Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Form / Innovation / Science

Science is nothing but developed perception, interpreted intent, common sense rounded out and minutely articulated. — George Santayana


Science Sessions (Cardiff University, YouTube Channel)


science : (1) a department of systematized knowledge as an object of study (2) knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method — Merriam-Webster See also OneLook


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences, which study the material universe; the social sciences, which study people and societies; and the formal sciences, which study logic and mathematics. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Science (Wolfram Research)
Science (Encyclopædia Britannica)


Science & Technology (Wolfram Alpha)



Exploration and Adventure

The search is what anyone would undertake if he were not sunk in the everydayness of his own life.
To become aware of the possibility of the search is to be onto something.
Not to be onto something is to be in despair. — Walker Percy

Talks about Science (TED: Ideas Worth Spreading)
Articles about Science (Big Think)

Science Quotes (BrainyQuote)




Every science begins as philosophy and ends as art. — Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy

Philosophy of Science Association
Center for Philosophy of Science (University of Pittsburgh)
PhilSci: An Archive for Preprints in Philosophy of Science (University of Pittsburgh)

General Philosophy of Science (Edited by Howard Sankey and Zili Dong, PhilPapers)
Philosophy of Science (The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Philosophy of Science (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Philosophy of Science (Wikipedia)
Index of Philosophy of Science Articles (Wikipedia)


Scientific method is an empirical approach to acquiring knowledge. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings. — Wikipedia

Understanding Science: How Science Really Works (University of California Museum of Paleontology)
Scientific Method (Encyclopædia Britannica)

See also Research (Cosma)



A New Kind of Science: Online (Stephen Wolfram, Official Site)
A New Kind of Science (Stephen Wolfram, WorldCat)
Computational Sciences (Wolfram Alpha)
Stephen Wolfram (Official Site)
Stephen Wolfram (Encyclopædia Britannica)


Science of Science (Santo Fortunato, et al., Science)
The Science of Science (Albert-László Barabási and Dashun Wang)
Science of Science and Innovation Policy (SciSIP, National Science Foundation)


The Business of Science (Nature)
Can Science Be a Business? Lessons from Biotech (Gary P. Pisano, Harvard Business Review)


Science Campaigns (Kickstarter)
Science Campaigns (Indiegogo)


Science Related Items (Etsy)
Science Gifts (Zazzle)




Library Research Guide for the History of Science (Harvard Subject Guides)
History of Science Sourcebook (History Department, Fordham University)
The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science (J. L. Heilbron, Oxford Reference)
History of Science (Scientific American)

Science (World History Encyclopedia)

History of Science (Wikipedia)
History of Science Portal (Wikipedia)


Cabinet of curiosities (also known in German loanwords as Kunstkabinett, Kunstkammer or Wunderkammer; also Cabinets of Wonder, and wonder-rooms) were collections of notable objects. The term cabinet originally described a room rather than a piece of furniture. Modern terminology would categorize the objects included as belonging to natural history (sometimes faked), geology, ethnography, archaeology, religious or historical relics, works of art (including cabinet paintings), and antiquities. The classic cabinet of curiosities emerged in the sixteenth century, although more rudimentary collections had existed earlier. In addition to the most famous and best documented cabinets of rulers and aristocrats, members of the merchant class and early practitioners of science in Europe formed collections that were precursors to museums. — Wikipedia

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (Official Site)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Wikipedia)

The Royal Society (Official Site)
The Royal Society (Wikipedia)

History of Science Museum (University of Oxford)
History of Science Museum (YouTube Channel)
Museum of the History of Science (Encyclopædia Britannica)
History of Science Museum (Wikipedia)

History of Science Museum Tour (Matterport)

The Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments (Harvard University)
Harvard Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments (YouTube Playlist)
Harvard Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments (Wikipedia)

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Official Site)
Explore Science & Nature (Smithsonian)
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Wikipedia)

The Franklin Institute (Philadelphia)
The Franklin Institute (Wikipedia)

Museum of Science (Boston)
Museum of Science (Wikipedia)

New York Hall of Science (New York)
New York Hall of Science (Wikipedia)

Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago)
Museum of Science and Industry (Wikipedia)

Exploratorium (San Francisco)
Exploratorium (Wikipedia)

Museo Galileo (Florence, Italy)
Museo Galileo (Wikipedia)

Science Museum (Wikipedia)
List of Science Museums (Wikipedia)


Science Reference (Library of Congress)
Science Electronic Library (SciELO)

DDC: 500 Science (Library Thing)
Subject: Science (Library Thing)

Subject: Science (Open Library)

LCC: Q Science (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: Q Science (Library of Congress)
Subject: Science (Library of Congress)

Subject: Science (WorldCat)




National Science Education Standards (National Academies Press)
National Science Teaching Association

Smithsonian Science Education Center
Smithsonian Learning Lab

Nature of Science Videos (Exploratorium)
Subject Videos (Exploratorium)

Science Resources (Annenberg Learner)
Science (PBS Learning Media)

Science Lab (National Geographic Kids)
Science education (Scientific American)
Science News for Students (Society for Science)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Scientists (US Occupational Outlook Handbook)
Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations (US Occupational Outlook Handbook)

Careers in Science (PBS Learning Media)


International Council for Science

National Academy of Sciences
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

The Royal Society
The Royal Institution


Eprints: Quick Guide to Open-Access Archives in Science, Technology & Medicine (Library of Congress)
Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Science (JSTOR)
ArXiv Preprints (Cornell University)

Science Magazine (AAAS)
EurekAlert! (AAAS)

Nature (Springer)
Science News (Society for Science)
Science (

The Sciences (Scientific American)
Scientific American Bookshelf (Project Gutenberg)

Popular Science

Science & Nature (Smithsonian Magazine)
Smart News: Science (Smithsonian Magazine)

Science (National Public Radio)
Science Friday (SciFri, NPR)
Science (NPR Archives)

Science News (AP News)
Science News (UPI News)


Science Bookshelf (Project Gutenberg)

Government Gateway to US Federal Science
National Science Foundation


Science (



The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not Eureka! (I found it!) but That’s funny … — Isaac Asimov


Science (Tim Hunkin, The Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)
Science Humor (Science 2.0)


Sing About Science and Math
Science (Song Lyrics)




Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Form

Innovation Creativity, Mathematics
Science Research, Discovery
Technology Invention, Intellectual Property
Commerce Entrepreneurship, Product



1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.