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Theory Philosophy, System


Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



PhilPapers (David Bourget and David Chalmers, General Editors)
Recommended Resources in Philosophy (The American Philosophical Association
Philosophy portal (Wikipedia)


philosophy : (1) pursuit of wisdom (2) a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means (3) an analysis of the grounds of and concepts expressing fundamental beliefs (4) a system of philosophical concepts (5) a theory underlying or regarding a sphere of activity or thought (6) the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group — Webster

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)
Philosophy Dictionaries and Glossaries (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. It is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. — Wikipedia

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Encyclopædia Britannica


What is Philosophy? (Steve Palmquist, The Tree of Philosophy)


An Outline Of Philosophy (Bertrand Russell, Internet Archive)
Outline of Philosophy (Wikipedia)


Philosophy (Search Engine Guide), WolframAlpha, DuckDuckGo



The Philosophy of Philosophy (Timothy Williamson)
Philosophical research online: Metaphilosophy (Jonathan Ichikawa, PhilPapers)
Contemporary Metaphilosophy (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Metaphilosophy (Wikipedia)


What Constitutes a Philosophical System? (Tim Lacy, Society for US Intellectual History)



Crash Course Philosophy (Hank Green)

History of Philosophy without any gaps (Peter Adamson, History of Philosophy)
A History of Philosophy YouTube Channel (Arthur Holmes, Wheaton College)
Ancient, Medieval, Oriental Philosophy arranged according to Dewey Decimal Classification (Bill Lawson)
History of Philosophy (Wikipedia) (Categories)


Philosophy Quotations (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Quotations Page


The Philosophy Chamber: Art and Science in Harvard’s Teaching Cabinet, 1766–1820 (Harvard Art Museums)
What Would Be in a Philosophy Museum? (Justin Weinberg, Daily Nous)
At Philosophy Museum, Please Feed the Mind (The New York Times)


A Guide to Philosophy in the Library of Congress Classification (John R. Shook)
Harvard Robbins Library of Philosophy
WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Teaching Children Philosophy
Philosophy for Children
Center for Philosophy for Children (University of Washington)

Teaching Philosophy (PhilPapers)
Philosophy Courses, Syllabi, Teaching & Learning (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Study Guide for Students of Philosophy (Garth Kemerling, Philosophy Pages)


The Tree of Philosophy: A Course of Introductory Lectures (Stephen Palmquist)
A History of Ideas: A 60-part radio series (The Open University)
Philosophy Podcasts (
Linguistics and Philosophy (MIT Open Courseware)



Career Resources (American Philosophical Association)
Jobs for Philosophers (American Philosophical Association)
Jobs for Philosophers (PhilJobs)
Jobs (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)


PhilEvents (Conferences, CFPs, and seminars in philosophy)


Philosophical Associations and Societies (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Philosophy Associations and Societies (American Philosophical Association)
American Philosophical Association
Society for Applied Philosophy
Philosophy Documentation Center


Blogs and Podcasts (American Philosophical Association)
Philosophical Weblogs Directory (David Chalmers)
Daily Nous (Justin Weinberg)
The Philosopher’s Zone (Joe Gelonesi)


PHILOS-L Listserv


Journal of the American Philosophical Association
Philosophical research online (David Bourget and David Chalmers, General Editors, PhilPapers)
Philosophers’ Imprint (University of Michigan Library)
The Philosophers’ Magazine
Philosophy News


Philosophy Bookshelf (Project Gutenberg), ISBNdb





Three Minute Philosophy (YouTube Channel)

The Philosophical Lexicon (Daniel Dennett and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen)
The Causes of death of philosophers (D. H. Mellor)
Philosophy Humor Links (Peter Suber, Guide to Philosophy on the Internet)
Philosophical Humor (David Chalmers, Philosophy Pages)


Philospohy Games (The Philosophers’ Magazine)


Philsophy of Art vs. Aesthetics (Christopher S. Nwodo, The British Journal of Aesthetics)


Worlds Of Speculative Fiction: Philosophical Themes (Gregory B. Sadler, YouTube Channel)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



  • Jain, Vijay K. : Ācārya Māņikyanandi’s...
    on April 19, 2021 at 3:46 am

    The science-of-thought (Nyāya) has always been an integral part of the four constituents (anuyoga) – prathamānuyoga, karuņānuyoga, caraņānuyoga, and dravyānuyoga – of the Jaina Scripture. Through Parīkşāmukha Sūtra, Ācārya Māņikyanandi (circa 7th-8th century A.D.) churned the nectar of the science-of-thought (Nyāya) from the ocean of the words of the master-composers like Ācārya Samantabhadra and Bhaţţa Akalańka Deva. The valid-knowledge (pramāņa) ascertains the true […]

  • Desmond, Hugh : Service and Status Competition...
    on April 19, 2021 at 3:46 am

    _American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience_ 11 (4):258-260. 2020 The dominant view on the ethics of cognitive enhancement (CE) is that CE is beholden to the principle of autonomy. However, this principle does not seem to reflect commonly held ethical judgments about enhancement. Is the principle of autonomy at fault, or should common judgments be adjusted? Here I argue for the first, and show how common judgments can be justified as based on a principle of service.(direct link)

