Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
Geosphere may be taken as the collective name for the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
In Aristotelian physics, the term was applied to four spherical natural places, concentrically nested around the center of the Earth, as described in the lectures Physica and Meteorologica. They were believed to explain the motions of the four terrestrial elements: Earth, Water, Air and Fire.
In modern texts and in Earth system science, geosphere refers to the solid parts of the Earth; it is used along with atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere to describe the systems of the Earth (the interaction of these systems with the magnetosphere is sometimes listed). In that context, the term lithosphere is used instead of geosphere or solid Earth. The lithosphere only refers to the uppermost layers of the solid Earth (oceanic and continental crustal rocks and uppermost mantle). — Wikipedia
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history.
There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth’s environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.
The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the Earth’s interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. — Wikipedia
Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth’s “spheres”—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere, and, even, the magnetosphere —as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth’s spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution of these systems, and their stability or instability. Subsets of Earth system science include systems geology and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth system science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science. — Wikipedia
Nature Geoscience - Issue - nature.com science feeds Each month, Nature Geoscience will bring you top-quality research papers, reviews and opinion pieces - in print and online.
Up in smoke
on September 29, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Geoscience, Published online: 29 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41561-020-00647-3Where there is smoke, there are radiative feedbacks. With wildfires becoming a growing problem in the Anthropocene, we need to better understand the influence of fire on the climate system.
Future warming exacerbated by aged-soot effect on...
by Ulrike Lohmann on September 29, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Geoscience, Published online: 29 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41561-020-0631-0Aged soot particles in the atmosphere enhance future warming through their influence on cloud formation and thus Earth’s radiation balance, according to global climate simulations.
Marine organic carbon burial increased forest...
by F. Garrett Boudinot on September 29, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Geoscience, Published online: 29 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41561-020-0633-yA global carbon cycle perturbation during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 was probably due to elevated oxygen levels leading to a transient increase in wildfire activity, according to a record of plant biomarkers tracking fire frequency in western North America.
Arctic fires re-emerging
by Jessica L. McCarty on September 28, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Geoscience, Published online: 28 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41561-020-00645-5Underground smouldering fires resurfaced early in 2020, contributing to the unprecedented wildfires that tore through the Arctic this spring and summer. An international effort is needed to manage a changing fire regime in the vulnerable Arctic.
Homogenization of the terrestrial water cycle
by Delphis F. Levia on September 21, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Geoscience, Published online: 21 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41561-020-0641-yLand-use and land-cover changes are accelerating. Such changes can homogenize the water cycle and undermine planetary resilience. Policymakers and practitioners must consider water–vegetation interactions in their land-management decisions.
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After hurricanes, U.S. beach homes are rebuilt...
by Mary Caperton Morton on April 5, 2019 at 10:00 am
Folding drone flies into tight spaces
by Mary Caperton Morton on April 4, 2019 at 10:00 am
Geoethics in the Field: Leading by Example
by Scott E. Foss on April 3, 2019 at 10:00 am
Geoscience fieldwork is very visible to the public, and can have lasting impacts on the environment, so it is important that geoscientists integrate ethical principles into our field practices — and impart them to our students.
Inside the inferno: How large firenadoes form
by Mary Caperton Morton on April 2, 2019 at 10:00 am
Wind or water? Hurricane Harvey's most...
by Stephanie Fovenyessy and Sierra F. Patterson on April 1, 2019 at 10:00 am
After Hurricane Harvey struck Texas in August 2017, the massive flooding in Houston was widely reported. In some Gulf Coast towns, the damage caused by high winds and the storm surge went less noticed. The month after the storm, the authors visited several Gulf Coast communities to survey damage and quantify factors that influenced its distribution, with the hope that their observations might help coastal communities prepare for future hurricanes.
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
Lightning strikes more than 100 million times per...
on July 23, 2020 at 3:29 pm
Researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama have published dramatic maps showing the locations of lightning strikes across the tropics in Global Change Biology. Based on ground and satellite data, they estimate that more than 100 million lighting strikes on land each year will radically alter forests and other ecosystems in the region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
Scientists have discovered the origins of the...
on March 16, 2020 at 7:00 pm
Rutgers researchers have discovered the origins of the protein structures responsible for metabolism: simple molecules that powered early life on Earth and serve as chemical signals that NASA could use to search for life on other planets.
REE mineral-bearing rocks found in eastern Mojave...
on January 2, 2020 at 5:39 pm
Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have mapped a rare earth element deposit of magmatic carbonatite located in the Mountain Pass region of the eastern Mojave Desert. The new report details the geophysical and geological setting of the deposit, including a map of the deposit's subsurface extent, to help land-use managers evaluate sites for further exploration. The report was recently published in the Geological Society of America's online journal, Geosphere.
GIS-based analysis of fault zone geometry and...
on October 24, 2019 at 4:57 pm
Typical geologic investigations of active earthquake fault zones require that the fault can be observed at or near the Earth's surface. However, in urban areas, where faults present a direct hazard to dense populations, the surface expression of a fault is often hidden by development of buildings and infrastructure. This is the case in San Diego, California, where the Rose Canyon fault zone trends through the highly developed downtown.
New study examines 2017-2018 Thomas Fire debris...
on June 28, 2019 at 6:08 pm
Shortly before the beginning of the 2017-2018 winter rainy season, one of the largest fires in California (USA) history (Thomas fire) substantially increased the susceptibility of steep slopes in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties to debris flows. On 9 Jan. 2018, before the fire was fully contained, an intense burst of rain fell on the portion of the burn area above Montecito, California. The rainfall and associated runoff triggered a series of debris flows that mobilized ~680,000 cubic meters […]