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Geosphere may be taken as the collective name for the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

In Aristotelian physics, the term was applied to four spherical natural places, concentrically nested around the center of the Earth, as described in the lectures Physica and Meteorologica. They were believed to explain the motions of the four terrestrial elements: Earth, Water, Air and Fire.

In modern texts and in Earth system science, geosphere refers to the solid parts of the Earth; it is used along with atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere to describe the systems of the Earth (the interaction of these systems with the magnetosphere is sometimes listed). In that context, the term lithosphere is used instead of geosphere or solid Earth. The lithosphere only refers to the uppermost layers of the solid Earth (oceanic and continental crustal rocks and uppermost mantle). — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


What is geoscience? (American Geosciences Institute)


Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history.

There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth’s environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.

The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the Earth’s interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. — Wikipedia

Geoscience Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth’s “spheres”—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere, and, even, the magnetosphere —as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth’s spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution of these systems, and their stability or instability. Subsets of Earth system science include systems geology and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth system science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science.[18] — Wikipedia



Earth Sciences History Journal (The History of Earth Sciences Society)
The History of Earth Sciences Society


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Science on a Sphere (NOAA)
Science on a Sphere Datasets (NOAA)
Science on a Sphere (YouTube Playlists, NOAA)
Science on a Sphere (Wikipedia)

Earth System Science in a Nutshell (Martin Ruzek, Universities Space Research Association)


Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)
Crash Course Kids Earth Science: Earth’s Spheres and Natural Resources

Earth System Science 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (UC Irvine OpenCourseWare, YouTube)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Geoscience Careers (American Geosciences Institute)


American Geosciences Institute


Nature Geoscience

Earth Magazine (American Geosciences Institute)




Earth Observatory (NASA)
NASA Earth Observatory (Wikipedia)
NASA Earth Science

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)







Nature Geoscience - Issue - nature.com science feeds Each month, Nature Geoscience will bring you top-quality research papers, reviews and opinion pieces - in print and online.

  • Global patterns in wood carbon concentration...
    by Adam R. Martin on October 22, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Global patterns in wood carbon concentration across the world’s trees and forestsGlobal patterns in wood carbon concentration across the world’s trees and forests, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0246-xLarge variability of wood carbon fractions in different trees can lead to an error of up to 8.9% in carbon estimates for forests, according to an analysis of wood carbon data across global forested biomes. […]

  • O<sub>2</sub> solubility in Martian...
    by Vlada Stamenković on October 22, 2018 at 12:00 am

    O2 solubility in Martian near-surface environments and implications for aerobic lifeO<sub>2</sub> solubility in Martian near-surface environments and implications for aerobic life, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0243-0Despite little O2 in the Martian atmosphere, concentrations of dissolved O2 in near-surface brines on Mars may be sufficient to support aerobic life, according to solubility calculations. […]

  • Author Correction: A changeable day in the life...
    by James Tuttle Keane on October 16, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Author Correction: A changeable day in the life of VenusAuthor Correction: A changeable day in the life of Venus, Published online: 16 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0255-9Author Correction: A changeable day in the life of Venus […]

  • Climatic and volcanic forcing of tropical belt...
    by R. Alfaro-Sánchez on October 15, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Climatic and volcanic forcing of tropical belt northern boundary over the past 800 yearsClimatic and volcanic forcing of tropical belt northern boundary over the past 800 years, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0242-1Climate variability and volcanic forcing both influenced the latitudinal migration of the tropical belt over the past 800 years, according to an analysis of tree-ring widths in the Northern Hemisphere. […]

  • Rapid incision of the Mekong River in the middle...
    by Junsheng Nie on October 15, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Rapid incision of the Mekong River in the middle Miocene linked to monsoonal precipitationRapid incision of the Mekong River in the middle Miocene linked to monsoonal precipitation, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0244-zIncision of the Mekong River that occurred after the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau may have been driven by a period of high monsoon precipitation, as suggested by age data from river bedrock samples and stream profile modelling. […]

EARTH RSS Keep up with the Latest Publications from EARTH Magazine

  • Mineral Resource of the Month: Phosphate
    by U.S. Geological Survey on October 23, 2018 at 10:00 am

