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More Computer Software in Plain English (Common Craft)



These are organized by form and function.

Communications Computation Storage Authoring Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Typewriter Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Recorder Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS) Database Application AI, World

These are types of media formats.

Multimedia (Video, Animation), Image (Object), Scent, Flavor, Audio (Text), Haptic, “Other


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Software Portal (Wikipedia)


software : the set of programs, procedures, and related documentation associated with a system and especially a computer system; specifically : computer programs — Webster

FOLDOC: Free Online Dictionary of Computing, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Computer software, or just software is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. In other words, software is a conceptual entity which is a set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. We can also say software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Software (Wikipedia)
Outline of Software Development (Wikipedia)
Outline of Software Engineering (Wikipedia)



Software History Center
Software History Bibliography (Charles Babbage Institute)
Early History of Software Engineering (Robert L. Glass)

Early History of Software Engineering (Robert L. Glass)
Software History (Association of Software Professionals)
Software Database (IT History Society)

Iteractions: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Software History (Charles Babbage Institute)
Software History Bibliography (Charles Babbage Institute)

Fire in the Library: Jason Scott and the Archive Team (Matt Schwartz, with reporting by Eva Talmadge, MIT Technology Review)
GGC 2014: Every Computer, Ever, In Your Browser (Jason Scott) YouTube Video
The Internet Archive Software Collection (Jason Scott, VCF East 9.1) Audio, Well worth a Listen!

ASCII by Jason Scott: Jason Scott’s Weblog
Jason Scott Sadofsky (Wikipedia) (Software Archive) (Document Archive)
Internet Arcade (Jason Scott, Internet Archive)
Internet Archive (Brewster Kahle)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Software and Information Industry Association (SIIA)
ACM Special Interest Group on Software Engineering (SIGSOFT)


Association for Computing Machinery, Science Daily




Free Commercial Downloads (
Top Government Software Products (Capterra)





OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Software as a service (SaaS) sometimes referred to as “on-demand software”, is a software delivery model in which software and associated data are centrally hosted on the cloud. SaaS is typically accessed by users using a thin client via a web browser. SaaS has become a common delivery model for most business applications, including accounting, collaboration, customer relationship management (CRM), management information systems (MIS), enterprise resource planning (ERP), invoicing, human resource management (HRM), content management (CM) and service desk management. — Wikipedia



Communications of the ACM: Software The latest news, opinion and research in software, from Communications online.

  • Free Software Helps Planners Design Walkable...
    on November 14, 2019 at 6:10 pm

    A free software developed by Cornell researchers employs data, metrics, and an easy-to-use interface to help planners and architects add and assess walkability features in urban designs.

  • Dan Jacobson On ORNL's Algorithms for...
    on November 14, 2019 at 4:51 pm

    Dan Jacobson of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a few ideas on how artificial intelligence might impact agriculture, the food industry, and the field of bioengineering.

  • GitHub Tops 40 Million Developers as Python, Data...
    on November 8, 2019 at 5:00 pm

    Microsoft-owned GitHub's annual Octoverse report said its software developer community now exceeds 40 million developers.

  • China Restricts Video Gaming by Minors
    on November 8, 2019 at 5:00 pm

    Chinese officials have unveiled guidelines for limiting online videogame use by persons under 18, claiming it hurts health and learning.

  • Welcome to Robot University (Only Robots Need...
    on November 7, 2019 at 4:39 pm

    Roboticists are creating a data set of annotated video clips called RoboNet that could be used to train a robot's neural network to perform new tasks.

Software News -- ScienceDaily Software Development -- Software Engineering. From embedded software to smart machines, read about advanced logic systems and more.

  • Research to make (fun) multi-player gaming an...
    on November 13, 2019 at 4:19 pm

    A new video game framework brings together two well-studied approaches to educational software in order to keep multiple players engrossed in the learning experience while fostering collaboration and problem solving. The framework is one of the first to integrate narrative-centered learning and collaborative learning techniques, laying the groundwork for future efforts in the field.

  • This AI birdwatcher lets you 'see' through the...
    on October 31, 2019 at 4:34 pm

    It can take years of birdwatching experience to tell one species from the next. But using an artificial intelligence technique called deep learning, researchers have trained a computer to identify up to 200 species of birds from just a photo. This tool goes beyond giving the right answer to explain its thinking, in a way that even someone who doesn't know a penguin from a puffin can understand.

  • Stanford increasing access to 3D modeling through...
    on October 29, 2019 at 6:07 pm

    Researchers designed a tactile display that aims to make 3D printing and computer-aided design accessible to people who are blind and visually impaired.

  • Platform for scalable testing of autonomous...
    on October 25, 2019 at 9:08 pm

    In the race to manufacture autonomous vehicles (AVs), safety is crucial yet sometimes overlooked as exemplified by recent headline-making accidents. Researchers are using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to improve the safety of autonomous technology through both software and hardware advances.

  • Extending Wi-Fi range for smart-home devices
    on October 23, 2019 at 1:34 pm

    A group of researchers has created a protocol that significantly extends the distance a Wi-Fi enabled device can send and receive signals. The engineering innovation requires no new hardware to enhance the signal range for 'Internet of things' devices, like a door sensor or motion detector, but can extend the distance these devices can be installed from a Wi-Fi access point by more than 60 meters, according to test results.