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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Geosphere may be taken as the collective name for the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

In Aristotelian physics, the term was applied to four spherical natural places, concentrically nested around the center of the Earth, as described in the lectures Physica and Meteorologica. They were believed to explain the motions of the four terrestrial elements: Earth, Water, Air and Fire.

In modern texts and in Earth system science, geosphere refers to the solid parts of the Earth; it is used along with atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere to describe the systems of the Earth (the interaction of these systems with the magnetosphere is sometimes listed). In that context, the term lithosphere is used instead of geosphere or solid Earth. The lithosphere only refers to the uppermost layers of the solid Earth (oceanic and continental crustal rocks and uppermost mantle). — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


What is geoscience? (American Geosciences Institute)


Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history.

There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth’s environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.

The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the Earth’s interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. — Wikipedia

Geoscience Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth’s “spheres”—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere, and, even, the magnetosphere —as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth’s spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution of these systems, and their stability or instability. Subsets of Earth system science include systems geology and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth system science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science.[18] — Wikipedia



Earth Sciences History Journal (The History of Earth Sciences Society)
The History of Earth Sciences Society


Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Official Site)
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Wikipedia)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Science on a Sphere (NOAA)
Science on a Sphere Datasets (NOAA)
Science on a Sphere (YouTube Playlists, NOAA)
Science on a Sphere (Wikipedia)

Earth System Science in a Nutshell (Martin Ruzek, Universities Space Research Association)


Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)
Crash Course Kids Earth Science: Earth’s Spheres and Natural Resources

Earth System Science 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (UC Irvine OpenCourseWare, YouTube)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Geoscience Careers (American Geosciences Institute)


American Geosciences Institute


Nature Geoscience

Earth Magazine (American Geosciences Institute)




Earth Observatory (NASA)
NASA Earth Observatory (Wikipedia)
NASA Earth Science

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)







Nature Geoscience - Issue - nature.com science feeds Each month, Nature Geoscience will bring you top-quality research papers, reviews and opinion pieces - in print and online.

  • Negligible cycling of terrestrial carbon in many...
    by Matthew J. Bogard on February 11, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Negligible cycling of terrestrial carbon in many lakes of the arid circumpolar landscapeNegligible cycling of terrestrial carbon in many lakes of the arid circumpolar landscape, Published online: 11 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0299-5Many lakes in arid, organic-poor permafrost landscapes have a negligible role in mineralizing terrestrial carbon, according to metabolic analyses of lakes in the arid Yukon Flats Basin. […]

  • A consensus estimate for the ice thickness...
    by Daniel Farinotti on February 11, 2019 at 12:00 am

    A consensus estimate for the ice thickness distribution of all glaciers on EarthA consensus estimate for the ice thickness distribution of all glaciers on Earth, Published online: 11 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0300-3The ice volume of glaciers outside the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets totals about 158,000 km3, with about 27% less ice in High Mountain Asia than thought, according to multiple models that estimate ice thickness from surface characteristics. […]

  • Publisher Correction: Recent global decline in...
    by Jida Wang on February 5, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Publisher Correction: Recent global decline in endorheic basin water storagesPublisher Correction: Recent global decline in endorheic basin water storages, Published online: 05 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0316-8Publisher Correction: Recent global decline in endorheic basin water storages […]

  • Early and persistent supershear rupture of the...
    by Han Bao on February 4, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Early and persistent supershear rupture of the 2018 magnitude 7.5 Palu earthquakeEarly and persistent supershear rupture of the 2018 magnitude 7.5 Palu earthquake, Published online: 04 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0297-zSupershear rupture speed occurred at the devastating 2018 magnitude 7.5 Palu earthquake, Indonesia, according to back-projection of teleseismic data. […]

  • A 60-Myr record of continental back-arc...
    by Lauren C. Wolfram on February 4, 2019 at 12:00 am

