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Communications, transportation, and commerce have been inextricably intertwined since the beginning of human history until quite recently, and they still remain closely related today.

“The success of the first electronic telegraph line in 1844 opened an era of modern communication in America. Before the telegraph there existed no separation between transportation and communication. Information traveled only as fast as the messenger who carried it.” Media and the American Mind (Czitrom, D. J., 1982)

This reality was even codified in the Dewey Decimal library classification system: 380 Commerce, communications, transportation
See also transportation and commerce


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Oxford, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, InfoPlease, Word Reference, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Britannica, Columbia (Infoplease)


Television and Radio Directory (RefDesk)
Telecommunications, Telephony, Mobile and Wireless Computing (CompInfo – The Computer Information Center)
DMOZ Open Directory Project (AOL)


WolframAlpha, DuckDuckGo



History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications
From the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber optic network…


Smithsonian National Museum of American History, Communication
Charles Babbage Institute (CBI)
Museum of Broadcast Communications
The Museum of Communications (Telecommunications History Group)
Caring for antique communication devices: phonographs, radios, telephones, and other communication devices (Smithsonian)


Library of Congress, Transportation and Communication Maps, WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




OER Commons: Open Educational Resources
Open Education Consortium



Conference Alerts Worldwide (Conal)






Association for Computing Machinery, NPR Archives








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form




Communications News from Science Daily

  • Mind-controlled device helps stroke patients retrain brains to move paralyzed hands May 26, 2017 8:59 pm
    Stroke patients who learned to use their minds to open and close a plastic brace fitted over their paralyzed hands gained some ability to control their own hands when they were not wearing the brace, according to a new study. The participants, all of whom had moderate to severe paralysis, showed significant improvement in grasping objects.
  • System piggybacks on Bitcoin to prevent identity theft May 24, 2017 5:11 pm
    Researchers have developed a new system that uses Bitcoin's security machinery to defend against online identity theft.
  • Transforming how complex marine data is synthesized May 23, 2017 6:41 pm
    Scientists are transforming how complex marine data from the Ocean Health Index is synthesized, communicated and used for coastal management.
  • Combination of features produces new Android vulnerability May 23, 2017 12:36 pm
    A new vulnerability affecting Android mobile devices results not from a traditional bug, but from the malicious combination of two legitimate permissions that power desirable and commonly used features in popular apps.
  • Next-gen computing: Memristor chips that see patterns over pixels May 23, 2017 12:32 pm
    Inspired by how mammals see, a new 'memristor' computer circuit prototype has the potential to process complex data, such as images and video orders of magnitude, faster and with much less power than today's most advanced systems.
  • High-speed internet lane created for emergency situations May 23, 2017 12:19 pm
    Scientists are developing a faster and more reliable way to send and receive large amounts of data through the internet. By a creating a new network protocol, called Multi Node Label Routing protocol, researchers are essentially developing a new high-speed lane of online traffic, specifically for emergency information.
  • Network traffic provides early indication of malware infection May 22, 2017 12:15 pm
    By analyzing network traffic going to suspicious domains, security administrators could detect malware infections weeks or even months before they're able to capture a sample of the invading malware, a new study suggests. The findings point toward the need for new malware-independent detection strategies that will give network defenders the ability to identify network security breaches in a more timely manner.
  • Statistical safeguards in data analysis and visualization software May 19, 2017 4:40 pm
    Computer scientists have shown a new way to help prevent users of data exploration software from making false discoveries.
  • Data sharing can offer help in science's reproducibility crisis May 18, 2017 6:02 pm
    Criticism that researchers in the psychological and brain sciences are failing to reproduce studies -- a key step in the scientific method -- may have more to do with the complexity of managing data, rather than an attempt to hide methods and results, according to researchers.
  • Guidelines for implementation of industry 4. 0 May 17, 2017 4:07 pm
    The internet of things, artificial intelligence, networked production, smart homes – these are the magic words of digital transformation. While the big technology companies are already equipping their products and production with artificial intelligence, some medium-sized companies are not succumbing to its spell -- yet. Scientists report in a new article how they help companies implement Industry 4.0.
  • Under cyber attack: Researchers look at how to catch a 'phisher' May 16, 2017 7:39 pm
