Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
Geosphere may be taken as the collective name for the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
In Aristotelian physics, the term was applied to four spherical natural places, concentrically nested around the center of the Earth, as described in the lectures Physica and Meteorologica. They were believed to explain the motions of the four terrestrial elements: Earth, Water, Air and Fire.
In modern texts and in Earth system science, geosphere refers to the solid parts of the Earth; it is used along with atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere to describe the systems of the Earth (the interaction of these systems with the magnetosphere is sometimes listed). In that context, the term lithosphere is used instead of geosphere or solid Earth. The lithosphere only refers to the uppermost layers of the solid Earth (oceanic and continental crustal rocks and uppermost mantle). — Wikipedia
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history.
There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth’s environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.
The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the Earth’s interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. — Wikipedia
Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth’s “spheres”—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere, and, even, the magnetosphere —as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth’s spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution of these systems, and their stability or instability. Subsets of Earth system science include systems geology and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth system science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science. — Wikipedia
Nature Geoscience - Issue - nature.com science feeds Each month, Nature Geoscience will bring you top-quality research papers, reviews and opinion pieces - in print and online.
Ammonium availability in the Late Archaean...
by J. Yang on May 20, 2019 at 12:00 am
Nature Geoscience, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0371-1Biologically available nitrogen in the form of ammonium was abundant in the Late Archaean ocean, according to nitrogen isotope and proxy analyses on 2.7 billion year old shales from Zimbabwe. […]
Author Correction: Interruption of two decades of...
by Ala Khazendar on May 20, 2019 at 12:00 am
Nature Geoscience, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0382-yAuthor Correction: Interruption of two decades of Jakobshavn Isbrae acceleration and thinning as regional ocean cools […]
Pluto’s ocean is capped and insulated by gas...
by Shunichi Kamata on May 20, 2019 at 12:00 am
Nature Geoscience, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0369-8Pluto’s subsurface ocean and thickness variation in its ice shell may be maintained by a layer of methane clathrates forming an insulating cap to the ocean, according to calculations of thermal evolution and viscous relaxation. […]
Episodic stress and fluid pressure cycling in...
by E. Warren-Smith on May 20, 2019 at 12:00 am
Nature Geoscience, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0367-xStress cycling in subducting crust before and during slow slip events is due to accumulation and release of fluid pressure, according to analysis of small earthquakes in the Hikurangi subduction zone. […]
Highly heterogeneous depleted mantle recorded in...
by Sarah Lambart on May 20, 2019 at 12:00 am
Nature Geoscience, Published online: 20 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0368-9Melts from diverse mantle components are delivered to the lower oceanic crust and preserved at centimetre scale, according to the wide range in the Nd and Sr isotope composition of gabbroic minerals from a segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. […]
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After hurricanes, U.S. beach homes are rebuilt...
by Mary Caperton Morton on April 5, 2019 at 10:00 am
Folding drone flies into tight spaces
by Mary Caperton Morton on April 4, 2019 at 10:00 am
Geoethics in the Field: Leading by Example
by Scott E. Foss on April 3, 2019 at 10:00 am
Geoscience fieldwork is very visible to the public, and can have lasting impacts on the environment, so it is important that geoscientists integrate ethical principles into our field practices — and impart them to our students. […]
Inside the inferno: How large firenadoes form
by Mary Caperton Morton on April 2, 2019 at 10:00 am
Wind or water? Hurricane Harvey's most...
by Stephanie Fovenyessy and Sierra F. Patterson on April 1, 2019 at 10:00 am
After Hurricane Harvey struck Texas in August 2017, the massive flooding in Houston was widely reported. In some Gulf Coast towns, the damage caused by high winds and the storm surge went less noticed. The month after the storm, the authors visited several Gulf Coast communities to survey damage and quantify factors that influenced its distribution, with the hope that their observations might help coastal communities prepare for future hurricanes. […]
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
Folding faults and seismic risk in the Kunlun...
on April 18, 2019 at 5:01 pm
The tectonic deformation and growth pattern of the western Kunlun, which is the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, are not currently well understood. The surface rupture caused by an earthquake can provide a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of coseismic faulting on landscape evolution, to refine regional deformation models, and to understand future seismic risk. […]
Leveraging scientists' perceptions for successful...
on April 15, 2019 at 8:52 pm
Creating new policies that deal with important issues like climate change requires input from geoscientists. Policy makers, media outlets, and the general public are interested in hearing from experts, and scientists are put under increasing amounts of pressure to effectively engage in policy decisions. […]
Underwater surveys in Emerald Bay reveal the...
on March 19, 2019 at 6:10 pm
Emerald Bay, California, a beautiful location on the southwestern shore of Lake Tahoe, is surrounded by rugged landscape, including rocky cliffs and remnants of mountain glaciers. Scenic as it may be, the area is also a complex structural puzzle. Understanding the history of fault movement in the Lake Tahoe basin is important to assessing earthquake hazards for regional policy planners. […]
Researchers find new way to estimate magma...
on June 4, 2018 at 7:46 pm
Researchers at Washington State University and the University of Idaho have found a new way to estimate how fast magma is recharging beneath the Yellowstone supervolcano. While their findings offer no help in predicting if the volcano will erupt, they can now get a better understanding of a key factor—a pool of basalt magma recharging the system—in how it works. […]
Spatial skills higher among those who played with...
on February 5, 2018 at 6:00 pm
Childhood play experiences strongly shape a person's spatial skills, according to a new CIRES-led study—those skills can be critical to success in fields like science and engineering. Young adults who played with construction-based toys such as Legos, or with certain types of video games outperformed other peers in tests of spatial reasoning—like the skill needed to mentally rotate objects. And most notably, the new research found that gender differences in spatial skills disappear […]