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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Geosphere may be taken as the collective name for the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

In Aristotelian physics, the term was applied to four spherical natural places, concentrically nested around the center of the Earth, as described in the lectures Physica and Meteorologica. They were believed to explain the motions of the four terrestrial elements: Earth, Water, Air and Fire.

In modern texts and in Earth system science, geosphere refers to the solid parts of the Earth; it is used along with atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere to describe the systems of the Earth (the interaction of these systems with the magnetosphere is sometimes listed). In that context, the term lithosphere is used instead of geosphere or solid Earth. The lithosphere only refers to the uppermost layers of the solid Earth (oceanic and continental crustal rocks and uppermost mantle). — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


What is geoscience? (American Geosciences Institute)


Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history.

There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth’s environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.

The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the Earth’s interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. — Wikipedia

Geoscience Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth’s “spheres”—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere, and, even, the magnetosphere —as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth’s spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution of these systems, and their stability or instability. Subsets of Earth system science include systems geology and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth system science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science.[18] — Wikipedia



Earth Sciences History Journal (The History of Earth Sciences Society)
The History of Earth Sciences Society


Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Official Site)
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Wikipedia)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Science on a Sphere (NOAA)
Science on a Sphere Datasets (NOAA)
Science on a Sphere (YouTube Playlists, NOAA)
Science on a Sphere (Wikipedia)

Earth System Science in a Nutshell (Martin Ruzek, Universities Space Research Association)


Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)
Crash Course Kids Earth Science: Earth’s Spheres and Natural Resources

Earth System Science 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (UC Irvine OpenCourseWare, YouTube)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Geoscience Careers (American Geosciences Institute)


American Geosciences Institute


Nature Geoscience

Earth Magazine (American Geosciences Institute)




Earth Observatory (NASA)
NASA Earth Observatory (Wikipedia)
NASA Earth Science

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)







Nature Geoscience - Issue - nature.com science feeds Each month, Nature Geoscience will bring you top-quality research papers, reviews and opinion pieces - in print and online.

  • Author Correction: World’s landlocked basins...
    by Tamlin M. Pavelsky on December 12, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Author Correction: World’s landlocked basins dryingAuthor Correction: World’s landlocked basins drying, Published online: 12 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0289-zAuthor Correction: World’s landlocked basins drying […]

  • Twenty-first century glacier slowdown driven by...
    by Amaury Dehecq on December 10, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Twenty-first century glacier slowdown driven by mass loss in High Mountain AsiaTwenty-first century glacier slowdown driven by mass loss in High Mountain Asia, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0271-9Changes in glacier speed in High Mountain Asia are closely linked to mass balance through gravitational driving stress, and largely insensitive to basal conditions, according to satellite-derived ice-flow observations. […]

  • Nutrient release to oceans from buoyancy-driven...
    by Mattias R. Cape on December 10, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Nutrient release to oceans from buoyancy-driven upwelling at Greenland tidewater glaciersNutrient release to oceans from buoyancy-driven upwelling at Greenland tidewater glaciers, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0268-4Glacial meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet causes buoyancy-driven upwelling of nutrient-rich, subtropical waters from depth to the continental shelf. This nutrient transport may exceed the direct ice sheet inputs, according to geochemical analyses of […]

  • Experimental evidence for sustained carbon...
    by R. H. Marrs on December 3, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Experimental evidence for sustained carbon sequestration in fire-managed, peat moorlandsExperimental evidence for sustained carbon sequestration in fire-managed, peat moorlands, Published online: 03 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0266-6Prescribed burning has far less impacts on peat growth and carbon sequestration than previously thought, according to a long-term experiment in fire-managed peat moorlands in England. Managed burning may be a viable strategy to make peatlands more […]

  • World’s landlocked basins drying
    by Tamlin M. Pavelsky on November 30, 2018 at 12:00 am

