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More Computer Software in Plain English (Common Craft)



These are organized by form and function.

Communications Computation Storage Authoring Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Typewriter Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Recorder Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS) Database Application AI, World

These are types of media formats.

Multimedia (Video, Animation), Image (Object), Scent, Flavor, Audio (Text), Haptic, “Other


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Software Portal (Wikipedia)


software : the set of programs, procedures, and related documentation associated with a system and especially a computer system; specifically : computer programs — Webster

FOLDOC: Free Online Dictionary of Computing, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Computer software, or just software is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. In other words, software is a conceptual entity which is a set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. We can also say software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Software (Wikipedia)
Outline of Software Development (Wikipedia)
Outline of Software Engineering (Wikipedia)



Software History Center
Software History Bibliography (Charles Babbage Institute)
Early History of Software Engineering (Robert L. Glass)

Early History of Software Engineering (Robert L. Glass)
Software History (Association of Software Professionals)
Software Database (IT History Society)

Iteractions: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Software History (Charles Babbage Institute)
Software History Bibliography (Charles Babbage Institute)

Fire in the Library: Jason Scott and the Archive Team (Matt Schwartz, with reporting by Eva Talmadge, MIT Technology Review)
GGC 2014: Every Computer, Ever, In Your Browser (Jason Scott) YouTube Video
The Internet Archive Software Collection (Jason Scott, VCF East 9.1) Audio, Well worth a Listen!

ASCII by Jason Scott: Jason Scott’s Weblog
Jason Scott Sadofsky (Wikipedia) (Software Archive) (Document Archive)
Internet Arcade (Jason Scott, Internet Archive)
Internet Archive (Brewster Kahle)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Software and Information Industry Association (SIIA)
ACM Special Interest Group on Software Engineering (SIGSOFT)


Association for Computing Machinery, Science Daily




Free Commercial Downloads (
Top Government Software Products (Capterra)





OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Software as a service (SaaS) sometimes referred to as “on-demand software”, is a software delivery model in which software and associated data are centrally hosted on the cloud. SaaS is typically accessed by users using a thin client via a web browser. SaaS has become a common delivery model for most business applications, including accounting, collaboration, customer relationship management (CRM), management information systems (MIS), enterprise resource planning (ERP), invoicing, human resource management (HRM), content management (CM) and service desk management. — Wikipedia



Communications of the ACM: Software The latest news, opinion and research in software, from Communications online.

  • Microsoft Warns Over Unusual Malware That Targets...
    on August 5, 2021 at 3:48 pm

    Microsoft security researchers are warning customers about the LemonDuck crypto-mining malware that attacks Windows and Linux systems.

  • How a 16-Year-Old Gets Other Kids Excited About...
    on August 5, 2021 at 3:44 pm

    Founded by 16-year-old Ian Michael Brock, Dream Hustle Code is a computer science and education program that aims to spark an interest in coding in students from diverse backgrounds.

  • Oregon Examines Spyware Investment amid...
    on August 5, 2021 at 1:50 pm

    The Oregon state employee pension fund is one of the largest investors, if not the largest, in a private equity firm that has majority ownership of NSO Group, the maker of the Pegasus spyware.

  • Developers Reveal Programming Languages They...
    on August 4, 2021 at 4:00 pm

    Programmer community Stack Overflow's 2021 survey of 83,439 software developers in 181 countries found the vast majority (86.69%) named Mozilla's Rust their "most loved" language.

  • The Triad of Graduate Studies
    on August 4, 2021 at 1:54 pm

    The Research Community, Research Subject, and Research Process.

Software News -- ScienceDaily Software Development -- Software Engineering. From embedded software to smart machines, read about advanced logic systems and more.

  • Running quantum software on a classical computer
    on August 3, 2021 at 4:14 pm

    Physicists have introduced an approach for simulating the quantum approximate optimization algorithm using a traditional computer. Instead of running the algorithm on advanced quantum processors, the new approach uses a classical machine-learning algorithm that closely mimics the behavior of near-term quantum computers.

  • Smartphone screens effective sensors for soil or...
    on July 22, 2021 at 5:13 pm

    The touchscreen technology used in billions of smartphones and tablets could also be used as a powerful sensor, without the need for any modifications.

  • Machine learning models to help photovoltaic...
    on July 20, 2021 at 4:23 pm

    Scientists develop algorithms that predict the output of solar cells, easing their integration into existing power grids.

  • MaxDIA: Taking proteomics to the next level
    on July 12, 2021 at 4:22 pm

    A new software improves data-independent acquisition proteomics by providing a computational workflow that permits highly sensitive and accurate data analysis.

  • Face off for best ID checkers
    on July 6, 2021 at 3:53 pm

    The Glasgow Face Matching Test has been updated to find super-recognizers who can help prevent errors caused by face recognition software.