These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
Branches of science (also referred to as “sciences”, “scientific fields”, or “scientific disciplines”) are commonly divided into three major groups:
- Natural sciences the study of natural phenomena (including fundamental forces and biological life)
- Formal sciences the study of mathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to factual, methodology)
- Social sciences the study of human behavior and societies.
Natural and social sciences are empirical sciences, meaning that the knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and must be capable of being verified by other researchers working under the same conditions. — Wikipedia
science : (1) a department of systematized knowledge as an object of study (2) knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method — Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary
See also Access Science (McGraw-Hill)
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences, which study the material universe; the social sciences, which study people and societies; and the formal sciences, which study logic and mathematics. — Wikipedia
Bill Nye, The Science Guy (Site)
Bill Nye, The Science Guy (YouTube)
Iron Science Teacher (Exploratorium)
National Science Education Standards (National Academies Press)
Posts from Cosma…
- Yellowstone, Beauty & Beast (4/30/2018) - If you have been Yellowstone National Park, then you know it is a vast, beautiful place with some fairly odd geologic features that smell bad, like rotten eggs. If you’ve never been there, then you might just have a fairly apocalyptic view of it because of the supervolcano under it that has been featured in … Continue reading Yellowstone, Beauty & Beast
- Weather, The Day After… (4/17/2018) - The weather in Boston for the Marathon was pretty bad. How bad? Well, it wasn’t a disaster, but it was miserable. What it was like to run the Boston Marathon in a freezing deluge (Matthew Futterman, Boston.com) As bad as that weather was, the title of this post isn’t about that weather — it is … Continue reading Weather, The Day After…
- Visioning Spacesteads (8/8/2018) - Space, the final frontier… Humans have been imagining what it would be like to setup homesteads and live in space for about as long as they’ve been imagining how to get there, but the process didn’t really take off until after we actually got there. Back in the 1970’s NASA dedicated some resources to the … Continue reading Visioning Spacesteads
- Under the Ice (6/14/2019) - To paraphrase J.R.R. Tolkien’s famous words in The Lord of the Rings, “It’s a dangerous business, clicking on a link. You glance at a story, and if you don’t watch out, there’s no knowing where you might be swept off to.” This week I innocently clicked on a link to this story from the American … Continue reading Under the Ice
- Umbraphiles (8/20/2017) - umbraphile : One who loves eclipses, often travelling to see them. — Wiktionary Yes, this is that obligatory post about “The Solar Eclipse” (NASA, Wikipedia). Of course, there had to be one — eclipses really are just too cool to ignore. You’ve already been bombarded with explanations of the science and history of eclipses, but … Continue reading Umbraphiles
- Touch the Sun (12/6/2019) - Remember how Icarus wanted to touch the Sun, but met his demise instead? Well, scientists at NASA wanted to touch the Sun too, but unlike Icarus, they succeeded! Better yet, they are beginning to share what they learned by doing it! Before we get into all of that, let’s go back and start at the … Continue reading Touch the Sun
- Too many sharks? (8/1/2018) - If you watch a lot of television, then you know that last week was the Discovery Channel’s Shark Week. Last year I did a post that coincided with it (Jaws vs. Jellies). However, this year I was leaning towards not doing more of something that is already a tad overdone. The Discovery Channel did add … Continue reading Too many sharks?
- The waves won! (10/4/2017) - Gravitational waves that is! It has been announced that Rainer Weiss (MIT), Barry Barish (Caltech) and Kip Thorne (Caltech) have won the 2017 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics for their decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the first observation of gravitational waves in 2015. Here’s a quick one minute video from Newsy and a … Continue reading The waves won!