  • Gare, Arran : Joining Forces Against...
    on April 19, 2021 at 3:46 am

    _Biosemiotics_:1-5. forthcoming The theoretical biologist Waddington drew attention to the damage to scientific progress by COWDUNG – the Conventional Wisdom of the Dominant Group. Despite Popper’s attack on what he called “the bucket theory of science”, that scientific knowledge accumulates incrementally, adding one fact after another, this is now conventional wisdom among biologists. Denis Noble is challenging not only the Neo-Darwinist orthodoxy dominating biology, but revealing the […]

  • Heron, John : Set-theoretic justification and the...
    on April 19, 2021 at 3:46 am

    _Synthese_:1-23. forthcoming Recent discussions of how axioms are extrinsically justified have appealed to abductive considerations: on such accounts, axioms are adopted on the basis that they constitute the best explanation of some mathematical data, or phenomena. In the first part of this paper, I set out a potential problem caused by the appeal made to the notion of mathematical explanation and suggest that it can be remedied once it is noted that all the justificatory work is done by appeal […]

  • Heron, John : Representational indispensability...
    on April 19, 2021 at 3:46 am

    _Thought: A Journal of Philosophy_ 9 (2):105-114. 2020 Thought: A Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.(direct link)

Philosophers' Imprint Philosophers' Imprint

  • On the Ultimate Origination of Things
    by David Gunn on January 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Why does the universe exist rather than not exist? And why is it the way that it is and not otherwise? Some philosophers have contended that it is reasonable to ask such questions even if the universe is eternal, or held to be so. And some, Leibniz for instance, have claimed in addition that such questions can never be satisfactorily answered by looking to the universe itself, but only by acknowledging the reality of an extramundane and absolutely necessary being as the ultimate origin of […]

  • Does Identity Politics Reinforce Oppression?
    by Katherine Ritchie on January 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Identity politics has been critiqued in various ways. One central problem — the Reinforcement Problem — claims that identity politics reinforces groups rooted in oppression, thereby undermining its own liberatory aims. Here I consider two versions of the problem — one psychological and one metaphysical. I defang the first by drawing on work in social psychology. I then argue that careful consideration of the metaphysics of social groups and of the practice of identity politics provides […]

  • Modelling Temporal Assertions for Global...
    by Naoyuki Kajimoto on January 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Global directional eliminativists deny that there is any global direction to time. This paper provides a way to understand everyday temporal assertions — assertions made outside the physics or metaphysics rooms, the truth of which appears to require that time has a global direction — on the assumption that global directional eliminativism is true.

  • The Meaning of 'Life's Meaning'
    by Michael M. Prinzing on January 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Life’s meaning is a deeply important yet perplexing topic. It is often unclear what people are talking about when they talk about life having "meaning". This paper attempts to clarify things by articulating a schema for understanding claims about meaning. It defends a theory according to which X means Y iff Y is a correct interpretation of X—i.e., if Y is a correct answer to an interpretive question, Z. I argue that this (perhaps surprising) claim has impressive explanatory power. […]

  • Cudworth on Freewill
    by Matthew A. Leisinger on January 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    In his unpublished freewill manuscripts, Ralph Cudworth seeks to complete the project that he begins in The True Intellectual System of the Universe (1678) by arguing for an account of human liberty that avoids the opposing poles of necessitarianism and indifferency. I argue that Cudworth’s account rests upon a crucial distinction between the will and the power of freewill. Whereas we necessarily will the greater apparent good, freewill is a more fundamental power by which we endeavour to […]

Philosophy News Think About It

  • Wilhelm Reich, who coined the term “sexual...
    by on April 19, 2021 at 2:04 am

    Wilhelm Reich, who coined the term “sexual revolution,” is remembered as the orgasm man. Do his ideas deserve a serious look?   Continue reading . . . News source: Arts & Letters Daily Click the title to visit for more

  • Politics and Negation: For an Affirmative...
    by on April 18, 2021 at 3:57 pm

    2021.04.03 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Roberto Esposito, Politics and Negation: For an Affirmative Philosophy, Zakiya Hanafi (tr.), Polity, 2019, 237pp., $24.95 (pbk), ISBN 9781509536627. Reviewed by Gregory Fried, Boston College Who would have dared contradict Johnny Mercer, who sang that You've got to accentuate the positive Eliminate the negative Latch on to the affirmative Don't mess with Mr. In-Between No, don't mess with Mr. In-Between Well, Roberto […]

  • Imagining and Knowing: The Shape of Fiction
    by on April 17, 2021 at 3:48 pm

    2021.04.02 : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews Gregory Currie, Imagining and Knowing: The Shape of Fiction, Oxford University Press, 2020, 240pp., $70.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780199656615. Reviewed by Peter Lamarque, University of York, UK Few would dispute that, all things considered, some exposure to works of imaginative literature (novels, plays, poems) as part of a rounded education is better than no such exposure. Beyond that, disagreements are rife. Culture wars […]

  • A debate: What does it mean for the future of...
    by on April 17, 2021 at 9:44 am

    A debate: What does it mean for the future of humanity if we soon share our living space with conscious machines? Continue reading . . . News source: Arts & Letters Daily Click the title to visit for more

  • A debate: What does it mean for the future of...
    by on April 16, 2021 at 11:39 pm

    A debate: What does it mean for the future of humanity if we are soon sharing our living space with conscious machines?    Continue reading . . . News source: Arts & Letters Daily Click the title to visit for more