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Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
tree : a woody perennial plant having a single usually elongate main stem generally with few or no branches on its lower part — Webster
Tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. In looser senses, the taller palms, the tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. — Wikipedia
Arboriculture is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. The science of arboriculture studies how these plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment. The practice of arboriculture includes cultural techniques such as selection, planting, training, fertilization, pest and pathogen control, pruning, shaping, and removal.
A person who practices or studies arboriculture can be termed an ‘arborist’ or an ‘arboriculturist’. A ‘tree surgeon’ is more typically someone who is trained in the physical maintenance and manipulation of trees and therefore more a part of the arboriculture process rather than an arborist. Risk management, legal issues, and aesthetic considerations have come to play prominent roles in the practice of arboriculture. Businesses often need to hire arboriculturists to complete “tree hazard surveys” and generally manage the trees on-site to fulfill occupational safety and health obligations.
Arboriculture is primarily focused on individual woody plants and trees maintained for permanent landscape and amenity purposes, usually in gardens, parks or other populated settings, by arborists, for the enjoyment, protection, and benefit of people. — Wikipedia
Wood wide web: The underground network of microbes that connects trees—mapped for first time (Gabriel Popkin, Science Magazine)
Do Trees Talk to Each Other? (Richard Grant, Smithsonian Magazine)
The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate (Peter Wohlleben)
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
Dendrochronology is useful for determining the timing of events and rates of change in the environment (most prominently climate) and also in works of art and architecture, such as old panel paintings on wood, buildings, etc. It is also used in radiocarbon dating to calibrate radiocarbon ages.
New growth in trees occurs in a layer of cells near the bark. A tree’s growth rate changes in a predictable pattern throughout the year in response to seasonal climate changes, resulting in visible growth rings. Each ring marks a complete cycle of seasons, or one year, in the tree’s life. As of 2013, the oldest tree-ring measurements in the Northern Hemisphere are a floating sequence extending from about 12,580 to 13,900 years. — Wikipedia
The Tree-Ring Society
Tree-Ring Basics (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Tree-Ring Resources (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Bristlecone Pine Dendrochronology (Leonard Miller)
Dendrochronology Resources (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona)
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Trees News -- ScienceDaily Read all about trees, including the latest research on many tree species, insect infestations, and the role of trees in ecology. Full articles, photos, free.
- Scientists reveal genetic secrets of...on October 25, 2021 at 9:21 pm
Researchers have decoded the genome of the mangrove tree, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, and revealed how this species regulates its genes in order to cope with stress. Their findings could one day be used to help other plants be more tolerant to stress.
- First dinosaur era crab fully preserved in amber...on October 20, 2021 at 7:02 pm
Researchers describe the first crab from the Cretaceous dinosaur era preserved in amber. The study used micro CT to examine and describe Cretapsara athanata, the oldest modern-looking crab (approximately 100 million years old) and the most complete fossil crab ever discovered.
- Primates’ ancestors may have left trees to...on October 13, 2021 at 3:40 pm
When an asteroid struck 66 million years ago and wiped out dinosaurs not related to birds and three-quarters of life on Earth, early ancestors of primates and marsupials were among the only tree-dwelling (arboreal) mammals that survived, according to a new study.
- Novel habitats created by non-native mangrove...on October 12, 2021 at 3:22 pm
In the face of declining fisheries, threatened reef habitat, and changing climatic conditions, non-native mangroves may provide, rather than impede, zooplankton habitat availability in novel locations.
- 'Mystery plant' from the Amazon declared a new...on October 6, 2021 at 1:54 pm
After nearly 50 years, scientists have finally figured out what family a strange Amazonian tree with tiny orange fruit belongs to.
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
- New biomechanical method draws roots into deeper...on July 20, 2021 at 2:13 pm
Tree roots are drawn towards moist soil, a phenomenon known as hydrotropism. Near surface watering therefore causes roots to stay close to the surface instead of growing deep into the ground. Biomechanical engineers from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed a new, easily applied method, the "gravel cylinder," to attract the tree roots towards deeper, moister soil layers. This should make trees more resistant to the consequences of climate change.
- An act of God, or just bad management? Why trees...on June 15, 2021 at 12:44 pm
The savage storms that swept Victoria last week sent trees crashing down, destroying homes and blocking roads. Under climate change, stronger winds and extreme storms will be more frequent. This will cause more trees to fall and, sadly, people may die.
- How climate change is affecting gardenson January 29, 2020 at 1:01 pm
According to Dr. Dave Kendal from the University of Tasmania, in the next 50 years, 20-50% of current plant species in botanic gardens and urban landscapes will likely confront temperatures those species have never experienced before.
- Oaks instead of palm trees? Florida's iconic...on November 22, 2019 at 5:30 pm
South Florida's palm trees are postcard promises of sighing sea breezes and sandy beaches, but the icon of the tropics may be an impractical adornment in an era of climate change.
- The overlooked third manon April 20, 2015 at 1:50 pm
The horticulturist who came up with the concept of 'evolution by natural selection' 27 years before Charles Darwin did should be more widely acknowledged for his contribution, states a new paper by a King's College London geneticist.