    Phosphate rock refers to unprocessed ore and beneficiated concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals. Apatite in phosphate rock is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers. More than 80 percent of the world’s current production of phosphate rock is mined from sedimentary deposits, which were formed by the deposition of phosphate-rich materials in marine regions. Most of the rest comes from igneous deposits of carbonatites and […]

  • Monsoon strength affects global ice volumes, not...
    by Adityarup &quot;Rup&quot; Chakravorty on October 22, 2018 at 10:00 am

    In the 1920s, Serbian scientist Milutin Milankovitch proposed that cyclical changes in Earth’s orbital eccentricity, as well as its axial tilt and orientation, shape global climate. Part of his theory — widely accepted since — is that the amount of solar radiation, or insolation, reaching high northern latitudes is a major factor in regulating global ice volume and albedo, which in turn control the strength of tropical monsoons. But in a new study, researchers suggest […]

  • Down to Earth With: Volcanologist Thorvaldur...
    by Mary Caperton Morton on October 19, 2018 at 10:00 am

    Despite growing up in Iceland, with Earth’s most volcanically active landscape as his playground, Thorvaldur Thordarson had no idea he would grow up to be a volcanologist. Nor did he suspect that his career path would take him all over the world to witness eruptions and aftermaths on six continents. […]

  • First Antarctic tetrapods
    by Lucas Joel on October 18, 2018 at 10:00 am

    Tetrapods include all those animals with four limbs. Humans are tetrapods, as are dogs and dinosaurs and salamanders. The earliest tetrapods evolved on land from fish with bony fins during the Devonian Period between about 420 million and 359 million years ago. Until now, fossils of the earliest four-legged forms were only known from equatorial regions, but paleontologists working in South Africa now report the discovery of fossil tetrapods that lived in the Late Devonian Antarctic. […]

  • Sipping carbon-neutral fuel from the atmosphere
    by Mary Caperton Morton on October 16, 2018 at 10:00 am

    In the near future, vehicles may be powered by carbon that comes from the sky, rather than out of the ground. Direct Air Capture (DAC) technology pulls carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and converts the carbon into pellets that can be used to make hydrocarbon fuel that works in traditional engines. A new study details the process, which has been tested over the last three years, and offers some cost-saving solutions that make DAC more economically feasible than ever. […]

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Researchers find new way to estimate magma...
    on June 4, 2018 at 7:46 pm

    Researchers at Washington State University and the University of Idaho have found a new way to estimate how fast magma is recharging beneath the Yellowstone supervolcano. While their findings offer no help in predicting if the volcano will erupt, they can now get a better understanding of a key factor—a pool of basalt magma recharging the system—in how it works. […]

  • Spatial skills higher among those who played with...
    on February 5, 2018 at 6:00 pm

    Childhood play experiences strongly shape a person's spatial skills, according to a new CIRES-led study—those skills can be critical to success in fields like science and engineering. Young adults who played with construction-based toys such as Legos, or with certain types of video games outperformed other peers in tests of spatial reasoning—like the skill needed to mentally rotate objects. And most notably, the new research found that gender differences in spatial skills disappear […]

  • 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: Results from seismic...
    on September 5, 2017 at 5:12 pm

    A striking finding of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) is that more than 50 meters of coseismic fault slip reached the trench axis. In addition to this, seismological studies found a clear depth-dependent variation in the source location between high- and low-frequency seismic energy radiation. However, structural features that may control the slip behavior in the rupture zone have not been well examined. […]

  • Big data points humanity to new minerals, new...
    on August 1, 2017 at 7:34 pm

    Applying big data analysis to mineralogy offers a way to predict minerals missing from those known to science, where to find them, and where to find new deposits of valuable minerals such as gold and copper, according to a groundbreaking study. […]

  • What happens to the boats? The 1755 Lisbon...
    on April 10, 2017 at 8:37 pm

    In their paper published this week in Geosphere, authors Clara Vasconcelos, Joanna Torres, and Joana Costa point out the need for continued geoscience education on the topic of tsunamis and other earthquake-related hazards. […]