Tree

Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Life / Plant / Tree

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Introduction1

Dictionary

tree : a woody perennial plant having a single usually elongate main stem generally with few or no branches on its lower part — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Encyclopedia

Tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. In looser senses, the taller palms, the tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. — Wikipedia

Tree Facts (Trees Group), Encyclopædia Britannica

Portal

Trees are Good (International Society of Arboriculture), Trees Group, Trees Portal (Wikipedia)

OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer
Tree of Life Web Project

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Innovation

Science

Arboriculture is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. The science of arboriculture studies how these plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment. The practice of arboriculture includes cultural techniques such as selection, planting, training, fertilization, pest and pathogen control, pruning, shaping, and removal.

A person who practices or studies arboriculture can be termed an ‘arborist’ or an ‘arboriculturist’. A ‘tree surgeon’ is more typically someone who is trained in the physical maintenance and manipulation of trees and therefore more a part of the arboriculture process rather than an arborist. Risk management, legal issues, and aesthetic considerations have come to play prominent roles in the practice of arboriculture. Businesses often need to hire arboriculturists to complete “tree hazard surveys” and generally manage the trees on-site to fulfill occupational safety and health obligations.

Arboriculture is primarily focused on individual woody plants and trees maintained for permanent landscape and amenity purposes, usually in gardens, parks or other populated settings, by arborists, for the enjoyment, protection, and benefit of people. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Science

Wood wide web: The underground network of microbes that connects trees—mapped for first time (Gabriel Popkin, Science Magazine)
Do Trees Talk to Each Other? (Richard Grant, Smithsonian Magazine)
The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate (Peter Wohlleben)

Technology

Leafsnap: An Electronic Field Guide

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Preservation

The Center for Tree Science: Securing the future of trees (The Morton Arboretum)

History

The History of Arboriculture (Citywide)

Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.

Dendrochronology is useful for determining the timing of events and rates of change in the environment (most prominently climate) and also in works of art and architecture, such as old panel paintings on wood, buildings, etc. It is also used in radiocarbon dating to calibrate radiocarbon ages.

New growth in trees occurs in a layer of cells near the bark. A tree’s growth rate changes in a predictable pattern throughout the year in response to seasonal climate changes, resulting in visible growth rings. Each ring marks a complete cycle of seasons, or one year, in the tree’s life. As of 2013, the oldest tree-ring measurements in the Northern Hemisphere are a floating sequence extending from about 12,580 to 13,900 years. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Tree-Ring Society
Tree-Ring Basics (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Tree-Ring Resources (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Bristlecone Pine Dendrochronology (Leonard Miller)
Dendrochronology Resources (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona)

One of the world’s largest organisms is shrinking (David Shultz, Science Magazine)
The Biggest Organism on Earth Is Dying, and It’s Our Fault (Yessenia Funes, Gizmodo)

Quotation

Tree Quotes (Trees Group), Quotations Page

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

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Participation

Education

Educational Activities about Trees (Trees are Good)

Community

Occupation

Arborist (Trees are Good)

Organization

International Society of Arboriculture

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Document

USA.gov

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More News …

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Get out and go fungal: Why it's a bumper time to...
    on June 6, 2022 at 2:10 pm

    When COVID forced Melburnians to isolate during large parts of 2020 and 2021, many took the opportunity to walk around parks, creeks or remnant bush.

  • New biomechanical method draws roots into deeper...
    on July 20, 2021 at 2:13 pm

    Tree roots are drawn towards moist soil, a phenomenon known as hydrotropism. Near surface watering therefore causes roots to stay close to the surface instead of growing deep into the ground. Biomechanical engineers from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed a new, easily applied method, the "gravel cylinder," to attract the tree roots towards deeper, moister soil layers. This should make trees more resistant to the consequences of climate change.

  • An act of God, or just bad management? Why trees...
    on June 15, 2021 at 12:44 pm

    The savage storms that swept Victoria last week sent trees crashing down, destroying homes and blocking roads. Under climate change, stronger winds and extreme storms will be more frequent. This will cause more trees to fall and, sadly, people may die.

  • How climate change is affecting gardens
    on January 29, 2020 at 1:01 pm

    According to Dr. Dave Kendal from the University of Tasmania, in the next 50 years, 20-50% of current plant species in botanic gardens and urban landscapes will likely confront temperatures those species have never experienced before.

  • Oaks instead of palm trees? Florida's iconic...
    on November 22, 2019 at 5:30 pm

    South Florida's palm trees are postcard promises of sighing sea breezes and sandy beaches, but the icon of the tropics may be an impractical adornment in an era of climate change.


Trees News -- ScienceDaily Read all about trees, including the latest research on many tree species, insect infestations, and the role of trees in ecology. Full articles, photos, free.

  • Trees get overheated in a warmer rainforest
    on September 27, 2022 at 5:34 pm

    The ability of rainforests to store carbon can decrease in pace with climate change. This is due to photosynthesis rates in the leaves of rainforest species falling at higher temperatures and the trees' natural cooling systems failing during droughts. Increased heat threatens especially the species that store most carbon.

  • Differences in fungus found in reared and wild...
    on September 27, 2022 at 3:34 am

    A recent study in Japan has found that reared ambrosia beetles, Euwallacea interjectus, can have symbiotic fungi different to those found in the wild. These findings suggest biocontrol implications for pest beetles that damage valuable crop trees such as fig trees.

  • Higher temperatures make it difficult for fig...
    on September 23, 2022 at 4:16 pm

    Researchers have been studying the effect of rising temperatures on the lifespan of pollinating fig wasps. The findings show that the wasps lived much shorter lives at high temperatures, which would make it difficult for them to travel the long distances between the trees they pollinate.

  • Tracking the origin of southern California's...
    on September 23, 2022 at 4:16 pm

    In 2012, a crop of California's most prized ornamental trees was overrun by an invisible invader. The growing shoots of coral beans -- the official city tree of Los Angeles -- began wilting and falling away, revealing stems that had been hollowed out from the inside by the caterpillars of Erythrina stem borer moths. A new study published this Wednesday in the Journal of Applied Entomology reveals the culprit's origin through a DNA analysis of insects provided by the late Dan Lindsley, formerly […]

  • Seeing the unseen: Birth and death of tree roots...
    on September 22, 2022 at 2:32 pm

    Increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere causes trees to put more resource into developing root systems below ground.

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Related

Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

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Notes

1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.