Tree

Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Life / Plant / Tree

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Introduction1

Dictionary

tree : a woody perennial plant having a single usually elongate main stem generally with few or no branches on its lower part — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Encyclopedia

Tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. In looser senses, the taller palms, the tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. — Wikipedia

Tree Facts (Trees Group), Encyclopædia Britannica

Portal

Trees are Good (International Society of Arboriculture), Trees Group, Trees Portal (Wikipedia)

OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer
Tree of Life Web Project

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Inspiration

These are interactive 360° YouTube videos — press and hold to explore!

Giant Redwoods and Sequoias (Sequoia National Park)
About the Trees: Redwood (National and State Parks
California)

Redwood National and State Parks (Wikipedia)
Sequoioideae (Wikipedia)

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Foundation

System

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Innovation

Science

Arboriculture is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. The science of arboriculture studies how these plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment. The practice of arboriculture includes cultural techniques such as selection, planting, training, fertilization, pest and pathogen control, pruning, shaping, and removal.

A person who practices or studies arboriculture can be termed an ‘arborist’ or an ‘arboriculturist’. A ‘tree surgeon’ is more typically someone who is trained in the physical maintenance and manipulation of trees and therefore more a part of the arboriculture process rather than an arborist. Risk management, legal issues, and aesthetic considerations have come to play prominent roles in the practice of arboriculture. Businesses often need to hire arboriculturists to complete “tree hazard surveys” and generally manage the trees on-site to fulfill occupational safety and health obligations.

Arboriculture is primarily focused on individual woody plants and trees maintained for permanent landscape and amenity purposes, usually in gardens, parks or other populated settings, by arborists, for the enjoyment, protection, and benefit of people. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Science

Wood wide web: The underground network of microbes that connects trees—mapped for first time (Gabriel Popkin, Science Magazine)
Do Trees Talk to Each Other? (Richard Grant, Smithsonian Magazine)
The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate (Peter Wohlleben)

Technology

Leafsnap: An Electronic Field Guide

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Preservation

The Center for Tree Science: Securing the future of trees (The Morton Arboretum)

History

The History of Arboriculture (Citywide)

Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.

Dendrochronology is useful for determining the timing of events and rates of change in the environment (most prominently climate) and also in works of art and architecture, such as old panel paintings on wood, buildings, etc. It is also used in radiocarbon dating to calibrate radiocarbon ages.

New growth in trees occurs in a layer of cells near the bark. A tree’s growth rate changes in a predictable pattern throughout the year in response to seasonal climate changes, resulting in visible growth rings. Each ring marks a complete cycle of seasons, or one year, in the tree’s life. As of 2013, the oldest tree-ring measurements in the Northern Hemisphere are a floating sequence extending from about 12,580 to 13,900 years. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Tree-Ring Society
Tree-Ring Basics (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Tree-Ring Resources (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Bristlecone Pine Dendrochronology (Leonard Miller)
Dendrochronology Resources (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona)

Pando is the name of the largest organism on Earth, and one of the oldest (Pando Populus)
Pando (Wikipedia)
Quaking aspen (Wikipedia)

One of the world’s largest organisms is shrinking (David Shultz, Science Magazine)
The Biggest Organism on Earth Is Dying, and It’s Our Fault (Yessenia Funes, Gizmodo)

Quotation

Tree Quotes (Trees Group), Quotations Page

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

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Participation

Education

Educational Activities about Trees (Trees are Good)

Course

Crash Course Biology (YouTube Playlist)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

Occupation

Arborist (Trees are Good)

Organization

International Society of Arboriculture

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Document

USA.gov

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Expression

Fun

Tree Jokes (Trees Group)

Adventure

Freespirit Spheres (Vancover Island, Canada)

Out’n’About Treehouses Treesort (Takilma, Oregon)
Azulik Resort (Tulum, Mexico)
Treehouse Lodge Resort (Iquitos, Peru)

Mystery

Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!

