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Theory Philosophy, System


Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



PhilPapers (David Bourget and David Chalmers, General Editors)
Recommended Resources in Philosophy (The American Philosophical Association
Philosophy portal (Wikipedia)


philosophy : (1) pursuit of wisdom (2) a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means (3) an analysis of the grounds of and concepts expressing fundamental beliefs (4) a system of philosophical concepts (5) a theory underlying or regarding a sphere of activity or thought (6) the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group — Webster

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)
Philosophy Dictionaries and Glossaries (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. It is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. — Wikipedia

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Encyclopædia Britannica


What is Philosophy? (Steve Palmquist, The Tree of Philosophy)


An Outline Of Philosophy (Bertrand Russell, Internet Archive)
Outline of Philosophy (Wikipedia)


Philosophy (Search Engine Guide), WolframAlpha, DuckDuckGo



The Philosophy of Philosophy (Timothy Williamson)
Philosophical research online: Metaphilosophy (Jonathan Ichikawa, PhilPapers)
Contemporary Metaphilosophy (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Metaphilosophy (Wikipedia)


What Constitutes a Philosophical System? (Tim Lacy, Society for US Intellectual History)



Crash Course Philosophy (Hank Green)

History of Philosophy without any gaps (Peter Adamson, History of Philosophy)
A History of Philosophy YouTube Channel (Arthur Holmes, Wheaton College)
Ancient, Medieval, Oriental Philosophy arranged according to Dewey Decimal Classification (Bill Lawson)
History of Philosophy (Wikipedia) (Categories)


Philosophy Quotations (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Quotations Page


The Philosophy Chamber: Art and Science in Harvard’s Teaching Cabinet, 1766–1820 (Harvard Art Museums)
What Would Be in a Philosophy Museum? (Justin Weinberg, Daily Nous)
At Philosophy Museum, Please Feed the Mind (The New York Times)


A Guide to Philosophy in the Library of Congress Classification (John R. Shook)
Harvard Robbins Library of Philosophy
WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Teaching Children Philosophy
Philosophy for Children
Center for Philosophy for Children (University of Washington)

Teaching Philosophy (PhilPapers)
Philosophy Courses, Syllabi, Teaching & Learning (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Study Guide for Students of Philosophy (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)


The Tree of Philosophy: A Course of Introductory Lectures (Stephen Palmquist)
A History of Ideas: A 60-part radio series (The Open University)
Philosophy Podcasts (
Linguistics and Philosophy (MIT Open Courseware)



Career Resources (American Philosophical Association)
Jobs for Philosophers (American Philosophical Association)
Jobs for Philosophers (PhilJobs)
Jobs (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)


PhilEvents (Conferences, CFPs, and seminars in philosophy)


Philosophical Associations and Societies (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Philosophy Associations and Societies (American Philosophical Association)
American Philosophical Association
Society for Applied Philosophy
Philosophy Documentation Center


Blogs and Podcasts (American Philosophical Association)
Philosophical Weblogs Directory (David Chalmers)
Daily Nous (Justin Weinberg)
The Philosopher’s Zone (Joe Gelonesi)


PHILOS-L Listserv


Journal of the American Philosophical Association
Philosophical research online (David Bourget and David Chalmers, General Editors, PhilPapers)
Philosophers’ Imprint (University of Michigan Library)
The Philosophers’ Magazine
Philosophy News


Philosophy Bookshelf (Project Gutenberg), ISBNdb





Three Minute Philosophy (YouTube Channel)

The Philosophical Lexicon (Daniel Dennett and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen)
The Causes of death of philosophers (D. H. Mellor)
Philosophy Humor Links (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Philosophical Humor (David Chalmers, Philosophy Pages)


Philospohy Games (The Philosophers’ Magazine)


Philsophy of Art vs. Aesthetics (Christopher S. Nwodo, The British Journal of Aesthetics)


Worlds Of Speculative Fiction: Philosophical Themes (Gregory B. Sadler, YouTube Channel)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



  • Cuesta, Jose Alejandro Fernández : Lógica modal...
    on October 17, 2021 at 9:11 am

    _Human_ 10. 2021 In this article we introduce a possible way to interpret the possibility and necessity notions developed within the Megaric-Stoic logic as alethic modal operators. Megaric-Stoic semantics will be introduced as metaphysical background for necessity and possibility definitions and arguments will be offered in order to give up the prevailing interpretations which include ad hoc variables. After proposing the survey of diodoric definitions from relational modal semantics, a series […]

