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Theory Philosophy, System


Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



PhilPapers (David Bourget and David Chalmers, General Editors)
Recommended Resources in Philosophy (The American Philosophical Association
Philosophy portal (Wikipedia)


philosophy : (1) pursuit of wisdom (2) a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means (3) an analysis of the grounds of and concepts expressing fundamental beliefs (4) a system of philosophical concepts (5) a theory underlying or regarding a sphere of activity or thought (6) the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group — Webster

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)
Philosophy Dictionaries and Glossaries (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. It is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. — Wikipedia

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Encyclopædia Britannica


What is Philosophy? (Steve Palmquist, The Tree of Philosophy)


An Outline Of Philosophy (Bertrand Russell, Internet Archive)
Outline of Philosophy (Wikipedia)


Philosophy (Search Engine Guide), WolframAlpha, DuckDuckGo



The Philosophy of Philosophy (Timothy Williamson)
Philosophical research online: Metaphilosophy (Jonathan Ichikawa, PhilPapers)
Contemporary Metaphilosophy (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Metaphilosophy (Wikipedia)


What Constitutes a Philosophical System? (Tim Lacy, Society for US Intellectual History)



Crash Course Philosophy (Hank Green)

History of Philosophy without any gaps (Peter Adamson, History of Philosophy)
A History of Philosophy YouTube Channel (Arthur Holmes, Wheaton College)
Ancient, Medieval, Oriental Philosophy arranged according to Dewey Decimal Classification (Bill Lawson)
History of Philosophy (Wikipedia) (Categories)


Philosophy Quotations (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Quotations Page


The Philosophy Chamber: Art and Science in Harvard’s Teaching Cabinet, 1766–1820 (Harvard Art Museums)
What Would Be in a Philosophy Museum? (Justin Weinberg, Daily Nous)
At Philosophy Museum, Please Feed the Mind (The New York Times)


A Guide to Philosophy in the Library of Congress Classification (John R. Shook)
Harvard Robbins Library of Philosophy
WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Teaching Children Philosophy
Philosophy for Children
Center for Philosophy for Children (University of Washington)

Teaching Philosophy (PhilPapers)
Philosophy Courses, Syllabi, Teaching & Learning (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Study Guide for Students of Philosophy (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)


The Tree of Philosophy: A Course of Introductory Lectures (Stephen Palmquist)
A History of Ideas: A 60-part radio series (The Open University)
Philosophy Podcasts (
Linguistics and Philosophy (MIT Open Courseware)



Career Resources (American Philosophical Association)
Jobs for Philosophers (American Philosophical Association)
Jobs for Philosophers (PhilJobs)
Jobs (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)


PhilEvents (Conferences, CFPs, and seminars in philosophy)


Philosophical Associations and Societies (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Philosophy Associations and Societies (American Philosophical Association)
American Philosophical Association
Society for Applied Philosophy
Philosophy Documentation Center


Blogs and Podcasts (American Philosophical Association)
Philosophical Weblogs Directory (David Chalmers)
Daily Nous (Justin Weinberg)
The Philosopher’s Zone (Joe Gelonesi)


PHILOS-L Listserv


Journal of the American Philosophical Association
Philosophical research online (David Bourget and David Chalmers, General Editors, PhilPapers)
Philosophers’ Imprint (University of Michigan Library)
The Philosophers’ Magazine
Philosophy News


Philosophy Bookshelf (Project Gutenberg), ISBNdb





Three Minute Philosophy (YouTube Channel)

The Philosophical Lexicon (Daniel Dennett and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen)
The Causes of death of philosophers (D. H. Mellor)
Philosophy Humor Links (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Philosophical Humor (David Chalmers, Philosophy Pages)


Philospohy Games (The Philosophers’ Magazine)


Philsophy of Art vs. Aesthetics (Christopher S. Nwodo, The British Journal of Aesthetics)


Worlds Of Speculative Fiction: Philosophical Themes (Gregory B. Sadler, YouTube Channel)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



  • Vardoulakis, Dimitris : Authority and the Law:...
    on October 31, 2020 at 8:05 am

    In Dimitris Vardoulakis & Kiarina Kordela (eds.), _Spinoza’s Authority Volume II: Resistance and Power in The Political Treatises_. London, UK: pp. 45-66. 2018 Vardoulakis argues that the notion of law as developed in chapter 4 of Spinoza's Theological Political Treatise does not rely on a notion of legitimacy but rather on how authority justifies itself. To demonstrate this point, Vardoulakis analyzes closely the example of Adam and the Fall used by Spinoza in that chapter of the […]

  • Akalın, Atilla : An analysis of Kafka’s Penal...
    on October 31, 2020 at 8:05 am

    _Medeniyet Art, IMU Art, Design and Architecture Faculty Journal,_ 3 (1):29-44. 2017 This study aims to grasp the two distinct artworks one is from the literary field: Penal Colony, written by F. Kafka and the other one is from painting: The Large Glass, designed by M. Duchamp. This text tries to unravel the similarities betwe- en these artworks in terms of two main significations around “The Officer” from Penal Colony and “The Bachelors” from The Large Glass. Because of their vital […]