- Talented Greenery (10/18/2019) - Check out this minute long 360° video from Genesis Visual Studios. Peaceful, isn’t it? The bees are busily buzzing about, but the plants aren’t doing much, right? Well, those plants are up to a LOT more than they look like they are in the video. Now, you’re probably thinking, yeah, right. They can move towards … Continue reading Talented Greenery
- Super Sexy, Singing Mice (3/7/2019) - It’s not often that mice sneak into the news, but they’ve gotten into it a lot lately. The story that’s gotten the most attention is about how researchers created “super mice” by injecting nanoparticles into their eyes to give them “night vision.” Here’s a video and links to the stories about that research. A shot … Continue reading Super Sexy, Singing Mice
- Super Bowl of Astronomy (1/15/2018) - The annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society, a.k.a. the “Super Bowl of Astronomy” was held in Washington DC last week. While it might not have as much cachet as the Consumer Electronics Show, great tidbits from the conference do slip into the mainstream media from time to time. For example, Phys.org did a nice … Continue reading Super Bowl of Astronomy
- Strange Things (11/12/2016) - There’s been a ton of cool stuff going on in the 3D/360°/AR/VR hardware and software universe lately, and there’s about to be even more (more on that soon). On the other hand, the 3D/360°/AR/VR content front has been “relatively” static (unless you love Halloween’esque horror, of course). When I went looking for something interesting to … Continue reading Strange Things
- Spooky Space Sounds (10/30/2017) - NASA has a fun, albeit geeky, sense of humor sometimes. For example, this week they’ve released a compilation of “Spooky Sounds from Space.” Of course, since there is no air in space, there is no “real” way for humans to hear sound there. Instead, these are sounds generated by different types of scientific instruments when … Continue reading Spooky Space Sounds
- Speleological Wonders (2/8/2019) - A few days ago I came across this short 360° video from the The New York Times about how biologist Naowarat Cheeptham has been searching for antibiotics in a cave. It’s an interesting story, and there’s a lot more about it in this article from Wired. Inside the slimy underground hunt for humanity’s antibiotic saviour … Continue reading Speleological Wonders
- Space Rocks! (1/4/2019) - It was a fantastic holiday season for space fans! In fact, there was so much going on, it was almost impossible to keep up with it all. According to your news sources and interests, you have probably heard about at least some of the amazing things that happened, but chances are you haven’t heard about … Continue reading Space Rocks!
- Shark Encounters! (2/21/2019) - It seems like every time that I encounter news about sharks, they end up seeming less scary and more awe inspiring. The latest example of this happened this week when multiple news outlets reported that the great white shark’s genome has been sequenced, and there were some surprises as well as some good news for … Continue reading Shark Encounters!
- Rock n’ roll, noise pollution? (7/15/2018) - Is rock and roll noise pollution? If you are a rock and roll fan, then you probably know that this is a question that AC/DC famously weighed in on in their song Rock And Roll Ain’t Noise Pollution (YouTube). If you are a language or communication expert, rock and roll fan or not, you probably … Continue reading Rock n’ roll, noise pollution?
- RIP Rossetta! (10/1/2016) - The “Little Mission that Could” has come to an end, but what a mission it was to watch! Rosetta Concludes Mission with a Crash (Megan Gannon, Scientific American) Rosetta Mission Ends With Spacecraft’s Dive Into Comet (Kenneth Chang, New York Times) It was such a joy to watch each historic milestone the mission passed over … Continue reading RIP Rossetta!
- Ring o’ Fire, South (8/15/2017) - Song titles and colloquial terminology aside, you probably have an idea of what scientists mean when they talk about the “Ring of Fire” (National Geographic, Wikipedia). However, even if you do, a bit of review will be useful for this post. Here’s an imaginative 360° Video that provides a top-level introduction. Here’s a more mundane, … Continue reading Ring o’ Fire, South
- Perspectives on Earth (11/23/2017) - Last week NASA released this fascinating video entitled Our Living Planet based upon 20 years of data from satellites that observe all plant life at the surface of the land and ocean. You can find out more about the video from this article. The Changing Colors of our Living Planet (NASA) Of course, releasing fantastic … Continue reading Perspectives on Earth
- Periodic Party (2/17/2019) - Now that Valentine’s Day is over, it’s time to move on to the next celebration on the calendar. That would be the Periodic Table’s Birthday! Yes, Dmitri Mendeleev sketched his first draft of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements on February 17, 1869. Notice that this year’s a “big one” for the Periodic Table — … Continue reading Periodic Party
- Panda’s Playtime (1/23/2020) - There’s nothing cuter than giant pandas, right? At the very least, they can give penguins a good run for their money. Here’s a 360° YouTube video from Chengdu Panda Base that proves the point. Or does it? It turns out that watching two pandas grow up and playing is even cuter! Here’s a YouTube video … Continue reading Panda’s Playtime
- Octopuses from Space! (5/20/2018) - Did you hear the one about the octopuses from space? It sounds like the title of a cheesy sci-fi movie, doesn’t it? But it isn’t, this time, or at least, yet. Instead, it’s actually an oddball theory that’s been put forth in a recently published “scientific” article that’s getting quite a lot of buzz in … Continue reading Octopuses from Space!