    As cybersecurity experts scramble to stop another wave of ransomware and malware scams that have infected computers around the world, computer science experts are 'phishing' for reasons why these types of attacks are so successful.
  • Breaking down social networking behavior May 16, 2017 3:43 pm
    New big-data analytics suggests that both an individual's economic status and how they are likely to react to issues and policies can be inferred by their position in social networks. The study could be useful in maximizing the effects of large-scale economic stimulus policies.
  • Family TV viewing and SMS texting could help cut internet energy use May 16, 2017 2:48 pm
    Scrapping automatically-playing videos in apps and reversing trends of instant messaging and on-demand services could be key to cutting the growing energy demand of the Internet, say researchers.
  • Technology edits voices like text May 15, 2017 1:11 pm
    New technology may do for audio recordings of the human voice what word processing software did for the written word. The software, named VoCo, provides an easy means to add or replace a word in an audio recording of a human voice by editing a transcript of the recording. New words are automatically synthesized in the speaker's voice even if they don't appear anywhere else in the recording.
  • Compiling big data in a human-centric way May 11, 2017 6:20 pm
    When a group of researchers realized they were spending days combing through databases searching for information regarding gene variants, they decided to do something about it. By creating MARRVEL (Model organism Aggregated Resources for Rare Variant ExpLoration) they are now able to help not only their own lab but also researchers everywhere search databases all at once and in a matter of minutes.
  • Software convenes rapid, on-demand 'flash organizations' May 10, 2017 9:48 pm
    Flash organizations are a new crowdsourcing technique that enables anyone to assemble an entire organization from a paid crowdsourcing marketplace and lead that organization in pursuit of complex, open-ended goals.
  • Kids, parents alike worried about privacy with internet-connected toys May 10, 2017 5:19 pm
    Researchers have conducted a new study that explores the attitudes and concerns of both parents and children who play with internet-connected toys. Through a series of in-depth interviews and observations, the researchers found that kids didn't know their toys were recording their conversations, and parents generally worried about their children's privacy when they played with the toys.
  • Internet of things made simple: One sensor package does work of many May 10, 2017 3:52 pm
    Ubiquitous sensors seem almost synonymous with the internet of things (IoT), but some researchers say ubiquitous sensing -- with a single, general purpose sensor for each room -- may be better. The plug-in sensor package they've developed monitors multiple phenomena in a room, including things such as sounds, vibration, light, heat, electromagnetic noise and temperature.
  • Live interactions with robots increase their perceived human likeness May 10, 2017 3:52 pm
    A recent study found that people who watched live interactions with a robot were more likely to consider the robot to have more human-like qualities.
  • How Pokémon GO can help students build stronger communication skills May 9, 2017 5:28 pm
    Technology continues to change the way students learn and engage with their peers, parents and community. That is why a professor is working with teachers to develop new ways to incorporate digital tools in the classroom, including playing games such as Pokémon GO.
  • Computer-generated doctor explains test results to patients May 9, 2017 4:20 pm
    A computer-generated physician, now under development explains diabetes and cholesterol test results to would-be patients in videos designed for viewing on electronic medical record portals. The goal of the project is to make electronic medical record portal messages more useful and engaging for patients, particularly older adults with lower levels of health literacy.
  • Transistors that can switch between two stable energy states May 9, 2017 4:20 pm
    Engineers are unveiling an upgrade to the transistor laser that could be used to boost computer processor speeds - the formation of two stable energy states and the ability to switch between them quickly.
  • Energy efficiency is important to wireless and broadcast networks May 9, 2017 1:36 pm
    By deploying a spatially adaptive broadcast system, broadcast powers can be reduced by up to 35 per cent, reducing carbon emissions and saving money, new research has found.
  • Virtual reality for psychiatric treatment? Research shows promise for VR and other technologies in mental health care May 8, 2017 5:09 pm
    A growing body of evidence suggests that virtual reality (VR) technology can be an effective part of treatment for phobias, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other mental health conditions, according to a research review.
  • New password meter that will change how users make passwords May 8, 2017 3:24 pm
    Researchers have just unveiled a new, state-of-the-art password meter that offers real-time feedback and advice to help people create better passwords.
  • Touchpads created with a can of spray paint May 8, 2017 3:23 pm
    Touch sensing is most common on small, flat surfaces such as smartphone or tablet screens. Researchers however, can turn surfaces of a wide variety of shapes and sizes into touchpads using tools as simple as a can of spray paint. Walls, furniture, steering wheels, toys and even Jell-O can be turned into touch sensors with the technology, dubbed Electrick.