  • Dubilet, Alex : On the General Secular...
    on October 17, 2021 at 9:11 am

    In Alex Dubilet & Kirill Chepurin (eds.), _Nothing Absolute: German Idealism and the Question of Political Theology_. New York, NY, USA: pp. 240-255. 2021 Dubilet’s contribution turns to Marx’s “On the Jewish Question” in order to diagnose the collusive interplay between mediation and sovereignty as modes of transcendence that, together, prevent real immanence from irrupting. It does so by recovering the logic of “the general secular contradiction”—the division between the […]

  • Forrester, Rochelle : The Philosophy of...
    on October 17, 2021 at 9:11 am

    This paper investigates the nature of reality by looking at the philosophical debate between realism and idealism and at scientific investigations in quantum physics and at recent studies of animal senses, neurology and cognitive psychology. The concept of perceptual relativity is examined and this involves looking at sense perception in other animals and various examples of perceptual relativity in science. It will be concluded that the universe is observer dependent and that there is no […]

  • Jäger, Jens : List and Menzies on High-Level...
    on October 17, 2021 at 9:11 am

    _Pacific Philosophical Quarterly_:1-22. forthcoming I raise two objections against Christian List and Peter Menzies' influential account of high-level causation. Improving upon some of Stephen Yablo's earlier work, I develop an alternative theory which evades both objections. The discussion calls into question List and Menzies' main contention, namely, that the exclusion principle, applied to difference-making, is false.(direct link)

  • Woodard, Elise : The Ignorance Norm and...
    on October 17, 2021 at 9:11 am

    _Philosophical Topics_. forthcoming Can agents rationally inquire into things that they know? On my view, the answer is yes. Call this view the Compatibility Thesis. One challenge to this thesis is to explain why assertions like “I know that p, but I’m wondering whether p” sound odd, if not Moore-Paradoxical. In response to this challenge, I argue that we can reject one or both premises that give rise to it. First, we can deny that inquiry requires interrogative attitudes. Second, we can […]

Philosophers' Imprint Philosophers' Imprint

  • Defining Addictive Disorder - Abilities...
    by Sanja Dembić on January 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    volume 21, no. 24

  • Norm and Object: A Normative Hylomorphic Theory...
    by Asya Passinsky on January 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    This paper is an investigation into the metaphysics of social objects such as political borders, states, and organizations. I articulate a metaphysical puzzle concerning such objects and then propose a novel account of social objects that provides a solution to the puzzle. The basic idea behind the puzzle is that under appropriate circumstances, seemingly concrete social objects can apparently be created by acts of agreement, decree, declaration, or the like. Yet there is reason to believe that […]

  • Be Not Afraid: The Virtue of Fearlessness
    by Tyler Paytas on January 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Most contemporary virtue theorists hold that fear of genuine dangers is appropriate, and that what matters is one’s ability to surmount it when necessary. To overcome fear for the sake of the good is an act of courage, while succumbing to it is the manifestation of cowardice. This orthodox view comprises a significant oversight. While it is true that overcoming one’s fear in a moment of crisis is a mark of excellence, courage is not the highest ideal toward which we ought to strive. Virtue […]

Philosophy News Think About It

  • E.O. Wilson evinces a chummy, no-frills view of...
    by on October 15, 2021 at 11:52 pm

    E.O. Wilson evinces a chummy, no-frills view of himself. It's genuine, and crucial to his expansive sense of wonder Continue reading . . . News source: Arts & Letters Daily Click the title to visit for more

  • The philosopher Myisha Cherry seeks to defend...
    by on October 15, 2021 at 9:49 pm

    The philosopher Myisha Cherry seeks to defend anger — what she calls “Lordean rage” — and to prove Martha Nussbaum wrong Continue reading . . . News source: Arts & Letters Daily Click the title to visit for more

  • Philosophy and Christian Theology
    by on October 15, 2021 at 7:46 pm

    [New Entry by William Wood on October 15, 2021.] [Editor's Note: The following new entry by William Wood replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous authors.] Many Christian doctrines raise difficult philosophical questions. For... Continue reading . . . News source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Click the title to visit for more

  • Descartes’ Physics
    by on October 15, 2021 at 5:44 pm

    [Revised entry by Edward Slowik on October 15, 2021. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] While Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650) is well-known as one of the founders of modern philosophy, his influential role in the development of modern physics has been, until the later half of the twentieth century, generally under-appreciated and under-investigated by both historians and philosophers of science. Not only did Descartes provide the first distinctly modern formulation of laws of nature and a […]

  • What's achieved by liberal and academic calls to...
    by on October 15, 2021 at 1:39 am

    What's achieved by liberal and academic calls to "center the most marginalized?" Olúfémi O. Táíwò unpacks standpoint epistemology Continue reading . . . News source: Arts & Letters Daily Click the title to visit for more