Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Form > General > Foundation > Theory > Philosophy


Philosophy Tube



Theory Philosophy, System


Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



PhilPapers (David Bourget and David Chalmers, General Editors)
Recommended Resources in Philosophy (The American Philosophical Association
Philosophy portal (Wikipedia)


philosophy : (1) pursuit of wisdom (2) a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means (3) an analysis of the grounds of and concepts expressing fundamental beliefs (4) a system of philosophical concepts (5) a theory underlying or regarding a sphere of activity or thought (6) the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group — Webster

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)
Philosophy Dictionaries and Glossaries (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. It is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. — Wikipedia

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Encyclopædia Britannica


What is Philosophy? (Steve Palmquist, The Tree of Philosophy)


An Outline Of Philosophy (Bertrand Russell, Internet Archive)
Outline of Philosophy (Wikipedia)


Philosophy (Search Engine Guide), WolframAlpha, DuckDuckGo



The Philosophy of Philosophy (Timothy Williamson)
Philosophical research online: Metaphilosophy (Jonathan Ichikawa, PhilPapers)
Contemporary Metaphilosophy (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Metaphilosophy (Wikipedia)


What Constitutes a Philosophical System? (Tim Lacy, Society for US Intellectual History)



Crash Course Philosophy (Hank Green)

History of Philosophy without any gaps (Peter Adamson, History of Philosophy)
A History of Philosophy YouTube Channel (Arthur Holmes, Wheaton College)
Ancient, Medieval, Oriental Philosophy arranged according to Dewey Decimal Classification (Bill Lawson)
History of Philosophy (Wikipedia) (Categories)


Philosophy Quotations (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Quotations Page


The Philosophy Chamber: Art and Science in Harvard’s Teaching Cabinet, 1766–1820 (Harvard Art Museums)
What Would Be in a Philosophy Museum? (Justin Weinberg, Daily Nous)
At Philosophy Museum, Please Feed the Mind (The New York Times)


A Guide to Philosophy in the Library of Congress Classification (John R. Shook)
Harvard Robbins Library of Philosophy
WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Teaching Children Philosophy
Philosophy for Children
Center for Philosophy for Children (University of Washington)

Teaching Philosophy (PhilPapers)
Philosophy Courses, Syllabi, Teaching & Learning (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Study Guide for Students of Philosophy (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)


The Tree of Philosophy: A Course of Introductory Lectures (Stephen Palmquist)
A History of Ideas: A 60-part radio series (The Open University)
Philosophy Podcasts (
Linguistics and Philosophy (MIT Open Courseware)



Career Resources (American Philosophical Association)
Jobs for Philosophers (American Philosophical Association)
Jobs for Philosophers (PhilJobs)
Jobs (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)


PhilEvents (Conferences, CFPs, and seminars in philosophy)


Philosophical Associations and Societies (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Philosophy Associations and Societies (American Philosophical Association)
American Philosophical Association
Society for Applied Philosophy
Philosophy Documentation Center


Blogs and Podcasts (American Philosophical Association)
Philosophical Weblogs Directory (David Chalmers)
Daily Nous (Justin Weinberg)
The Philosopher’s Zone (Joe Gelonesi)


PHILOS-L Listserv


Journal of the American Philosophical Association
Philosophical research online (David Bourget and David Chalmers, General Editors, PhilPapers)
Philosophers’ Imprint (University of Michigan Library)
The Philosophers’ Magazine
Philosophy News


Philosophy Bookshelf (Project Gutenberg), ISBNdb





Three Minute Philosophy (YouTube Channel)

The Philosophical Lexicon (Daniel Dennett and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen)
The Causes of death of philosophers (D. H. Mellor)
Philosophy Humor Links (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Philosophical Humor (David Chalmers, Philosophy Pages)


Philospohy Games (The Philosophers’ Magazine)


Philsophy of Art vs. Aesthetics (Christopher S. Nwodo, The British Journal of Aesthetics)


Worlds Of Speculative Fiction: Philosophical Themes (Gregory B. Sadler, YouTube Channel)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



  • Machek, David : Aristotle on the Goodness of...
    on January 25, 2021 at 4:16 pm

    _Journal of the History of Philosophy_. forthcoming For Aristotle, the happy life is the highest human good. But could even unhappy human lives have a grain of intrinsic goodness? Aristotle’s views about the value of the “mere living,” in contrast to the good living, have been neglected in the scholarship, in spite of his recurrent preoccupation with this question. Offering a close reading of a passage from Nicomachean Ethics IX.9, I argue that, for Aristotle, all human lives are […]

  • Noble, Tim & Jandejsek, Petr : Personal and...
    on January 25, 2021 at 4:16 pm

    _European Journal for Philosophy of Religion_ 12 (4):45-62. 2020 Whatever its grammatical status, the verb “to discern” has an implicit transitive element. That is to say, we always discern about something or between two options. What is the right course of action in this situation and in these circumstances? In our paper, we want to look at responses to this question from the perspective of the theology of liberation. As the name implies, this is first and foremost a theology, a way of […]

  • Ban, Marius Daniel : The Symbolism of Evil: The...
    on January 25, 2021 at 4:16 pm

    _European Journal for Philosophy of Religion_ 12 (4):139-160. 2020 In this article, I examine the discourse around evil from the perspective of philosophical anthropology. Through an analysis of the religious symbolism of evil and an associated quest for a complete study of being, I intend in this article to explore fresh ways of establishing the relation between our rhetorical practices of evil and moral responsibility. I draw on Ricoeur’s work on the primary symbols of evil, which can be […]

