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Perpetual calendar is a calendar valid for many years, usually designed to allow the calculation of the day of the week for a given date in the future. For the Gregorian and Julian calendars, a perpetual calendar typically consists of one of two general variations:
(1) 14 one-year calendars, plus a table to show which one-year calendar is to be used for any given year. These one-year calendars divide evenly into two sets of seven calendars: seven for each common year (year that does not have a February 29) that starts on each day of the week, and seven for each leap year that starts on each day of the week, totaling fourteen.
(2) Seven (31-day) one-month calendars (or seven each of 28–31 day month lengths, for a total of 28) and one or more tables to show which calendar is used for any given month. Some perpetual calendars’ tables slide against each other, so that aligning two scales with one another reveals the specific month calendar via a pointer or window mechanism. The seven calendars may be combined into one, either with 13 columns of which only seven are revealed, or with movable day-of-week names. — Wikipedia

An Introduction To Complications: The Perpetual Calendar (Blake Buettner, Gizmodo)
Perepetual Calendar (Infoplease)



Chronology (Clock, Calendar)
Geography (Map, Navigation)


  • Happy Holi! (3/20/2019) - It’s finally here — this year the vernal equinox falls on Wednesday, March 20th, so that means it’s time to celebrate the arrival of Spring! Of course, many cultures have traditions to welcome the season, but the one that strikes me as the most beautiful is Holi. It’s also known as the “Festival of Colors” … Continue reading Happy Holi!
  • Umbraphiles (8/20/2017) - umbraphile : One who loves eclipses, often travelling to see them. — Wiktionary Yes, this is that obligatory post about “The Solar Eclipse” (NASA, Wikipedia). Of course, there had to be one — eclipses really are just too cool to ignore. You’ve already been bombarded with explanations of the science and history of eclipses, but … Continue reading Umbraphiles
  • Where did Feb. 29th go, again? (3/1/2018) - It seems that the media is very good at explaining why we have February 29th in Leap Years, but there isn’t even a peep about why the date does not show up in other years. This means that there is little to no explanation of why and how we have our current calendar in non-Leap … Continue reading Where did Feb. 29th go, again?


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Wolfram Alpha, Time and Date, Infoplease, Calendar Studies (Peter Meyer)


calendar : a system for fixing the beginning, length, and divisions of the civil year and arranging days and longer divisions of time (as weeks and months) in a definite order — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial, or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months, and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. Periods in a calendar (such as years and months) are usually, though not necessarily, synchronized with the cycle of the sun or the moon. Many civilizations and societies have devised a calendar, usually derived from other calendars on which they model their systems, suited to their particular needs. A calendar is also a physical device (often paper) or computer program. — Wikipedia (List of Calendars)

David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science (Curiosities), Britannica


WolframAlpha, DuckDuckGo



Calendars through the Ages (Claus Tøndering, Web Exhibits)
History of the Calendar (InfoPlease)
Calendar Converter (Fourmilab)
Rosetta Calendar (Scott E. Lee)

Gregorian Calendar (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
Gregorian Calendar (Time and Date)
Gregorian Calendar (Wikipedia)


Quotations Page


Museum of Creative Calendar Design (Unicorn Graphics)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Calendar Skills: Using a Monthly Calendar with Young Children (Buggy & Buddy), Glogpedia


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Farmers’ Almanac, Time & Date, NPR Archives





Calendar reform roperly calendrical reform, is any significant revision of a calendar system. The term sometimes is used instead for a proposal to switch to a different calendar. Most calendars have several rules which could be altered by reform:

Whether and how days are grouped into subdivisions such as months and weeks, and days outside those subdivisions, if any.
Which years are leap years and common years and how they differ.
Numbering of years, selection of the epoch, and the issue of year zero.
Start of the year (such as southern solstice, January 1, March 1, northward equinox, Easter).
If a week is retained, the start, length, and names of its days.
Start of the day (midnight, sunrise, noon, or sunset).
If months are retained, number, lengths, and names of months,
Special days and periods (such as leap day or intercalary day).
Alignment with social cycles.
Alignment with astronomical cycles.
Alignment with biological cycles.
Literal notation of dates. — Wikipedia

The World Calendar (The World Calendar Association)
Example of a proposal that proposes a 12-month, perennial calendar with equal quarters, and explains the advantages of this calendar.
Calendar reform (Bill Collins)
Summary of Reform Calendars (Calendar Zone)
Annotated list of sites with proposed calendars and information about calendar reform.


Time Jokes and Riddles for Kids (Enchanted Learning>


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



Farmers' Almanac - Current Moon Phase Current Moon Phase from the Farmers' Almanac (Defaults to Eastern Standard Time).