Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Physical / Universe


James Webb Space Telescope (NASA Goddard, YouTube Channel)
James Webb Space Telescope (NASA Goddard, Official Website)


universe : a distinct field or province of thought or reality that forms a closed system or self-inclusive and independent organization — Webster   See also   OneLook

space : a boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction — Webster   See also   OneLook


Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Universe is all of space and time[a] and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development of the universe. According to this theory, space and time emerged together 13.787±0.020 billion years ago, and the universe has been expanding ever since. While the spatial size of the entire universe is unknown, it is possible to measure the size of the observable universe, which is approximately 93 billion light-years in diameter at the present day. — Wikipedia

Universe (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Universe (Wolfram Alpha)

Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the physical universe. However, disagreement continues between philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework. — Wikipedia

Space (Encyclopædia Britannica)




Astronomy is a science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics, physics, and chemistry in order to explain their origin and evolution. More generally, astronomy studies everything that originates beyond Earth’s atmosphere. — Wikipedia

Astronomy (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Astronomy (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
Space & Astronomy (Wolfram Alpha)



Astronomy Campaigns (Kickstarter)
Astronomy Campaigns (Indiegogo)


Astronomy Gifts (Zazzle)




Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy. In some cultures, astronomical data was used for astrological prognostication. — Wikipedia

Astronomy and World Heritage Thematic Initiative (UNESCO World Heritage Convention)
Principal Themes in Astronomical Heritage (Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy, UNESCO)

History of Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


Melvil Decimal System # 523.1 Universe (Library Thing)
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Universe (Library Thing)

Melvil Decimal System # 52 Astronomy (Library Thing)
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Astronomy (Library Thing)

Library of Congress # QB Astronomy (UPenn Online Books)

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Universe (Space Place, NASA)
What’s in Space (Space Place, NASA)

The Universe (Cosmos4Kids)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



International Astronomical Union (IAU)
American Astronomical Society (AAS)


Astronomy & Space news (Phys.org)
Astronomy (NPR Archives)


Worldwide Space Agencies (United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs)


Universe (USA.gov)



Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.