modest climate change may lead to sweeping...
    on August 10, 2022 at 4:35 pm

    Even relatively modest climate warming and associated precipitation shifts may dramatically alter Earth's northernmost forests, which constitute one of the planet's largest nearly intact forested ecosystems and are home to a big chunk of the planet's terrestrial carbon.

  • How calcium ions get into the cellular power...
    on August 10, 2022 at 2:51 pm

    Calcium is a very special nutrient. In the cells of most living beings calcium ions function as so-called second messengers to transmit important signals. The same applies equally to animal, plant and fungal cells.

  • Self-pollinating plant shows rapid loss of...
    on August 10, 2022 at 2:51 pm

    Without bumble bees, a flowering plant that can self-pollinate lost substantial genetic variation within only nine generations, an experimental study found. A group of 'selfing' monkeyflower plants lost 13% to 24% of their genetic variation compared to another group that were propagated by bumble bees. This loss could rob the plants of their ability to adapt to environmental challenges, according to the study. With bee populations on the decline in nature, the findings point to serious issues […]

  • 'Dream' discovery could sow crops better equipped...
    on August 8, 2022 at 8:21 pm

    Scientists have identified an 'exquisite' natural mechanism that helps plants limit their water loss with little effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) intake -- an essential process for photosynthesis, plant growth and crop yield.


Wiley: American Journal of Botany: Table of Contents Table of Contents for American Journal of Botany. List of articles from both the latest and EarlyView issues.

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Related

Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

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Notes

1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.