Tree

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Giant Redwoods and Sequoias (Sequoia National Park)
About the Trees: Redwood (National and State Parks
California)

Redwood National and State Parks (Wikipedia)
Sequoioideae (Wikipedia)

Related

Pages

Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Portal

Trees are Good (International Society of Arboriculture), Trees Group, Trees Portal (Wikipedia)

Dictionary

tree : a woody perennial plant having a single usually elongate main stem generally with few or no branches on its lower part — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Encyclopedia

Tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. In looser senses, the taller palms, the tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. — Wikipedia

David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science, Tree Facts (Trees Group), Encyclopædia Britannica

OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer
Tree of Life Web Project

System






Science

Arboriculture is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. The science of arboriculture studies how these plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment. The practice of arboriculture includes cultural techniques such as selection, planting, training, fertilization, pest and pathogen control, pruning, shaping, and removal.

A person who practices or studies arboriculture can be termed an ‘arborist’ or an ‘arboriculturist’. A ‘tree surgeon’ is more typically someone who is trained in the physical maintenance and manipulation of trees and therefore more a part of the arboriculture process rather than an arborist. Risk management, legal issues, and aesthetic considerations have come to play prominent roles in the practice of arboriculture. Businesses often need to hire arboriculturists to complete “tree hazard surveys” and generally manage the trees on-site to fulfill occupational safety and health obligations.

Arboriculture is primarily focused on individual woody plants and trees maintained for permanent landscape and amenity purposes, usually in gardens, parks or other populated settings, by arborists, for the enjoyment, protection, and benefit of people. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Technology



Leafsnap: An Electronic Field Guide

Preservation

The Center for Tree Science: Securing the future of trees (The Morton Arboretum)

History


The History of Arboriculture (Citywide)

Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.

Dendrochronology is useful for determining the timing of events and rates of change in the environment (most prominently climate) and also in works of art and architecture, such as old panel paintings on wood, buildings, etc. It is also used in radiocarbon dating to calibrate radiocarbon ages.

New growth in trees occurs in a layer of cells near the bark. A tree’s growth rate changes in a predictable pattern throughout the year in response to seasonal climate changes, resulting in visible growth rings. Each ring marks a complete cycle of seasons, or one year, in the tree’s life. As of 2013, the oldest tree-ring measurements in the Northern Hemisphere are a floating sequence extending from about 12,580 to 13,900 years. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


The Tree-Ring Society
Tree-Ring Basics (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Tree-Ring Resources (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Bristlecone Pine Dendrochronology (Leonard Miller)
Dendrochronology Resources (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona)


Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!


Bristlecone pines (Great Basin National Park)
Bristlecone pine (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Bristlecone pine (Wikipedia)



Pando is the name of the largest organism on Earth, and one of the oldest (Pando Populus)
Pando (Wikipedia)
Quaking aspen (Wikipedia)

One of the world’s largest organisms is shrinking (David Shultz, Science Magazine)
The Biggest Organism on Earth Is Dying, and It’s Our Fault (Yessenia Funes, Gizmodo)

Quotation

Tree Quotes (Trees Group), Quotations Page

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

Participation

Education

Educational Activities about Trees (Trees are Good)

Course



Crash Course Biology (YouTube Playlist)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

Occupation

Arborist (Trees are Good)

Organization

International Society of Arboriculture

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Document

USA.gov

Expression


Fun


Tree Jokes (Trees Group)

Mystery

Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!


There’s a Forest in Poland Filled With Crooked Trees, And No One Can Explain Why (Jack Sommer, Science Alert)
Crooked Forest (Wikipedia)

Arts



Tree Hugger Project (Agnieszka Gradzik & Wiktor Szostalo)
Tree Hugger Project (Agnieszka Gradzik, Wikipedia)

Poem

Tree Poems (Trees Group), OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

Tree Music (Trees Group), Song Lyrics

returntotop

More…

Trees News -- ScienceDaily Read all about trees, including the latest research on many tree species, insect infestations, and the role of trees in ecology. Full articles, photos, free.

  • Researchers reverse engineer way pine trees...
    on December 12, 2018 at 3:46 pm

    Researchers have reverse engineered the way a pine tree produces a resin, which could serve as an environmentally friendly alternative to a range of fossil-fuel based products worth billions of dollars. […]

  • How plants can generate electricity to power LED...
    on December 12, 2018 at 2:33 pm

    Researchers have discovered that living plants are literally 'green' power source: they can generate, by a single leaf, more than 150 Volts, enough to simultaneously power 100 LED light bulbs. Researchers also showed that an 'hybrid tree' made of natural and artificial leaves can act as an innovative 'green' electrical generator converting wind into electricity. […]

  • 52 million tree stories more accessible to science
    on December 11, 2018 at 4:29 pm

    The world's primary archive of tree ring data, which holds more than 52 million cost-free records spanning 8,000 years of history, has gotten a makeover by scientists from four countries committed to making science more accessible.   The International Tree Ring Data Bank, developed in 1974 and populated by hundreds of contributing scientists and agencies, had only been used for a handful of studies at a global scale due to inconsistent data accessibility and formatting. […]

  • Missing the forest for the trees: An unexpected...
    on December 6, 2018 at 4:47 pm

    An inventory of New York City's expansive yet overlooked 'forested natural areas' reveals that, contrary to previous reports, native species still comprise about 82 percent of the city's forest stands. In the forests' mid- and understory, however, the proportion of native species fell significantly, suggesting that their dominance could decline in coming decades. […]

  • Not too big, not too small: Tree frogs choose...
    on December 5, 2018 at 7:27 pm

    Frogs that raise their young in tiny pools of water that collect on plant leaves must make a delicate trade-off between the risk of drying out and the risk of being eaten, according to a new study. […]


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • The overlooked third man
    on April 20, 2015 at 2:50 pm

    The horticulturist who came up with the concept of 'evolution by natural selection' 27 years before Charles Darwin did should be more widely acknowledged for his contribution, states a new paper by a King's College London geneticist. […]

  • How ancient species survived or died off in their...
    on April 16, 2015 at 8:31 pm

    "The answers to extinction, survival and evolution are right here in the dirt," says University of Cincinnati Quaternary science researcher Ken Tankersley, associate professor of anthropology and geology. "And we are continually surprised by what we find." […]

  • A thousand years of environmental change in...
    on November 14, 2014 at 12:00 pm

    Environmental change is nothing new in Polynesia. For centuries, the inhabitants of the volcanic, sea-battered islands have been employing a variety of strategies to adapt to their changing landscapes. […]

  • Middle school students introduced to...
    on May 5, 2014 at 4:21 pm

    A potential new sixth grade curriculum augmentation has been introduced to teach youth about an important topic: how to recognize structural defects in trees. "This highly important topic is rarely presented in middle or even high school," said author Laura Sanagorski. Sanagorski and coauthor George Fitzpatrick reported on their introduction to the new subject matter—which they tested in sixth grade science classes at three Florida middle schools—in HortTechnology. […]

  • Amazon deforestation due in part to soybean...
    on September 17, 2013 at 9:20 pm

    Fighting deforestation of the Amazon for cattle raising and farming is one of the great rallying cries of the world's conservationists. […]