Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Form / Introduction / Reference

Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information on it. — Samuel Johnson



Miacademy Learning (YouTube Channel)

Introduction to Reference Work (William A Katz)

Reference   2


Reference : a work (such as a dictionary or encyclopedia) containing useful facts or information — Webster   See also OneLook


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Reference work is a work, such as a book or periodical (or their electronic equivalents), to which one can refer for information. The information is intended to be found quickly when needed. Such works are usually referred to for particular pieces of information, rather than read beginning to end. The writing style used in these works is informative; the authors avoid use of the first person, and emphasize facts. Reference works include dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, atlases, bibliographies, biographical sources, catalogs such as library catalogs and art catalogs, concordances, directories such as business directories, discographies, filmographies, glossaries, handbooks and manuals. — Wikipedia




Research Therapy (CSUN University Library, YouTube Playlist)

Locating Fair and Balanced Sources (Internet Public Library)




Worlds of Reference (Tom McArthur)

A Reference Guide To Reference In You Could Look It Up (Genevieve Valentine, NPR)
You could look it up: the reference shelf from ancient Babylon to Wikipedia (Jack Lynch)


Library of Congress # AG Generral Reference Works (UPenn Online Books)
Library of Congress # ZA Information Resources and Materials (UPenn Online Books)

Reference Books (Library Thing)

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



How to Make a Great Quick-Reference Guide (Ryan Knott, Tech Smith)


Reference Desk (Great Sites for Kids, American Library Association )

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Reference Librarian (US Occupational Outlook Handbook)


General Reference Works (David Nordloh, American Literary Scholarship)


Reference Work (ISBNdb)


Library of Congress Research and Reference Services
Library of Congress Research Guides
Library of Congress Bibliographies, Research Guides, and Finding Aids




American Library Association (YouTube Channel)
American Library Association (Official Website)




Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Form

Introduction Discipline

Reference Dictionary, Thesaurus, Glossary, Encyclopedia, Outline, Guide



1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.

2.   Some of the information on this page as well as the classification scheme used for the resources on all of the pages on Cosma was initially developed in the year 2000 while Mary E. Hopper was taking a course entitled LS407 Reference/Information Services at the Simmons Graduate School of Library and Information Science. It was a legendary, very rigorous course taught by Dr. Allen Smith.