- NASA’s Excellent Adventures (9/13/2017) - NOTE: This post was updated on the morning of September 15th, see new videos below. NASA is always up to something fascinating. There are so many milestones and discoveries, it’s hard to resist featuring them in every post. However, there are a few events that definitely deserve special attention right now. First, August 20th and … Continue reading NASA’s Excellent Adventures
- Moon+H2O=Moonbase? (7/25/2017) - One of the big science stories in the news right now is that Earth’s Moon has more water than scientists expected. This Newsy video is just one of the hundreds of stories flooding news feeds. This round of stories has been inspired by this article in Nature Geoscience. Remote detection of widespread indigenous water in … Continue reading Moon+H2O=Moonbase?
- Moon’scapes (2/28/2020) - There’s no denying that it’s been a rough week for many Earthlings. On the other hand, it’s been a great week for anyone who spends their time more preoccupied with the Moon than with more earthly concerns. That’s because there’s a treasure trove of news about our lunar realm. For example, NASA’s Goddard Media Studios … Continue reading Moon’scapes
- Molecular Machines (10/5/2016) - Molecular machines have been around for awhile, but these little wonders are getting the public’s attention today because a trio of scientists were just awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their progress in the area. World’s smallest gadgets bag Nobel chemistry prize (Daniel Clery, AAAS Science Magazine) Press Release: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry … Continue reading Molecular Machines
- Milky Way Lost & Found (8/15/2018) - Have you seen the Milky Way? You may think that you have, but are you sure? Unless you live in an extremely remote area, or you’ve visited one, then you probably haven’t seen our own galaxy, the Milky Way, very well, or at all. Worse yet, you may not even realize that it’s missing. The … Continue reading Milky Way Lost & Found
- Mars is hard! (11/25/2018) - Update 8:30 PM November 26, 2018 (EST) Touchdown! Mars InSight lander reaches red planet (Alexandra Witze, Nature) NASA’s InSight Mission Triumphantly Touches Down on Mars (Ian O’Neill, Scientific American) InSight has landed with Updates (Emily Lakdawalla, Planetary Society) Landing Replay (SciNews) Original Post If you hear a phrase like “six and a half minutes of … Continue reading Mars is hard!
- Lunar Landings (7/19/2019) - Saturday, July 20th is the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon Landing, and there’s a massive media blitz surrounding the occasion. Pretty much every major news outlet is covering it in some way, and it’s no surprise that NASA is leading the publicity frenzy. On Friday at 1 p.m. (EDT) NASA is broadcasting 50 … Continue reading Lunar Landings
- Leonardo Lately (10/22/2017) - Have you noticed that for a gentleman who hasn’t been around for five centuries, Leonardo da Vinci sure has been getting a lot of press lately? That’s not to say that it’s not well deserved. Here’s a 3 Minute Primer that gives just a glimpse of why he was such an amazing guy. The Smile … Continue reading Leonardo Lately
- Jellyfish Therapy (1/24/2019) - Feeling stressed out and need to relax? How about a nice swim in a swarm of jellyfish? What, that’s not a remedy for stress, you say! You mean by using imaginative thinking, right? Well, no, I do mean it literally. There’s an actual place called Jellyfish Lake on Eil Malk island in Palau where you … Continue reading Jellyfish Therapy
- Hummingbird Parties! (8/22/2020) - Sometimes a link to a story begs you to click on it. Here’s one that I couldn’t resist. Watch hummingbirds ‘dance’ through waterfalls (Lucy Hicks, Science Magazine) Sure enough, the story has an animation of a hummingbird ‘dancing’ in a waterfall. The research that the story described was a tad odd, but the clip was … Continue reading Hummingbird Parties!
- How Spidey Flies? (7/9/2018) - Have you ever watched a Spider-Man movie and wondered whether real spiders can do anything remotely like what Spidey does? Well, it turns out that they can. However, not even Spidey, or his friends Stan Lee and Steve Ditko, really knew how. No one did, until recently. Just over this past week there have been … Continue reading How Spidey Flies?
- Happy Summer, Roar! (6/21/2018) - It’s here! It’s officially summer, and that means that it’s time for summer traditions like barbecues, vacations and loving or hating the newest summer blockbusters. For better or worse, they are here, too — it’s time to either rejoice and head to the nearest cineplex or cringe with derision and run away from the latest … Continue reading Happy Summer, Roar!