    A 60-Myr record of continental back-arc differentiation through cyclic meltingA 60-Myr record of continental back-arc differentiation through cyclic melting, Published online: 04 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0298-6Melting of sedimentary rocks in the continental back-arc is cyclical with peaks of magmatism every 10 to 15 million years, according to zircon ages from Paleozoic western Gondwana margin samples. […]

EARTH RSS Keep up with the Latest Publications from EARTH Magazine

  • Benchmarks: February 17, 2017: Arkansas Gets a...
    by David Moscato on February 17, 2019 at 11:00 am

    In 1972, the first dinosaur remains ever found in Arkansas — a fossilized foot — were pulled out of a gravel and sand pit near the Sevier County town of Lockesburg in the southwestern part of the state. Though the foot remained a scientific mystery for decades, it became something of a local celebrity. […]

  • Humans accidentally created new rivers in Europe
    by Lucas Joel on February 15, 2019 at 11:00 am

    Meandering rivers that flow through and transport sediment to deltas often split off from their main courses and flow in different directions. This process, called avulsion, happens naturally when a river overflows its banks and the floodwaters carve out a new course for the river to follow. But humans can also trigger avulsions by changing the shape of the landscape, and in a new study, scientists report that people have been doing this for a very long time. […]

  • Free swimmers came back first after Great Dying
    by Mary Caperton Morton on February 14, 2019 at 11:00 am

    About 252 million years ago, at the boundary between the Permian and Triassic periods, the vast majority of marine and terrestrial life died out in the most devastating extinction event in Earth’s history. Earth’s ecosystems eventually recovered, but not in the way — or as quickly as — scientists thought. In a new study looking at how marine species reemerged in the Triassic, researchers report a surprising trend of recovery from the top of the food chain down. […]

  • Geologic Column: Is this land really your land?
    by Fred Schwab on February 13, 2019 at 11:00 am

    In 1940, Woody Guthrie wrote the iconic folk song, “This Land Is Your Land,” as a commentary on inequality. Where do we stand today, and who really owns the land in America? […]

  • Archaeologists hit pay dirt in medieval latrines
    by Mary Caperton Morton on February 12, 2019 at 11:00 am

    Archaeologists digging in Lübeck, Germany, unearthed an unusual source of information about past dietary habits in the city: parasite eggs recovered from 700-year-old latrines. […]

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Researchers find new way to estimate magma...
    on June 4, 2018 at 8:46 pm

    Researchers at Washington State University and the University of Idaho have found a new way to estimate how fast magma is recharging beneath the Yellowstone supervolcano. While their findings offer no help in predicting if the volcano will erupt, they can now get a better understanding of a key factor—a pool of basalt magma recharging the system—in how it works. […]

  • Spatial skills higher among those who played with...
    on February 5, 2018 at 7:00 pm

    Childhood play experiences strongly shape a person's spatial skills, according to a new CIRES-led study—those skills can be critical to success in fields like science and engineering. Young adults who played with construction-based toys such as Legos, or with certain types of video games outperformed other peers in tests of spatial reasoning—like the skill needed to mentally rotate objects. And most notably, the new research found that gender differences in spatial skills disappear […]

  • 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: Results from seismic...
    on September 5, 2017 at 6:12 pm

    A striking finding of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) is that more than 50 meters of coseismic fault slip reached the trench axis. In addition to this, seismological studies found a clear depth-dependent variation in the source location between high- and low-frequency seismic energy radiation. However, structural features that may control the slip behavior in the rupture zone have not been well examined. […]

  • Big data points humanity to new minerals, new...
    on August 1, 2017 at 8:34 pm

    Applying big data analysis to mineralogy offers a way to predict minerals missing from those known to science, where to find them, and where to find new deposits of valuable minerals such as gold and copper, according to a groundbreaking study. […]

  • What happens to the boats? The 1755 Lisbon...
    on April 10, 2017 at 9:37 pm

    In their paper published this week in Geosphere, authors Clara Vasconcelos, Joanna Torres, and Joana Costa point out the need for continued geoscience education on the topic of tsunamis and other earthquake-related hazards. […]