Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Form / Foundation / Theory / System


Science Sauce (YouTube Channel)
Science Sauce (Official Website)


system : a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole — Merriam-Webster   See also OneLook

Dictionary of Cybernetics and Systems (Principia Cybernetica)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


System is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning. — Wikipedia

Systems thinking is a way of making sense of the complexity of the world by looking at it in terms of wholes and relationships rather than by splitting it down into its parts. — Wikipedia

International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics, 2nd Edition (Charles François, Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science)
System (Encyclopædia Britannica)


Outline of Cybernetics and Systems (Principia Cybernetica)

System (WolframAlpha)



Talks about Systems (TED: Ideas Worth Spreading)
Articles about Systems (Big Think)




Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems. A system is a cohesive conglomeration of interrelated and interdependent parts that is either natural or man-made. Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose or nature and expressed in its functioning. In terms of its effects, a system can be more than the sum of its parts if it expresses synergy or emergent behavior. Changing one part of the system usually affects other parts and the whole system, with predictable patterns of behavior. For systems that are self-learning and self-adapting, the positive growth and adaptation depend upon how well the system is adjusted with its environment. Some systems function mainly to support other systems by aiding in the maintenance of the other system to prevent failure. The goal of systems theory is systematically discovering a system’s dynamics, constraints, conditions and elucidating principles (purpose, measure, methods, tools, etc.) that can be discerned and applied to systems at every level of nesting, and in every field for achieving optimized equifinality. General systems theory is about broadly applicable concepts and principles, as opposed to concepts and principles applicable to one domain of knowledge. — Wikipedia

What is Systems Theory (Principia Cybernetica: Dictionary of Cybernetics and Systems)
Systems Theory (Science Direct)



Systems Theory Course (Systems Innovation, YouTube Playlist)
Systems Innovation (YouTube Channel)
Systems Innovation Network (Official Website)


Systems science is a transdisciplinary field concerned with understanding systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, cognition, engineering, technology and science itself. The field is diverse, spanning the formal, natural, social, and applied sciences. Themes commonly stressed in system science are (a) holistic view, (b) interaction between a system and its embedding environment, and (c) complex (often subtle) trajectories of dynamic behavior that sometimes are stable (and thus reinforcing), while at various ‘boundary conditions’ can become wildly unstable (and thus destructive). — Wikipedia

Understanding Systems Science: A Visual and Integrative Approach (Andreas Hieronymi, Systems Research and Behavioral Science)

Systems science Portal (Wikipedia)
Systems science (Wikipedia)


Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design, integrate, and manage complex systems over their life cycles. At its core, systems engineering utilizes systems thinking principles to organize this body of knowledge. The individual outcome of such efforts, an engineered system, can be defined as a combination of components that work in synergy to collectively perform a useful function. — Wikipedia

CATIA (YouTube Channel)

Systems Engineering (International Council on Systems Engineering)




A Historical Perspective of Systems Theory (Kevin MacGregor Adams, Patrick Thomas Hester & Joseph M Bradley, Proceedings of the 2013 Industrial and Systems Engineering Research Conference)


DDC: 003 Systems (Library Thing)
Subject: Systems (Library Thing)

Subject: Systems (Open Library)

LCC: Q 295 Systems (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Systems (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: Q 295 Systems (Library of Congress)
Subject: Systems (Library of Congress)

Subject: Systems (WorldCat)




Sustainability Science Education (YouTube Channel)
Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University

Introduction to Systems Thinking (Daniel Kim, The Systems Thinker)
Systems Fundamentals (Systems Thinker)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Systems Engineering (MIT OpenCourseWare)
Systems Design (MIT OpenCourseWare)
Systems Optimization (MIT OpenCourseWare)

Systems Courses (edX)


Systems Thinking Community Is Working to Create Social and Environmental Change – Here’s What We’ve Noticed Recently (Megan Alley, Climate Interactive)


Systems Engineering (Career Cornerstone Center)


International Society for the System Sciences (ISSS)
International Institute of Informatics and Systemics (IIIS)

IEEE Systems Council
IEEE Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Society

International Council on Systems Engineering
Systems Engineering Division (American Society for Engineering Education)


Journal of the International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS)
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (IIIS)
Systems Research and Behavioral Science

Systems and Control ( e-Print Archive)
Electrical Engineering and Systems Science ( e-Print Archive)

Systems (JSTOR)
Systems (NPR Archives)


Books on Cybernetics and Systems Science (Principia Cybernetica)
Books by Members (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics)



Systems (




HAHAcronym: A Computational Humor System (Oliviero Stock and Carlo Strapparava)


Systems Art (Tate)
Systems Art (Wikipedia)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form




Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Form
Philosophy Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics
System, Cycle, Structure, Growth, Complexity, Control, Disturbance, Entropy, Chaos
Process, Manage, Design, Prototype, Implement, Assess, Revise, Maintain



1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.