Cosma Home > Communication > Media > Image


Hybrid Images developed to test healthy Eyesight (Daily Times Gazette)

Hybrid Images Gallery (MIT Computational Visual Cognition Laboratory)
Transformation of Hybrids, Movies (MIT Computational Visual Cognition Laboratory)

Hybrid Image (Wikipedia)



These are organized by form and function.

Communications Computation Storage Authoring Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Typewriter Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Recorder Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS) Database Application AI, World

These are types of media formats.

Multimedia (Video, Animation), Image (Object), Scent, Flavor, Audio (Text), Haptic, “Other


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



image : optical counterpart of an object produced by an optical device (as a lens or mirror) or an electronic device b: a visual representation of something: as (a): likeness of an object produced on photographic material (b): picture produced on electronic display (as a television or computer screen) — Webster

FOLDOC: Free Online Dictionary of Computing, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Image is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.

The word ‘image’ is also used in the broader sense of any two-dimensional figure such as a map, a graph, a pie chart, or a painting. In this wider sense, images can also be rendered manually, such as by drawing, the art of painting, carving, rendered automatically by printing or computer graphics technology, or developed by a combination of methods, especially in a pseudo-photograph. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Likeness and Presence: A History of the Image before the Era of Art (Hans Belting)


Quotations Page


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Graphic Design USA
NPR Archives







Graphic Design USA News For The Creative Professional Community Since 1963

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