  • Refrigerator for quantum computers discovered May 8, 2017 12:32 pm
    Researchers have invented a quantum-circuit refrigerator, which can reduce errors in quantum computing. This is a new twist towards a functioning quantum computer.
  • New self-sustained multi-sensor platform for environmental monitoring May 4, 2017 1:32 pm
    A research team has engineered a self-sustaining sensor platform to continuously monitor the surrounding environment without having an external power source.
  • Bringing efficiency to network processes May 3, 2017 5:40 pm
    It is human nature to seek to spend the least amount of energy, time and cost on any given task to achieve a desirable result, whether that is working out at the gym, finding the best path to travel to work or buying cereal at the grocery. Now, researchers have discovered through complex numerical modeling a method that could lead to ways to more efficiently perform a variety of tasks and processes, from drug delivery to advertising.
  • Supercharging the computers that will save the world May 3, 2017 1:21 pm
    A computer scientist has developed new techniques and tools to manage high performance computing systems more efficiently. This in an effort to comply with the increasing demand to handle large amounts of data within research and allowing for advance simulations.
  • Deep learning helps scientists keep track of cell's inner parts May 2, 2017 3:25 pm
    High throughput screens of image-based data allow a direct view of proteins' whereabouts in the cell but the lack of fast and accurate analysis tools has been a bottleneck. Scientists reveal DeepLoc, a deep learning algorithm that is faster and more accurate than the human eye and brings analysis time down from months to hours.
  • Gender bias in open-source programming May 1, 2017 1:43 pm
    A study comparing acceptance rates of contributions from men and women in an open-source software community finds that, overall, women's contributions tend to be accepted more often than men's -- but when a woman's gender is identifiable, they are rejected more often.
  • Device allows users to manipulate 3-D virtual objects more quickly May 1, 2017 1:43 pm
    Researchers have developed a user-friendly, inexpensive controller for manipulating virtual objects in a computer program in three dimensions. The device allows users to manipulate objects more quickly -- with less lag time -- than existing technologies.
  • Artificial intelligence shows potential to fight blindness April 27, 2017 11:07 pm
    Researchers have found a way to use artificial intelligence to fight a complication of diabetes that affects the eyes.
  • Can early experiences with computers, robots increase STEM interest among young girls? April 27, 2017 5:07 pm
    Girls start believing they aren't good at math, science and even computers at a young age -- but providing fun STEM activities at school and home may spark interest and inspire confidence, suggests a new study.
  • How state-of-the-art camera that behaves like the human eye could benefit robots and smart devices April 27, 2017 3:09 pm
    Experts will explore how an artificial vision system inspired by the human eye could be used by robots of the future -- opening up new possibilities for securing footage from deep forests, war zones and even distant planets.
  • Looking for the quantum frontier April 27, 2017 2:06 pm
    A new theoretical framework has been developed to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier' - the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. The team demonstrates that these computations can be performed with near-term, intermediate, quantum computers.
  • Virtual humans help aspiring doctors learn empathy April 27, 2017 1:17 pm
    Delivering bad news in a caring way -- and coping with a patient's reaction -- is a key skill for doctors. Intuitive technology is helping medical students learn the best approaches.
  • 2-D materials can conduct electricity at almost the speed of light April 26, 2017 5:10 pm
    New two-dimensional quantum materials have been created with breakthrough electrical and magnetic attributes that could make them building blocks of future quantum computers and other advanced electronics. The researchers explored the physics behind the 2-D states of novel materials and determined they could push computers to new heights of speed and power.
  • The automation of art: A legal conundrum April 26, 2017 1:54 pm
    Deep Neural Networks are systems that are able to simulate human perception by 'memorizing' complex patterns on a mathematical level. One application for this is in the arts, where these systems are used for their creative potential. As DNN's become more popular, there is the danger of an unchecked proliferation of copyright protections, which risks stifling creativity. In order to prevent this, we should focus on the human element within the complex technological processes that engender automated art.
  • New interface allows more efficient, faster technique to remotely operate robots April 25, 2017 4:43 pm
    A new interface allows users to simply point and click on an item, then choose a grasp, to control a robot remotely.
  • When Hollywood met neurosurgery April 25, 2017 2:28 pm
    A team of computer engineers and neurosurgeons, with an assist from Hollywood special effects experts, reports successful early tests of a novel, lifelike 3-D simulator designed to teach surgeons to perform a delicate, minimally invasive brain operation.
  • Scientific discovery game significantly speeds up neuroscience research process April 24, 2017 7:38 pm