- Great Views of Earth (4/22/2018) - April 22nd is Earth Day! In honor of that, here are some great ways to see the honoree. First, you can get a nice view from this neat 360° Video from Seeker. It essentially shows you what it would feel like if you could just fly straight up and see the Earth from space. National … Continue reading Great Views of Earth
- Great Eyes o’ the Sea (6/28/2019) - The news is full of stories about how a giant squid was filmed in U.S. waters for the first time. Here’s a slightly enhanced version of the clip that has caused all of the commotion and a link to the companion article by ABC7 that published this clip. Wondrous 10-foot giant squid spotted deep in … Continue reading Great Eyes o’ the Sea
- Great Blobs (12/31/2019) - This is the time of year when you see the words “Best of” quite a lot. No matter what you care about, someone somewhere is going to publish something about the “best of 2019” or even the “best of the decade” for that thing. For example, I pay a lot of attention to science, so … Continue reading Great Blobs
- Go for a float! (3/12/2020) - Feeling stressed out about COVID-19, the economy, politics and other such stuff? How about getting away from it all by going for a nice, virtual float? Imagine hearing … Good afternoon passengers. This is your captain speaking. I would like to welcome everyone to your weightless flight. We are cruising at an altitude of 25,000 … Continue reading Go for a float!
- Get Lost in Space! (9/14/2018) - Way back in August, in anticipation of the start of a new school year, I set out to update the pages on this site related to space. Those pages tend to be popular among the teachers and students who use Cosma, and I happen to enjoy updating them, too. It sounded like a short, fun … Continue reading Get Lost in Space!
- Exoplanet Junket (6/2/2018) - I’m on a vacation of sorts, so it’s no surprise that stories about travel tend to catch my eye. However, it is surprising if the story happens to be about something that NASA’s done. This week NASA released a new project that they’ve dubbed the Exoplanet Travel Bureau. The core of the project consists of … Continue reading Exoplanet Junket
- ExoMars (10/19/2016) - Oct. 21 Update: Unfortunately, the ExoMars mission’s Schiaparelli lander did not make a successful landing due to technical difficulties, and the crash site has been found. Happily, the mother ship did successfully enter orbit. Why Schiaparelli Probe’s Mars ‘Crash Land’ Is No Failure (Mason Peck, Newsweek) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter views Schiaparelli landing site (ESA) Here’s … Continue reading ExoMars
- Doomed? (5/24/2017) - If you’ve been keeping up the slew of dark headlines in the news this week, then you may have seen some stories about how the Svalbard Global “Doomsday” Seed Vault is doomed, or not, according to which story you read. There were some alarmist headlines, but most of the stories were less drastic, while still … Continue reading Doomed?
- Dinos for Geeks (4/6/2018) - There’s been a lot of cool news for dinosaur lovers lately. The most bizarre story is about an extinct lizard called Saniwa ensidens that had four eyes. Here’s Why an Ancient Lizard Had 4 Eyes (Laura Geggel, Live Science) There are also some massive 170 million year old dinosaur footprints from the Jurassic period that … Continue reading Dinos for Geeks
- Dark, Deep & Spooky… (8/8/2017) - Today’s physics is “probably” not the kind of thing that you, or at least your parents and grandparents, learned about in school (unless you happen to be a Physicist). Even the most casual science buff knows that today it’s all about exotic stuff like dark matter (NASA), ghost particles (FermiLab) and “spooky action at a … Continue reading Dark, Deep & Spooky…
- Cuttle Vision (1/10/2020) - Cuttlefish are odd creatures, so news stories about them tend to be interesting. However, a story about them that’s going a bit viral is downright amusing! As you can see from the image in this video from The Guardian, some scientists wanted to find out whether or not cuttlefish have stereoscopic vision (like humans do), … Continue reading Cuttle Vision
- Chess on Ice (12/17/2017) - The other day I was grabbing a snack at a local sport’s pub when I noticed what struck me as an odd scene on one of the TVs. At first glance it looked like a couple of people encouraging a large, mobile Pet Rock to win a race. Of course, the sport was Curling, and … Continue reading Chess on Ice
- CERN’s Heavy Discovery (7/6/2017) - The latest news out of CERN is that a study at the Large Hadron Collider (LHCb) has identified a new particle labeled “Xi-cc++” that has two heavy quarks. This is a big deal because up until this experiment, all of the “identified particles” had only one (even though the Standard Model did predict the particle’s … Continue reading CERN’s Heavy Discovery
- Cassini’s Finale (5/1/2017) - The Cassini space probe has got a serious date with Saturn coming up in the Fall on September 15th, but she’s got a very busy schedule between now and then making a series of dives through the space between Saturn and its rings. The first dive of took place last week (Wednesday, April 26th). Here’s … Continue reading Cassini’s Finale
- Bird’s-eye Views (1/29/2019) - Humans tend to interact with animals as if they see the world in pretty much the same way that we do. However, the more scientists study animal vision, the more they tell us that’s just not the way that it is. Furthermore, what scientists know about animal vision goes way beyond the fact that our … Continue reading Bird’s-eye Views
- Barnum’s Critters (8/24/2018) - Barnum’s animals have escaped! Here’s an update about the situation from Inside Edition. Of course, unlike the iconic crackers themselves, the news about them is bittersweet because The Greatest Show on Earth ceased operation back in May 2017. Have you ever wondered what happened to Barnum & Bailey’s real animals? Here’s a short segment from … Continue reading Barnum’s Critters
- Asteroids Galore! (6/27/2018) - Head’s up! You’re going to hear a lot about asteroids over the next week or so. The good news is that none of it is related to any specific asteroid hitting us. This media blitz is due to a trifecta of asteroid related events this week. One big reason you’ll hear so much about asteroids … Continue reading Asteroids Galore!