  • Angus, Duncan A. P. & Carson, Marion L. S. :...
    on January 25, 2021 at 4:16 pm

    _European Journal for Philosophy of Religion_ 12 (4):191-211. 2020 As a contribution to a wider discussion on moral discernment in theological anthropology, this paper seeks to answer the question “What is the impact of mental illness on an individual’s ability to make moral decisions?” Written from a clinical psychiatric perspective, it considers recent contributions from psychology, neuropsychology and imaging technology. It notes that the popular conception that mental illness […]

  • Alvis, Jason W. : A Phenomenology of Discernment:...
    on January 25, 2021 at 4:16 pm

    _European Journal for Philosophy of Religion_ 12 (4):63-93. 2020 This article argues that Max Scheler’s conception of “religious acts” and his criticisms of types of “difference” help rethink the relevance of discernment and decision making, especially today, in an age in which we are faced with an unprecedented range of "options" in nearly every area of social lives. After elucidating Scheler’s engagements with religion in On the Eternal in Man, his work is then applied to […]

Philosophers' Imprint Philosophers' Imprint

  • Freedom of Expression and the Liberalism of Fear:...
    by J. P. Messina on January 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Although many recent free speech skeptics claim Millian credentials, they neglect the more pessimistic elements of Mill's account of human nature. Once we recover the darker elements of Mill's thought, American-style laissez-faire in the domain of expression looks significantly more attractive. Indeed, this paper argues that if Mill is correct about human nature, we have good reason to oppose recent proposed restrictions on expression and to embrace a legal regime that tolerates much speech […]

  • Optimism About Moral Responsiblity
    by Jacob Barrett on January 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    In his classic “Freedom and Resentment,” P. F. Strawson introduces us to an optimist who believes that our moral responsibility practices are justified by their beneficial consequences. Although many see Strawson as a staunch critic of this consequentialist position, his stated view is only that there is a gap in the optimist’s story where the reactive attitudes should be. In this paper, I fill in the gap. I show how optimism can be suitably modified to reflect an appreciation of the […]

  • On Socrates' Project of Philosophical Conversion
    by Jacob Stump on January 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    There is a wide consensus among scholars that Plato’s Socrates is wrong to trust in reason and argument as capable of converting people to the life of philosophy. In this paper, I argue for the opposite. I show that Socrates employs a more sophisticated strategy than is typically supposed. Its key component is the use of philosophical argument not to lead an interlocutor to rationally conclude that he must change his way of life but rather to cause a certain affective experience, one that can […]

  • Stoic Logic and Multiple Generality
    by Susanne Bobzien on January 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    We argue that the extant evidence for Stoic logic provides all the elements required for a variable-free theory of multiple generality, including a number of remarkably modern features that straddle logic and semantics, such as the understanding of one- and two-place predicates as functions, the canonical formulation of universals as quantified conditionals, a straightforward relation between elements of propositional and first-order logic, and the roles of anaphora and rigid order in the […]

  • Can Imprecise Probabilities Be Practically...
    by Miriam Schoenfield on January 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    The usage of imprecise probabilities has been advocated in many domains: A number of philosophers have argued that our belief states should be “imprecise” in response to certain sorts of evidence, and imprecise probabilities have been thought to play an important role in disciplines such as artificial intelligence, climate science, and engineering. In this paper I’m interested in the question of whether the usage of imprecise probabilities can be given a practical motivation (a […]

Philosophy News Think About It

  • The Ghost Shirt Rituals: Preparing for the End of...
    by on January 25, 2021 at 4:06 pm

     Ishi, (c. 1861 –  1916), the last member of the Native American Yahi people, photographed as he was in 1911 when he came out of the woods. How did the Yahi react when they saw that the Whites were going to exterminate them? Perhaps not differently from the way we are reacting to the prospect of the collapse of our civilization: going crazy. The reaction to the current Covid pandemic is just the first stage of the wave of madness that's engulfing humankind. Imagine you are a Native […]

  • Moral Mask, Rationalizing or Mental Illness?
    by on January 25, 2021 at 2:02 pm

    Before, during and after the election Trump and his allies tried to undermine democracy with lies. As this is being written, the worst outcome of these lies was when Trump followers attacked the capitol after Trump incited them. While the right tried to blame the attack on Antifa, the FBI quickly refuted this lie. Once it became clear that the attempted overthrow of the election had failed and the arrests began, members of Trump’s mob began pleading for pardons. While Trump did dispense many […]

  • Robert Gottlieb on Harold Bloom: "It is a...
    by on January 25, 2021 at 1:55 am

    Robert Gottlieb on Harold Bloom: "It is a tremendous pity that the final statement from a critic of such significance...should be this disjointed effort"    Continue reading . . . News source: Arts & Letters Daily Click the title to visit for more

  • Oligarchs stepped in to bolster the arts in...
    by on January 23, 2021 at 1:35 am

    Oligarchs stepped in to bolster the arts in post-Soviet Russia. But is the work they have bankrolled any good?   Continue reading . . . News source: Arts & Letters Daily Click the title to visit for more

  • Trump’s Abandoned Mob
    by on January 22, 2021 at 11:32 pm

    After years of shaping his base, Trump incited them to launch an attack on the capitol to overturn the election. While resulting in surprisingly few deaths, this coup attempt failed. While the right attempted to blame the attack on Antifa, the FBI quickly refuted this absurd lie. As Trump’s final days in office approached, the rioters pleaded for pardons. Since they believed they were doing the will of Trump, it makes sense that they would expect a pardon—after all, they were his loyal […]