    A new scientific discovery game called Mozak is allowing video gamers to significantly speed up reconstructing the intricate architecture of brain cells, a fundamental task in 21st century brain science. These citizen scientists have outperformed computers in tracing the intricate shapes of neurons, a first step in understanding how our brain circuitry works.
  • After the death of a friend, healing in a human social network April 24, 2017 3:08 pm
    The first large-scale study of recovery and resilience after a death in a friend group -- based on analysis of interactions in 15,000 anonymized networks on Facebook -- finds that when a friend dies, we get closer to that person's friends. The social network repairs itself in ways that keep our total connectedness the same.
  • Facebook plays vital role in reducing government corruption, researchers find April 22, 2017 2:17 pm
    An economics researcher says the popular social media website – and its open sharing of information – is a vital and often a significant tool against government corruption in countries where press freedom is curbed or banned.
  • New survey: Snapchat and Instagram are most popular social media platforms among American teens April 21, 2017 3:33 pm
    A new nationally representative survey of American teenagers age 13-17 finds that teens have shifted their favored social media platforms and are now most likely to use Instagram and Snapchat. The study also found that while almost all teens -- 91 percent -- use the regular text messaging tool on their mobile phones, 40 percent of teens also use messaging applications like Kik, WhatsApp, or Line on a smartphone.
  • Researchers unlock hardware's hidden talent for rendering 3-D graphics for science -- and video games April 20, 2017 5:23 pm
    High performance computing researcher asked if hardware called 3-D stacked memory could do something it was never designed to do -- help render 3-D graphics.
  • Fidelity in a marriage between electronic and optical effects April 20, 2017 1:58 pm
    Simultaneously simulating electrical and optical input achieves unprecedented performance in electro-optical interfaces, report investigators.
  • Geeking out in the golden years April 20, 2017 1:02 pm
    In the first known study of older adults learning computer programming, a cognitive scientist advocates coding skills for all ages.
  • Communicating tsunami evacuations effectively April 18, 2017 3:52 pm
    An effective communication approach incorporating computer simulations could help people find practical means to evacuate in the event of a tsunami.
  • Harnessing heat to power computers April 18, 2017 1:45 pm
    Heat is commonly regarded as computing's mortal enemy. Two researchers, however, flipped the question of how to keep computers cool to how to use heat as an alternative energy source.
  • Pinning down fraudulent business listings on Google maps April 18, 2017 1:45 pm
    A partnership between academic computer scientists and Google has allowed the search giant to reduce by 70 percent fraudulent business listings in Google Maps. The researchers worked together to analyze more than 100,000 fraudulent listings to determine how scammers had been able to avoid detection -- albeit for a limited amount of time -- and how they made money.
  • Getting things done while you wait for WiFi April 17, 2017 7:50 pm
    To help us make the most of idle moments, researchers have developed a series of apps called 'WaitSuite' that test you on vocabulary words during moments of waiting, like when you're waiting for an instant message or for your phone to connect to WiFi.
  • Think brain games make you smarter? Think again, researchers say April 17, 2017 1:55 pm
    Brain games marketed by the billion-dollar brain-training industry don't improve cognition or help prevent age-related brain decline, new research finds.
  • Helping students learn by sketching April 17, 2017 12:48 pm
    New software Sketch Worksheets analyzes and provides feedback on student sketches, helping them learn multiple subjects.
  • When it comes to your profile picture, let a stranger do the choosing April 14, 2017 2:58 pm
    When trying to pick the most flattering pictures for online profiles, it may be best to let a stranger do the choosing, a study suggests.
  • Biased bots: Human prejudices sneak into artificial intelligence systems April 13, 2017 6:10 pm
    In debates over the future of artificial intelligence, many experts think of the new systems as coldly logical and objectively rational. But in a new study, researchers have demonstrated how machines can be reflections of us, their creators, in potentially problematic ways.
  • Policymakers 'flying blind' into the future of work April 13, 2017 5:06 pm
    Will a robot take away my job? Many people ask that question, yet policymakers don't have the kind of information they need to answer it intelligently, say the authors of a new study.
  • How World of Warcraft can get you a job April 13, 2017 4:44 pm
    World of Warcraft (WoW) gamers who were successful working as a team in “raids” had qualities that psychological studies have shown to translate to success on virtual workplace teams, new research concludes.
  • Despite relatively less distraction from head-up displays, it's still a bad idea to text while driving April 13, 2017 12:49 pm
    Advances in wearable technology offer new possibilities for in-vehicle interaction but also present new challenges for managing driver attention and regulating device use in vehicles.

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