There’s a Forest in Poland Filled With Crooked Trees, And No One Can Explain Why (Jack Sommer, Science Alert)
Crooked Forest (Wikipedia)

Arts

Tree Hugger Project (Agnieszka Gradzik & Wiktor Szostalo)
Tree Hugger Project (Agnieszka Gradzik, Wikipedia)

Poem

Tree Poems (Trees Group), OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

Tree Music (Trees Group), Song Lyrics

Fiction

Ents (Tolkien Gateway)

Tree of Souls (Avatar Wiki)

Folklore and Myth

returntotop


More News …

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • New biomechanical method draws roots into deeper...
    on July 20, 2021 at 2:13 pm

    Tree roots are drawn towards moist soil, a phenomenon known as hydrotropism. Near surface watering therefore causes roots to stay close to the surface instead of growing deep into the ground. Biomechanical engineers from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed a new, easily applied method, the "gravel cylinder," to attract the tree roots towards deeper, moister soil layers. This should make trees more resistant to the consequences of climate change.

  • An act of God, or just bad management? Why trees...
    on June 15, 2021 at 12:44 pm

    The savage storms that swept Victoria last week sent trees crashing down, destroying homes and blocking roads. Under climate change, stronger winds and extreme storms will be more frequent. This will cause more trees to fall and, sadly, people may die.

  • How climate change is affecting gardens
    on January 29, 2020 at 1:01 pm

    According to Dr. Dave Kendal from the University of Tasmania, in the next 50 years, 20-50% of current plant species in botanic gardens and urban landscapes will likely confront temperatures those species have never experienced before.

  • Oaks instead of palm trees? Florida's iconic...
    on November 22, 2019 at 5:30 pm

    South Florida's palm trees are postcard promises of sighing sea breezes and sandy beaches, but the icon of the tropics may be an impractical adornment in an era of climate change.

  • The overlooked third man
    on April 20, 2015 at 1:50 pm

    The horticulturist who came up with the concept of 'evolution by natural selection' 27 years before Charles Darwin did should be more widely acknowledged for his contribution, states a new paper by a King's College London geneticist.


Trees News -- ScienceDaily Read all about trees, including the latest research on many tree species, insect infestations, and the role of trees in ecology. Full articles, photos, free.

  • A family of termites has been traversing the...
    on May 23, 2022 at 2:22 pm

    A comprehensive family tree, based on DNA sequences, has revealed that drywood termites have made at least 40 oceanic journeys over the last 50 million years to reach far flung landmasses.

  • Rainforest trees may have been dying faster since...
    on May 18, 2022 at 3:38 pm

    Tropical trees in Australia's rainforests have been dying at double the previous rate since the 1980s, seemingly because of climate impacts, according to the findings of a long-term international study. This research has found the death rates of tropical trees have doubled in the last 35 years, as global warming increases the drying power of the atmosphere.

  • High rates of landscape degradation not product...
    on May 18, 2022 at 12:03 pm

    Once humans discovered how to tame fire, they began using it for heat, cooking, to scare away animals and to alter their environs, especially burning areas to plant and to restore grazing land. In Madagascar, scientists and conservationists have long believed that fire is a leading cause of high landscape degradation, but an international team of researchers have found that medium to large fires on the island are similar to those on other tropical locations.

  • What we're still learning about how trees grow
    on May 12, 2022 at 6:43 pm

    A new study finds that tree growth does not seem to be generally limited by photosynthesis but rather by cell growth. This suggests that we need to rethink the way we forecast forest growth in a changing climate, and that forests in the future may not be able to absorb as much carbon from the atmosphere as we thought.

  • Water makes tree branches droop at night
    on May 12, 2022 at 4:19 pm

    Terrestrial laser scanning data show that trees move their branches in a diurnal pattern, settling down for the night -- as if falling asleep. Changes in the water status of leaves and branches causes branches to move downward at night, up to 20 cm depending on the tree species.

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Related

Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

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Notes

1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.