    World’s landlocked basins dryingWorld’s landlocked basins drying, Published online: 30 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0269-3Most of the net water transferred over the past 15 years from non-glaciated land to the oceans has originated from landlocked basins, according to satellite data. This source of sea-level rise is often overlooked. […]

EARTH RSS Keep up with the Latest Publications from EARTH Magazine

  • Did early agriculture knock the climate off track?
    by Adityarup "Rup" Chakravorty on December 12, 2018 at 11:00 am

    During the last 2.5 million years, Earth’s climate has seen cycles of advancing and retreating glaciers over much of the Northern Hemisphere. We are currently in a warm, interglacial period — one that’s been prolonged by increases in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane. According to a new study in Nature, these high concentrations of greenhouse gases have disrupted the recent pattern of cycling in Earth’s climate […]

  • Voyager 2 pierces the heliopause, enters...
    by Harvey Leifert on December 11, 2018 at 8:45 am


  • Southern Ocean is absorbing less carbon
    by Sarah Derouin on December 10, 2018 at 11:00 am

    In the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica, complex and dynamic interactions among the atmosphere, cryosphere, and surface and deep ocean waters play an important role in climate. Although it covers only a quarter of Earth’s oceanic surface area, the Southern Ocean — with its cold temperatures and carbon-sucking algal blooms — has been estimated to take up 40 percent of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. However, new data collected by a fleet of autonomous floating […]

  • Travels in Geology: Touring the Capital Geology...
    by Callan Bentley and Ken Rasmussen on December 7, 2018 at 11:00 am

    This month, the American Geophysical Union will host its annual fall meeting in Washington, D.C. Take a tour of the city’s unexpected geology, showcased in both natural rock outcrops and the capital’s diverse suite of building stone found in museums and monuments on the National Mall. […]

  • New tool predicts probability of...
    by Mary Caperton Morton on December 7, 2018 at 11:00 am

    Landslides are the third-leading cause of death in earthquakes, after building collapses and tsunamis. Unlike tsunamis, however, which usually arrive minutes to hours after an earthquake, earthquake-triggered landslides tend to occur simultaneously with ground shaking, so a landslide warning system is not possible. But a new model that predicts where landslides may be triggered during earthquakes could help emergency aid and rescue efforts. […]

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Researchers find new way to estimate magma...
    on June 4, 2018 at 8:46 pm

    Researchers at Washington State University and the University of Idaho have found a new way to estimate how fast magma is recharging beneath the Yellowstone supervolcano. While their findings offer no help in predicting if the volcano will erupt, they can now get a better understanding of a key factor—a pool of basalt magma recharging the system—in how it works. […]

  • Spatial skills higher among those who played with...
    on February 5, 2018 at 7:00 pm

    Childhood play experiences strongly shape a person's spatial skills, according to a new CIRES-led study—those skills can be critical to success in fields like science and engineering. Young adults who played with construction-based toys such as Legos, or with certain types of video games outperformed other peers in tests of spatial reasoning—like the skill needed to mentally rotate objects. And most notably, the new research found that gender differences in spatial skills disappear […]

  • 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: Results from seismic...
    on September 5, 2017 at 6:12 pm

    A striking finding of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) is that more than 50 meters of coseismic fault slip reached the trench axis. In addition to this, seismological studies found a clear depth-dependent variation in the source location between high- and low-frequency seismic energy radiation. However, structural features that may control the slip behavior in the rupture zone have not been well examined. […]

  • Big data points humanity to new minerals, new...
    on August 1, 2017 at 8:34 pm

    Applying big data analysis to mineralogy offers a way to predict minerals missing from those known to science, where to find them, and where to find new deposits of valuable minerals such as gold and copper, according to a groundbreaking study. […]

  • What happens to the boats? The 1755 Lisbon...
    on April 10, 2017 at 9:37 pm

    In their paper published this week in Geosphere, authors Clara Vasconcelos, Joanna Torres, and Joana Costa point out the need for continued geoscience education on the topic of tsunamis and other earthquake-related hazards. […]