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Theory Philosophy, System


Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



PhilPapers (David Bourget and David Chalmers, General Editors)
Recommended Resources in Philosophy (The American Philosophical Association
Philosophy portal (Wikipedia)


philosophy : (1) pursuit of wisdom (2) a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means (3) an analysis of the grounds of and concepts expressing fundamental beliefs (4) a system of philosophical concepts (5) a theory underlying or regarding a sphere of activity or thought (6) the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group — Webster

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)
Philosophy Dictionaries and Glossaries (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. It is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. — Wikipedia

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Encyclopædia Britannica


What is Philosophy? (Steve Palmquist, The Tree of Philosophy)


An Outline Of Philosophy (Bertrand Russell, Internet Archive)
Outline of Philosophy (Wikipedia)


Philosophy (Search Engine Guide), WolframAlpha, DuckDuckGo



The Philosophy of Philosophy (Timothy Williamson)
Philosophical research online: Metaphilosophy (Jonathan Ichikawa, PhilPapers)
Contemporary Metaphilosophy (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Metaphilosophy (Wikipedia)


What Constitutes a Philosophical System? (Tim Lacy, Society for US Intellectual History)



Crash Course Philosophy (Hank Green)

History of Philosophy without any gaps (Peter Adamson, History of Philosophy)
A History of Philosophy YouTube Channel (Arthur Holmes, Wheaton College)
Ancient, Medieval, Oriental Philosophy arranged according to Dewey Decimal Classification (Bill Lawson)
History of Philosophy (Wikipedia) (Categories)


Philosophy Quotations (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Quotations Page


The Philosophy Chamber: Art and Science in Harvard’s Teaching Cabinet, 1766–1820 (Harvard Art Museums)
What Would Be in a Philosophy Museum? (Justin Weinberg, Daily Nous)
At Philosophy Museum, Please Feed the Mind (The New York Times)


A Guide to Philosophy in the Library of Congress Classification (John R. Shook)
Harvard Robbins Library of Philosophy
WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Teaching Children Philosophy
Philosophy for Children
Center for Philosophy for Children (University of Washington)

Teaching Philosophy (PhilPapers)
Philosophy Courses, Syllabi, Teaching & Learning (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Study Guide for Students of Philosophy (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)


The Tree of Philosophy: A Course of Introductory Lectures (Stephen Palmquist)
A History of Ideas: A 60-part radio series (The Open University)
Philosophy Podcasts (
Linguistics and Philosophy (MIT Open Courseware)



Career Resources (American Philosophical Association)
Jobs for Philosophers (American Philosophical Association)
Jobs for Philosophers (PhilJobs)
Jobs (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)


PhilEvents (Conferences, CFPs, and seminars in philosophy)


Philosophical Associations and Societies (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Philosophy Associations and Societies (American Philosophical Association)
American Philosophical Association
Society for Applied Philosophy
Philosophy Documentation Center


Blogs and Podcasts (American Philosophical Association)
Philosophical Weblogs Directory (David Chalmers)
Daily Nous (Justin Weinberg)
The Philosopher’s Zone (Joe Gelonesi)


PHILOS-L Listserv


Journal of the American Philosophical Association
Philosophical research online (David Bourget and David Chalmers, General Editors, PhilPapers)
Philosophers’ Imprint (University of Michigan Library)
The Philosophers’ Magazine
Philosophy News


Philosophy Bookshelf (Project Gutenberg), ISBNdb





Three Minute Philosophy (YouTube Channel)

The Philosophical Lexicon (Daniel Dennett and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen)
The Causes of death of philosophers (D. H. Mellor)
Philosophy Humor Links (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Philosophical Humor (David Chalmers, Philosophy Pages)


Philospohy Games (The Philosophers’ Magazine)


Philsophy of Art vs. Aesthetics (Christopher S. Nwodo, The British Journal of Aesthetics)


Worlds Of Speculative Fiction: Philosophical Themes (Gregory B. Sadler, YouTube Channel)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



  • Marouf, Ahmad : Intelligent Tutoring System for...
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    Intelligent Tutoring System ITS is a computer software that supplies direct and adaptive training or response to students without, or with little human teacher interfering. The main target of ITS is smoothing the learning-teaching process using the ultimate technology in computer science. The proposed system will be implemented using the “ITSB” Authoring tool. The book "Introduction To Computer Science" is taught in Al-Azhar University in Gaza as a compulsory subject for students […]

  • Heck, Richard : What Is a Singular Term?
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    This paper discusses the question whether it is possible to explain the notion of a singular term without invoking the notion of an object or other ontological notions. The framework here is that of Michael Dummett's discussion in Frege: Philosophy of Language. I offer an emended version of Dummett's conditions, accepting but modifying some suggestions made by Bob Hale, and defend the emended conditions against some objections due to Crispin Wright. This paper dates from about 1989. It […]