- Asteroids Everywhere (6/30/2017) - Friday, June 30 is Asteroid Day, so you are going to be hearing a LOT about Asteroids over the next day or so (see Asteroid Day.org, NASA, YouTube and Wikipedia). The reason Asteroid Day falls on this date is because it’s the anniversary of the 1908 “Tunguska event” when scientists believe a 50 meter wide … Continue reading Asteroids Everywhere
- Arbornautics (5/7/2018) - Traditional news stories usually cover a single subject or the straightforward relationship between two subjects. However, every once in awhile, a story comes along that crams a deceptive number of subjects and interesting relationships into a tiny space. Exploring stories like that can be an adventure. Here’s a wonderful, five minute clip from Seeker that’s … Continue reading Arbornautics
News from other sources…
Science News - UPI.com Science News - UPI.com
- Mars rover Perseverance makes first drive on Red...on March 5, 2021 at 9:51 pm
NASA's new Mars rover, Perseverance, made its first short drive on the Red Planet on Thursday and took images of its own wheel marks in the Martian dust.
- Humans evolved to use water much more efficiently...on March 5, 2021 at 9:07 pm
In a first-of-its-kind study, published Friday in the journal Current Biology, researchers were able to show that humans process water much more efficiently than our closest primate relatives.
- Astronauts conclude spacewalk maintenance on...on March 5, 2021 at 6:51 pm
Astronauts Kate Rubins and Soichi Noguchi completed a spacewalk Friday of 6 hours, 56 minutes to perform maintenance on the exterior of the International Space Station.
- Seals help scientists survey Antarctica's...on March 5, 2021 at 2:59 pm
For the first time, scientists have managed to capture a full-depth portrait of glacial melting during winter -- with the help of a team of deep-diving seals with instruments strapped on their heads.
- Scientists reveal first-ever evidence of a plasma...on March 5, 2021 at 11:51 am
About seven years ago, a hurricane churned high above the North Pole. It was during the peak of the Atlantic hurricane season, but this storm's eye did not touch the water, and it did not make landfall.
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
- Masters of mimicry, male lyrebirds use their...on March 4, 2021 at 5:30 pm
When birds see a predator in their midst, one defensive strategy is to call out loudly, attracting other birds of the same or different species to do the same. Sometimes individuals within this 'mobbing flock' will fly over or at the predator or attack it directly.
- Oahu marine protected areas offer limited...on February 27, 2021 at 6:55 am
Marine protected areas (MPAs) around Oʻahu do not adequately protect populations of herbivorous reef fishes that eat algae on coral reefs. That is the primary conclusion of a study published in Coral Reefs by researchers from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST).
- 'Explicit instruction' provides dramatic benefits...on February 26, 2021 at 8:54 pm
The ability to read is foundational to education, but prolonged school closures and distance learning due to the pandemic have imposed unique challenges on the teaching of many fundamental skills. When in-person classes resume, many students will likely need a period of catch-up learning, especially those who lag behind in basic reading skills.
- When using pyrite to understand Earth's ocean and...on February 26, 2021 at 7:43 pm
The ocean floor is vast and varied, making up more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Scientists have long used information from sediments at the bottom of the ocean—layers of rock and microbial muck—to reconstruct the conditions in oceans of the past.
- Radioactivity in meteorites sheds light on origin...on February 26, 2021 at 7:39 pm
A team of international researchers went back to the formation of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago to gain new insights into the cosmic origin of the heaviest elements on the period-ic table.