  • Welchman, Alistair & Norman, Judith :...
    on October 31, 2020 at 8:05 am

    In Robert Wicks (ed.), _The Oxford Handbook of Schopenhauer_. Oxford, UK: pp. 49-66. 2020 Schopenhauer is famously abusive toward his philosophical contemporary and rival, Friedrich William Joseph von Schelling. This chapter examines the motivations for Schopenhauer’s immoderate attitude and the substance behind the insults. It looks carefully at both the nature of the insults and substantive critical objections Schopenhauer had to Schelling’s philosophy, both to Schelling’s metaphysical […]

  • Welchman, Alistair : Evil in Schelling and...
    on October 31, 2020 at 8:05 am

    In Douglas Hedley (ed.), _The History of Evil in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries 1700–1900 CE_. London, UK: pp. 150-166. 2018 Schelling and Schopenhauer both operate in the German idealist tradition initiated by Kant, although both are critical of some of its developments. Schelling's interest in evil – which is at its most intense in his 1809 Freedom essay – stems from his belief that Kant's account of morality. In the Freedom essay Schelling links these theories with the […]

  • Welchman, Alistair : Eternity in Kant and...
    on October 31, 2020 at 8:05 am

    In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), _Eternity: A History_. Oxford, UK: pp. 179-225. 2016 The story of eternity is not as simple as a secularization narrative implies. Instead it follows something like the trajectory of reversal in Kant’s practical proof for the existence of god. In that proof, god emerges not as an object of theoretical investigation, but as a postulate required by our practical engagement with the world; so, similarly, the eternal is not just secularized out of existence, but becomes […]

Philosophers' Imprint Philosophers' Imprint

  • Reasoning, Defeasibility, and the Taking Condition
    by Markos Valaris on January 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Reasoning is a way of forming or revising attitudes such as beliefs and intentions. But what sets reasoning apart from other ways of forming or revising attitudes? According to the Taking Condition, an agent’s response does not count as an instance of reasoning unless the agent takes it that her circumstances warrant that response. While initially attractive to many, the Taking Condition has also faced a lot of criticism in the literature. This paper suggests a novel way of motivating the […]

  • "I Am the Original of All Objects": Apperception...
    by Colin McLear on January 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Kant’s conception of the centrality of intellectual self-consciousness, or "pure apperception", for scientific knowledge of nature is well known, if still obscure. Here I argue that, for Kant, at least one central role for such self-consciousness lies in the acquisition of the content of concepts central to metaphysical theorizing. I focus on one important concept, that of <substance>. I argue that, for Kant, the representational content of the concept <substance> […]

  • A Direction Effect on Taste Predicates
    by Alexander Dinges on January 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    The recent literature abounds with accounts of the semantics and pragmatics of so-called predicates of personal taste, i.e. predicates whose application is, in some sense or other, a subjective matter. Relativism and contextualism are the major types of theories. One crucial difference between these theories concerns how we should assess previous taste claims. Relativism predicts that we should assess them in the light of the taste standard governing the context of assessment. Contextualism […]

  • The Value of Thinking and the Normativity of Logic
    by Manish Oza on January 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    I. This paper is about how to build an account of the normativity of logic around the claim that logic is constitutive of thinking. I take the claim that logicis constitutive of thinking to mean that representational activity must tend to conform to logic to count as thinking. II. I develop a natural line of thought about how to develop the constitutive position into an account of logical normativity by drawing on constitutivism in metaethics. III. I argue that, while this line of thought […]

Philosophy News Think About It

  • Amis, Barnes, Rushdie, McEwan — the British...
    by on October 31, 2020 at 1:10 am

    Amis, Barnes, Rushdie, McEwan — the British baby-boomers sink towards senescence with a wave of nostalgic, self-indulgent prose    Continue reading . . . News source: Arts & Letters Daily Click the title to visit for more

  • Expand or Suppress Voting?
    by on October 30, 2020 at 11:07 pm

    Very broadly speaking, the Democrats and Republicans have adopted two fundamentally different strategies to wining elections. I am not claiming that these strategies are used in every race and by every candidate, just that they are the broad approaches of the parties. Democrats have adopted a general strategy of winning by getting more voters to vote for them. Republicans have adopted a general strategy of reducing the number of votes for the Democrats. This might seem to be distinction without […]

  • The Yellow Peril: Propaganda and the Pandemic
    by on October 30, 2020 at 7:03 pm

     The idea of the "Yellow Peril" was once a common way of thinking. Here I am illustrating how bad could that be from a short story by Jack London. Given the current situation, I wouldn't bet that this kind of attitude couldn't return, together with proposals for wiping out the Chinese population by means of biological warfare. Image source As I was surfing the Web looking for data about how the Chinese government managed the COVID epidemic, I found this short story written by Jack London […]

  • Scientism, the coronavirus, and the death of the...
    by on October 30, 2020 at 10:57 am

    “Nearly everyone seems to believe the humanities are in crisis,” huffed the literary scholar Paul Jay in 2014. But Jay wasn’t sold: his skepticism was sufficiently strong, in fact, that he put the word crisis in scare quotes in his book The Humanities “Crisis” and the Future of Literary Studies. Jay turned out to be one among a prominent collection of professors in the 2010s who gainsaid the crisis-talk surrounding the modern humanities.A few short years later, does anyone still […]

  • The Theory Wars of the '90s never ended; they...
    by on October 30, 2020 at 2:51 am

    The Theory Wars of the '90s never ended; they just migrated from Diacritics to Twitter. There’s no end in sight   Continue reading . . . News source: Arts & Letters Daily Click the title to visit for more