Sphere

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Pages

Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Encyclopedia

Geosphere may be taken as the collective name for the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

In Aristotelian physics, the term was applied to four spherical natural places, concentrically nested around the center of the Earth, as described in the lectures Physica and Meteorologica. They were believed to explain the motions of the four terrestrial elements: Earth, Water, Air and Fire.

In modern texts and in Earth system science, geosphere refers to the solid parts of the Earth; it is used along with atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere to describe the systems of the Earth (the interaction of these systems with the magnetosphere is sometimes listed). In that context, the term lithosphere is used instead of geosphere or solid Earth. The lithosphere only refers to the uppermost layers of the solid Earth (oceanic and continental crustal rocks and uppermost mantle). — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Introduction

What is geoscience? (American Geosciences Institute)

Science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history.

There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth’s environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.

The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the Earth’s interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. — Wikipedia






Geoscience Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth’s “spheres”—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere, and, even, the magnetosphere —as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth’s spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution of these systems, and their stability or instability. Subsets of Earth system science include systems geology and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth system science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science.[18] — Wikipedia


Preservation

History


Earth Sciences History Journal (The History of Earth Sciences Society)
The History of Earth Sciences Society

Museum



Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Official Site)
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Wikipedia)

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

Participation

Education




Science on a Sphere (NOAA)
Science on a Sphere Datasets (NOAA)
Science on a Sphere (YouTube Playlists, NOAA)
Science on a Sphere (Wikipedia)

Earth System Science in a Nutshell (Martin Ruzek, Universities Space Research Association)

Course



Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)
Crash Course Kids Earth Science: Earth’s Spheres and Natural Resources

Earth System Science 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (UC Irvine OpenCourseWare, YouTube)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

Occupation


Geoscience Careers (American Geosciences Institute)

Organization

American Geosciences Institute

News

Nature Geoscience

Earth Magazine (American Geosciences Institute)
Phys.org

Book

ISBNdb

Government



Earth Observatory (NASA)
NASA Earth Observatory (Wikipedia)
NASA Earth Science

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Document

USA.gov

Expression

Fun


returntotop

More…

Nature Geoscience - Issue - nature.com science feeds Each month, Nature Geoscience will bring you top-quality research papers, reviews and opinion pieces - in print and online.

  • Molecular trade-offs in soil organic carbon...
    by Steven J. Hall on September 14, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Geoscience, Published online: 14 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41561-020-0634-xEnvironmental factors influence the molecular composition of carbon in soils across continental gradients, according to analyses of North American mineral soils.

  • Slip-rate-dependent friction as a universal...
    by Kyungjae Im on September 7, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Geoscience, Published online: 07 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41561-020-0627-9A transition from rate-weakening to rate-strengthening frictional behaviour with increasing slip rate could explain the observed diversity of slow slip events on faults, according to numerical simulations.

  • Inelastic earthquake damage
    by Wanpeng Feng on September 7, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Geoscience, Published online: 07 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41561-020-0642-xPermanent surface deformation caused by the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes has been directly measured, constraining the mechanics of surface damage in earthquakes.

  • Localized fault-zone dilatancy and surface...
    by William D. Barnhart on September 7, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Geoscience, Published online: 07 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41561-020-0628-8Inelastic failure in the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes was localized and influenced by mylonitic deformation of the fault damage zone, according to an analysis of surface displacements derived from satellite images.

  • Author Correction: Shape of (101955) Bennu...
    by O. S. Barnouin on September 2, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Geoscience, Published online: 02 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41561-020-0643-9Author Correction: Shape of (101955) Bennu indicative of a rubble pile with internal stiffness


EARTH RSS Keep up with the Latest Publications from EARTH Magazine


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Lightning strikes more than 100 million times per...
    on July 23, 2020 at 3:29 pm

    Researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama have published dramatic maps showing the locations of lightning strikes across the tropics in Global Change Biology. Based on ground and satellite data, they estimate that more than 100 million lighting strikes on land each year will radically alter forests and other ecosystems in the region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

  • Scientists have discovered the origins of the...
    on March 16, 2020 at 7:00 pm

    Rutgers researchers have discovered the origins of the protein structures responsible for metabolism: simple molecules that powered early life on Earth and serve as chemical signals that NASA could use to search for life on other planets.

  • REE mineral-bearing rocks found in eastern Mojave...
    on January 2, 2020 at 5:39 pm

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have mapped a rare earth element deposit of magmatic carbonatite located in the Mountain Pass region of the eastern Mojave Desert. The new report details the geophysical and geological setting of the deposit, including a map of the deposit's subsurface extent, to help land-use managers evaluate sites for further exploration. The report was recently published in the Geological Society of America's online journal, Geosphere.

  • GIS-based analysis of fault zone geometry and...
    on October 24, 2019 at 4:57 pm

    Typical geologic investigations of active earthquake fault zones require that the fault can be observed at or near the Earth's surface. However, in urban areas, where faults present a direct hazard to dense populations, the surface expression of a fault is often hidden by development of buildings and infrastructure. This is the case in San Diego, California, where the Rose Canyon fault zone trends through the highly developed downtown.

  • New study examines 2017-2018 Thomas Fire debris...
    on June 28, 2019 at 6:08 pm

    Shortly before the beginning of the 2017-2018 winter rainy season, one of the largest fires in California (USA) history (Thomas fire) substantially increased the susceptibility of steep slopes in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties to debris flows. On 9 Jan. 2018, before the fire was fully contained, an intense burst of rain fell on the portion of the burn area above Montecito, California. The rainfall and associated runoff triggered a series of debris flows that mobilized ~680,000 cubic meters […]