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Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
tree : a woody perennial plant having a single usually elongate main stem generally with few or no branches on its lower part — Webster
Tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. In looser senses, the taller palms, the tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. — Wikipedia
Arboriculture is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. The science of arboriculture studies how these plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment. The practice of arboriculture includes cultural techniques such as selection, planting, training, fertilization, pest and pathogen control, pruning, shaping, and removal.
A person who practices or studies arboriculture can be termed an ‘arborist’ or an ‘arboriculturist’. A ‘tree surgeon’ is more typically someone who is trained in the physical maintenance and manipulation of trees and therefore more a part of the arboriculture process rather than an arborist. Risk management, legal issues, and aesthetic considerations have come to play prominent roles in the practice of arboriculture. Businesses often need to hire arboriculturists to complete “tree hazard surveys” and generally manage the trees on-site to fulfill occupational safety and health obligations.
Arboriculture is primarily focused on individual woody plants and trees maintained for permanent landscape and amenity purposes, usually in gardens, parks or other populated settings, by arborists, for the enjoyment, protection, and benefit of people. — Wikipedia
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
Dendrochronology is useful for determining the timing of events and rates of change in the environment (most prominently climate) and also in works of art and architecture, such as old panel paintings on wood, buildings, etc. It is also used in radiocarbon dating to calibrate radiocarbon ages.
New growth in trees occurs in a layer of cells near the bark. A tree’s growth rate changes in a predictable pattern throughout the year in response to seasonal climate changes, resulting in visible growth rings. Each ring marks a complete cycle of seasons, or one year, in the tree’s life. As of 2013, the oldest tree-ring measurements in the Northern Hemisphere are a floating sequence extending from about 12,580 to 13,900 years. — Wikipedia
The Tree-Ring Society
Tree-Ring Basics (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Tree-Ring Resources (Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research)
Bristlecone Pine Dendrochronology (Leonard Miller)
Dendrochronology Resources (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona)
Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!
There’s a Forest in Poland Filled With Crooked Trees, And No One Can Explain Why (Jack Sommer, Science Alert)
Crooked Forest (Wikipedia)
Trees News -- ScienceDaily Read all about trees, including the latest research on many tree species, insect infestations, and the role of trees in ecology. Full articles, photos, free.
Resilience of Yellowstone's forests tested by...
on May 20, 2019 at 7:30 pm
Researchers describe what happens when Yellowstone -- adapted to recurring fires every 100 to 300 years -- instead burns twice in fewer than 30 years. Yellowstone as we know it faces an uncertain future, the researchers say, and one of the big questions they hope to answer is whether the forests can recover. […]
Opposite pathways in forest recovery
on May 17, 2019 at 3:51 pm
Tropical forests are being deforested at an alarming rate to make way for agriculture; the good news is that they can regrow naturally when the fields are abandoned. An international research team found that regenerating wet and dry forests actually show opposite pathways. This implies a fundamental change in our understanding of how tropical forests change, with consequences for forest restoration and biodiversity. […]
A tale of two skeeters
on May 16, 2019 at 5:17 pm
A native mosquito in Missouri has fewer parasites when it shares its waters with an interloper, according to new research. […]
Evolution in the gut
on May 16, 2019 at 2:14 pm
Evolution and dietary habits interact and determine the composition of bacteria in the digestive tract. Many microorganisms in the intestine seem to have developed in sync with their host animals over millions of years. […]
Mapping microbial symbioses in forests
on May 15, 2019 at 5:17 pm
Data collected from over 1 million forest plots reveals patterns of where plant roots form symbiotic relationships with fungi and bacteria. […]
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
The overlooked third man
on April 20, 2015 at 1:50 pm
The horticulturist who came up with the concept of 'evolution by natural selection' 27 years before Charles Darwin did should be more widely acknowledged for his contribution, states a new paper by a King's College London geneticist. […]
How ancient species survived or died off in their...
on April 16, 2015 at 7:31 pm
"The answers to extinction, survival and evolution are right here in the dirt," says University of Cincinnati Quaternary science researcher Ken Tankersley, associate professor of anthropology and geology. "And we are continually surprised by what we find." […]
A thousand years of environmental change in...
on November 14, 2014 at 11:00 am
Environmental change is nothing new in Polynesia. For centuries, the inhabitants of the volcanic, sea-battered islands have been employing a variety of strategies to adapt to their changing landscapes. […]
Middle school students introduced to...
on May 5, 2014 at 3:21 pm
A potential new sixth grade curriculum augmentation has been introduced to teach youth about an important topic: how to recognize structural defects in trees. "This highly important topic is rarely presented in middle or even high school," said author Laura Sanagorski. Sanagorski and coauthor George Fitzpatrick reported on their introduction to the new subject matter—which they tested in sixth grade science classes at three Florida middle schools—in HortTechnology. […]
Amazon deforestation due in part to soybean...
on September 17, 2013 at 8:20 pm
Fighting deforestation of the Amazon for cattle raising and farming is one of the great rallying cries of the world's conservationists. […]