  • Stove, D. C. : The Intellectual Capacity of Women
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    _Proceedings of the Russellian Society_ 15:1-16. 1990 I BELIEVE THAT the intellectual capacity of women is on the whole inferior to that of men. By "on the whole," I do not mean just "on the average"; though I do mean that much. My belief is, if you take any degree of intellectual capacity which is above the average for the human race, as a whole, then a possessor of that degree of intellectual capacity is a good deal more likely to be man than a woman(direct link) […]

  • Morrison, Ken : Marx, Durkheim, Weber Formations...
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am


  • Johnson, Monte : Helen S. Lang. The Order of...
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    _Isis_ 95 (4):687-688. 2004 A review of Helen Lang's monograph on Aristotle's physics.(direct link) […]

Philosophers' Imprint Philosophers' Imprint

  • Natural Conventions and Indirect Speech Arts
    by Mandy Simons on January 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    In this paper, we develop the notion of a natural convention, and illustrate its usefulness in a detailed examination of indirect requests in English. Our treatment of convention is grounded in Lewis’s (1969) seminal account; we do not here redefine convention, but rather explore the space of possibilities within Lewis’s definition, highlighting certain types of variation that Lewis de-emphasized. Applied to the case of indirect requests, which we view through a Searlean lens, the notion of […]

  • The Artificial Virtues of Thought: Correctness...
    by Karl Schafer on January 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    In this essay, I discuss two familiar objections to Hume's account of cognition, focusing on his ability to give a satisfactory account of the more normative dimensions of thought and language use. In doing so, I argue that Hume’s implicit account of these issues is far richer than is normally assumed. In particular, I show that Hume’s account of convention-driven artificial virtues like justice also applies to the proper use of conventional public languages. I then use this connection […]

  • The Metaphysics of Surfaces in Suárez and...
    by Tad M. Schmaltz on January 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    In his discussions of the Eucharist, Descartes gives prominent place to the notion of the “surfaces” of bodies. Given this context, it may seem that his account of surfaces is of limited interest. However, I hope to show that such an account is in fact linked to a philosophically significant medieval debate over whether certain mathematical “indivisibles”, including surfaces, really exist in nature. Moreover, the particular emphasis in Descartes on the fact that surfaces are modes […]

  • Autonomy Without Paradox: Kant, Self-Legislation...
    by Pauline Kleingeld on January 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Within Kantian ethics and Kant scholarship, it is widely assumed that autonomy consists in the self-legislation of the principle of morality (the Moral Law). In this paper, we challenge this view on both textual and philosophical grounds. We argue that Kant never unequivocally claims that the Moral Law is self-legislated and that he is not philosophically committed to this claim by his overall conception of morality. Instead, the idea of autonomy concerns only substantive moral laws (in the […]

Philosophy News Think About It

  • Epistemology for the Rest of the World
    by on March 22, 2019 at 2:50 am

    2019.03.30 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Masaharu Mizumoto, Stephen Stich, and Eric McCready (eds.), Epistemology for the Rest of the World, Oxford University Press, 2018, 295pp., $85.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780190865085. Reviewed by Soraj Hongladarom, Chulalongkorn University When I was a graduate student at the Department of Philosophy at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana back in the 1980s, I took the program's required epistemology course. What struck […]

  • The Disappearance of Moral Knowledge
    by on March 22, 2019 at 12:46 am

    2019.03.29 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Dallas Willard, The Disappearance of Moral Knowledge, Steven L. Porter, Aaron Preston, and Gregg A. Ten Elshof (eds.), Routledge, 2018, 387pp., $160.00 (hbk), ISBN 9781138589254. Reviewed by Adam Pelser, United States Air Force Academy To many twenty-first-century ears the phrase "moral knowledge" sounds like an oxymoron. Knowledge is understood to belong in the realm of objective facts and empirical science, while […]

  • Getting things done, part 5: starting early
    by on March 21, 2019 at 8:42 pm

    In the first four entries in this series, I shared some of the obstacles I've seen people commonly run into when it comes to being productive and meeting deadlines--many of which I struggled with in the past myself--along with some strategies I've found helpful for overcoming those obstacles. In today's post, I am going to share something that I've never struggled with myself but have seen other people struggle with a great deal...and that is not leaving enough time to get things done. […]

  • The Pragmatic Theory of Truth
    by on March 21, 2019 at 6:38 pm

    [New Entry by John Capps on March 21, 2019.] Pragmatic theories of truth are usually associated either with C.S. Peirce's proposal that true beliefs will be accepted "at the end of inquiry" or with William James' proposal that truth be defined in terms of utility. More broadly, however, pragmatic theories of truth focus on the connection between truth and epistemic practices, notably practices of inquiry and assertion. Depending on the particular pragmatic theory, true statements might be […]

  • The Possible World Defense: Why Our Current Legal...
    by on March 21, 2019 at 12:31 pm

    by Luke William Hunt I was a special agent at the Federal Bureau of Investigation before making a career change to academic philosophy. During my ... Read more... Continue reading . . . News source: Blog of the APA Click the title to visit for mor […]