Tree

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Giant Redwoods and Sequoias (Sequoia National Park)
About the Trees: Redwood (National and State Parks
California)

Redwood National and State Parks (Wikipedia)
Sequoioideae (Wikipedia)

Related

Pages

Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Portal

Trees are Good (International Society of Arboriculture), Trees Group, Trees Portal (Wikipedia)

Dictionary

tree : a woody perennial plant having a single usually elongate main stem generally with few or no branches on its lower part — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Encyclopedia

Tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. In looser senses, the taller palms, the tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. — Wikipedia

David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science, Tree Facts (Trees Group), Encyclopædia Britannica

OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer
Tree of Life Web Project

System






Science

Arboriculture is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. The science of arboriculture studies how these plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment. The practice of arboriculture includes cultural techniques such as selection, planting, training, fertilization, pest and pathogen control, pruning, shaping, and removal.

A person who practices or studies arboriculture can be termed an ‘arborist’ or an ‘arboriculturist’. A ‘tree surgeon’ is more typically someone who is trained in the physical maintenance and manipulation of trees and therefore more a part of the arboriculture process rather than an arborist. Risk management, legal issues, and aesthetic considerations have come to play prominent roles in the practice of arboriculture. Businesses often need to hire arboriculturists to complete “tree hazard surveys” and generally manage the trees on-site to fulfill occupational safety and health obligations.

Arboriculture is primarily focused on individual woody plants and trees maintained for permanent landscape and amenity purposes, usually in gardens, parks or other populated settings, by arborists, for the enjoyment, protection, and benefit of people. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Technology



Leafsnap: An Electronic Field Guide

Preservation

The Center for Tree Science: Securing the future of trees (The Morton Arboretum)

History


The History of Arboriculture (Citywide)

Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.

Dendrochronology is useful for determining the timing of events and rates of change in the environment (most prominently climate) and also in works of art and architecture, such as old panel paintings on wood, buildings, etc. It is also used in radiocarbon dating to calibrate radiocarbon ages.

New growth in trees occurs in a layer of cells near the bark. A tree’s growth rate changes in a predictable pattern throughout the year in response to seasonal climate changes, resulting in visible growth rings. Each ring marks a complete cycle of seasons, or one year, in the tree’s life. As of 2013, the oldest tree-ring measurements in the Northern Hemisphere are a floating sequence extending from about 12,580 to 13,900 years. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


The Tree-Ring Society
Tree-Ring Basics (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Tree-Ring Resources (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Bristlecone Pine Dendrochronology (Leonard Miller)
Dendrochronology Resources (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona)


Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!


Bristlecone pines (Great Basin National Park)
Bristlecone pine (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Bristlecone pine (Wikipedia)



Pando is the name of the largest organism on Earth, and one of the oldest (Pando Populus)
Pando (Wikipedia)
Quaking aspen (Wikipedia)

One of the world’s largest organisms is shrinking (David Shultz, Science Magazine)
The Biggest Organism on Earth Is Dying, and It’s Our Fault (Yessenia Funes, Gizmodo)

Quotation

Tree Quotes (Trees Group), Quotations Page

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

Participation

Education

Educational Activities about Trees (Trees are Good)

Course



Crash Course Biology (YouTube Playlist)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

Occupation

Arborist (Trees are Good)

Organization

International Society of Arboriculture

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Document

USA.gov

Expression


Fun


Tree Jokes (Trees Group)

Adventure


Freespirit Spheres (Vancover Island, Canada)

Out’n’About Treehouses Treesort (Takilma, Oregon)
Azulik Resort (Tulum, Mexico)
Treehouse Lodge Resort (Iquitos, Peru)

Mystery

Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!


There’s a Forest in Poland Filled With Crooked Trees, And No One Can Explain Why (Jack Sommer, Science Alert)
Crooked Forest (Wikipedia)

Arts



Tree Hugger Project (Agnieszka Gradzik & Wiktor Szostalo)
Tree Hugger Project (Agnieszka Gradzik, Wikipedia)

Poem

Tree Poems (Trees Group), OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

Tree Music (Trees Group), Song Lyrics

returntotop

More…

Trees News -- ScienceDaily Read all about trees, including the latest research on many tree species, insect infestations, and the role of trees in ecology. Full articles, photos, free.

  • Researchers see need for action on forest fire...
    on September 17, 2019 at 2:45 pm

    How do humans affect forest fires? An international team of researchers has now shown for a region in north-eastern Poland that forest fires increasingly occurred there after the end of the 18th century with the change to organized forestry. The increased number of fires subsequently made it necessary to manage and maintain the forests differently. In the wake of climate change, the researchers suggest new strategies for the fight against forest fires.

  • A modelling tool to rapidly predict weed spread...
    on September 16, 2019 at 2:18 pm

    A new statistical modelling tool will enable land management authorities to predict where invasive weed species are most likely to grow so they can find and eliminate plants before they have time to spread widely.

  • Ash tree species likely will survive emerald ash...
    on September 9, 2019 at 9:07 pm

    'Lingering ash.' That's what the US Forest Service calls the relatively few green and white ash trees that survive the emerald ash borer onslaught. Those trees do not survive by accident, and that may save the species, according to researchers, who conducted a six-year study of ash decline and mortality.

  • Diversity increases ecosystem stability
    on September 5, 2019 at 1:40 pm

    Forestry scientists demonstrate that forests that are more diverse are also more productive and more resilient.

  • Deer browsing is not stopping the densification...
    on September 3, 2019 at 9:34 pm

    Selective browsing by white-tailed deer has been blamed by many for changing the character and composition of forest understories in the eastern US; however, its impact on the forest canopy was previously unknown.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • The overlooked third man
    on April 20, 2015 at 1:50 pm

    The horticulturist who came up with the concept of 'evolution by natural selection' 27 years before Charles Darwin did should be more widely acknowledged for his contribution, states a new paper by a King's College London geneticist.

  • How ancient species survived or died off in their...
    on April 16, 2015 at 7:31 pm

    "The answers to extinction, survival and evolution are right here in the dirt," says University of Cincinnati Quaternary science researcher Ken Tankersley, associate professor of anthropology and geology. "And we are continually surprised by what we find."

  • A thousand years of environmental change in...
    on November 14, 2014 at 11:00 am

    Environmental change is nothing new in Polynesia. For centuries, the inhabitants of the volcanic, sea-battered islands have been employing a variety of strategies to adapt to their changing landscapes.

  • Middle school students introduced to...
    on May 5, 2014 at 3:21 pm

    A potential new sixth grade curriculum augmentation has been introduced to teach youth about an important topic: how to recognize structural defects in trees. "This highly important topic is rarely presented in middle or even high school," said author Laura Sanagorski. Sanagorski and coauthor George Fitzpatrick reported on their introduction to the new subject matter—which they tested in sixth grade science classes at three Florida middle schools—in HortTechnology.

  • Amazon deforestation due in part to soybean...
    on September 17, 2013 at 8:20 pm

    Fighting deforestation of the Amazon for cattle raising and farming is one of the great rallying cries of the world's conservationists.