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GCSE Astronomy (Lawrence Smallman, YouTube Playlist)
Trans-Neptunian Object (TNO) is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance (semi-major axis) than Neptune, 30 astronomical units (AU). Twelve minor planets with a semi-major axis greater than 150 AU and perihelion greater than 30 AU are known, which are called extreme trans-Neptunian objects (ETNOs).
The first trans-Neptunian object to be discovered was Pluto in 1930. It took until 1992 to discover a second trans-Neptunian object orbiting the Sun directly, 15760 Albion. As of February 2017 over 2,300 trans-Neptunian objects appear on the Minor Planet Center’s List of Transneptunian Objects. Of these TNOs, 2,000 have a perihelion farther out than Neptune (30.1 AU). The most massive known trans-Neptunian object is Eris, followed by Pluto, 2007 OR10, Makemake and Haumea. The Kuiper belt, scattered disk, and Oort cloud are three conventional divisions of this volume of space, though treatments vary and a few objects such as Sedna do not fit easily into any division. — Wikipedia
Voyager Program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic interstellar probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. They were launched in 1977 to take advantage of a favorable alignment of Jupiter and Saturn, to fly near them while collecting data for transmission back to Earth. After launch the decision was taken to send Voyager 2 near Uranus and Neptune to collect data for transmission back to Earth. As of 2022, the Voyagers are still in operation past the outer boundary of the heliosphere in interstellar space. They collect and transmit useful data to Earth. — Wikipedia
Persistent Plasma Waves in Interstellar Space Detected by Voyager 1 (Stella Koch Ocker, et al., Nature Astronomy)
Voyager Mission (JPL, NASA)
Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX or Explorer 91 or SMEX-10) is a NASA satellite in Earth orbit that uses energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) to image the interaction region between the Solar System and interstellar space. The mission is part of NASA’s Small Explorer program and was launched with a Pegasus-XL launch vehicle on 19 October 2008. IBEX is in a Sun-oriented spin-stabilized orbit around the Earth. — Wikipedia
Interstellar Boundary Explorer Mission (IBEX, NASA)
200 Transneptunian Objects (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
Trans-Neptunian Object (Wolfram Alpha)
Mathematical Discovery of Planets (J J O’Connor and E F Robertson)
Planets beyond Neptune (Wikipedia)
Melvil Decimal System # 523.49 Trans-Neptunian Objects (Library Thing)
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Trans-Neptunian Objects (Library Thing)
Library of Congress # QB701 Trans-Neptunian Object (UPenn Online Books)
WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library
Trans-Neptunian Object (Astronomy Magazine)
Trans-Neptunian Object (Phys.org)
Trans-Neptunian Object (NPR Archives)
Trans-Neptunian Object (ISBNdb)
Trans-Neptunian Object (USA.gov)
More News …
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
- A new ring system discovered in our solar systemon February 8, 2023 at 4:00 pm
Scientists have discovered a new ring system around a dwarf planet on the edge of the solar system. The ring system orbits much further out than is typical for other ring systems, calling into question current theories of how ring systems are formed.
- Flying to (hypothetical) Planet 9: Why visit it,...on September 14, 2022 at 4:08 pm
In a recent study submitted to Earth and Planetary Astrophysics, an international team of researchers discuss the various mission design options for reaching a hypothetical Planet 9, also known as "Planet X," which state-of-the-art models currently estimate to possess a semi-major axis of approximately 400 astronomical units (AU). The researchers postulate that sending a spacecraft to Planet 9 could pose scientific benefits much like when NASA's New Horizons spacecraft visited Pluto in 2015. […]
- Stellar flybys leave a permanent mark on newly...on August 1, 2022 at 1:30 pm
What do UX Tauri, RW Aurigae, AS 205, Z CMajoris, and FU Orionis have in common? They're young stellar systems with disks where planets could form. It appears those disks were disturbed by stellar flybys or other close encounters in the recent past. Astronomers want to know: did those events disrupt planet formation in the disks? What do they do? Does this happen in other systems? And, did our own solar system experience a strange encounter in its youth?
- Pluto's orbit is surprisingly unstableon April 21, 2022 at 4:54 pm
In 1930, astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered the fabled "Ninth Planet" (or "Planet X") while working at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. The existence of this body had been predicted previously based on perturbations in the orbit of Uranus and Neptune. After receiving more than 1,000 suggestions from around the world, and a debate among the Observatory's staff, this newfound object was named Pluto—which was proposed by a young schoolgirl from Oxford (Venetia Burney).
- 2029 will be the perfect year to launch a mission...on January 5, 2022 at 12:13 pm
Object 90377 Sedna—a distant trans-Neptunian object known best for its highly elliptical, 11,390-year long orbit—is currently on its way toward perihelion (its closest approach to the sun) in 2076. After that, Sedna will swing out into deep space again and won't be back for millennia, making this flyby a once-in-a-lifetime (or, once in ~113 lifetimes) opportunity to study an object from the far reaches of our solar system. There are no missions to Sedna in the works just yet, but […]
- What happens to interstellar objects captured by...on September 28, 2021 at 12:55 pm
Now that we know that interstellar objects (ISOs) visit our solar system, scientists are keen to understand them better. How could they be captured? If they're captured, what happens to them? How many of them might be in our solar system?
- A six-year search of the outer solar system turns...on September 16, 2021 at 11:53 am
In the near future, astronomers will benefit from the presence of next-generation telescopes like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (RST). At the same time, improved data mining and machine learning techniques will also allow astronomers to get more out of existing instruments. In the process, they hope to finally answer some of the most burning questions about the cosmos.
- Discovery of very red bodies in the asteroid belt...on August 2, 2021 at 1:00 pm
Two asteroids (203 Pompeja and 269 Justitia) have been discovered with a redder spectrum than any other object in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. The discovery was led by HASEGAWA Sunao, Associate Senior Researcher at ISAS JAXA, with an international team of researchers from MIT, the University of Hawai'i, Seoul National University, Kyoto University and the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille
- Giant comet found in outer solar system by Dark...on June 28, 2021 at 12:20 pm
A giant comet from the outskirts of our solar system has been discovered in six years of data from the Dark Energy Survey. Comet Bernardinelli-Bernstein is estimated to be about 1000 times more massive than a typical comet, making it arguably the largest comet discovered in modern times. It has an extremely elongated orbit, journeying inward from the distant Oort Cloud over millions of years. It is the most distant comet to be discovered on its incoming path, giving us years to watch it evolve […]
- Researchers discover orbital patterns of...on June 17, 2021 at 5:08 pm
Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), small objects that orbit the sun beyond Neptune, are fossils from the early days of the solar system which can tell us a lot about its formation and evolution.
Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.
Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid
1. The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.