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Innovation Creativity, Process
Science Research, Discovery
Technology Invention, Intellectual Property
Commerce Entrepreneurship, Product


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



technology : (1) the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area : engineering (2) a capability given by the practical application of knowledge (3) a manner of accomplishing a task especially using technical processes, methods, or knowledge (4) the specialized aspects of a particular field of endeavor — Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species’ ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology.

The human species’ use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in traveling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons. — Wikipedia



Innovations Report





Shop Amazon Gift Zazzle



History of Technology ((David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science)


Quotations Page


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Technically Speaking: Why All Americans Need to Know More About Technology (National Academy of Engineering & National Science Foundation)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



EurekAlert, technology, engineering, and computer science (American Association for the Advancement of Science)
NPR Archives




US Office of Science and Technology Policy (White House)






OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


14 Amazing DARPA Technologies On Tap (J. Nicholas Hoover, Information Week)



EurekAlert! - Technology, Engineering and Computer Science The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • Blood test predicts spastic cerebral palsy
    on June 22, 2018 at 4:00 am

    (Nemours) Researchers at Nemours and the University of Delaware have developed a blood test predictive of spastic cerebral palsy. Their study, published in BMC Bioinformatics, showed that DNA patterns in circulating blood cells can be used to help identify spastic CP patients (Crowgey et al.). New and better ways to identify infants with CP are needed so that interventions can start earlier for more children. […]

  • Decellularized cartilage-based scaffold promotes...
    on June 22, 2018 at 4:00 am

    (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) To help prevent possible complications such as nonunion at large fracture sites, researchers have developed a cartilage matrix that mimics the early stages of repair and provides the essential structural and biological properties needed by bone-forming cells to divide and grow. […]

  • When low batteries are a good thing
    on June 22, 2018 at 4:00 am

    (Instituto de Medicina Molecular) A new study led by Marc Veldhoen, group leader at Instituto de Medicina Molecular João Lobo Antunes (iMM) shows how these cells are kept under control. The work published now in Science Immunology, reveals that the "batteries" of these cells have a different composition that reduces their capacity of producing energy, keeping them in a controlled activated mode. […]

  • UC Riverside chemist receives Department of...
    on June 22, 2018 at 4:00 am

    (University of California - Riverside) Ming Lee Tang, an assistant professor of chemistry at the University of California, Riverside, has received a $750,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to continue her work on developing hybrid organic-inorganic materials that have applications in healthcare and the solar industry. […]

  • A robotic greenhouse capable to operate...
    on June 22, 2018 at 4:00 am

    (Tomsk Polytechnic University) An innovative greenhouse for Arctic farming will combine advanced technologies of Tomsk Polytechnic University. Luminescent nanoceramics for lighting, phytotrons with adjusted spectral radiation, and an automated control system for moving plants will support the operation of the greenhouse. […]