Periodic Table

Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Realm > Physical > Periodic Table


UNESCO and 1001 Inventions Launch Journeys from Alchemy to Chemistry (IYT2019, UNESCO)

The International Year of the Periodic Table (2019 IYPT)

An unelementary affair: 150 years of the periodic table (Robert P Crease, Physics World)
How the periodic table went from a sketch to an enduring masterpiece (Tom Siegfried, Science News)

Setting the table (Phillip Szuromi, Science Magazine)
Ordering the elements (Michael D. Gordin, Science Magazine)

The Periodic Table of Elements in Pictures and Words (Keith Enevoldsen,
This Awesome Periodic Table Tells You How to Actually Use All Those Elements (BEC CREW, Science Alert)

Periodic Table of Elements (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)
Interactive Periodic Table of Elements (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
Periodic Table (American Chemical Society)



Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Physics Databases & Periodic Tables (Martindale’s Reference Desk)


Periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends. Generally, within one row (period) the elements are metals to the left, and non-metals to the right, with the elements having similar chemical behaviours placed in the same column. Table rows are commonly called periods and columns are called groups. Six groups have accepted names as well as assigned numbers: for example, group 17 elements are the halogens; and group 18 are the noble gases. Also displayed are four simple rectangular areas or blocks associated with the filling of different atomic orbitals.

The organization of the periodic table can be used to derive relationships between the various element properties, but also the predicted chemical properties and behaviours of undiscovered or newly synthesized elements. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev was the first to publish a recognizable periodic table in 1869, developed mainly to illustrate periodic trends of the then-known elements. He also predicted some properties of unidentified elements that were expected to fill gaps within the table. Most of his forecasts proved to be correct. Mendeleev’s idea has been slowly expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements and the development of new theoretical models to explain chemical behaviour. The modern periodic table now provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical reactions, and continues to be widely used in chemistry, nuclear physics and other sciences.

All the elements from atomic numbers 1 (hydrogen) through 118 (oganesson) have been either discovered or synthesized, completing the first seven rows of the periodic table. The first 98 elements exist in nature, although some are found only in trace amounts and others were synthesized in laboratories before being found in nature. Elements 99 to 118 have only been synthesized in laboratories or nuclear reactors. The synthesis of elements having higher atomic numbers is currently being pursued: these elements would begin an eighth row, and theoretical work has been done to suggest possible candidates for this extension. Numerous synthetic radionuclides of naturally occurring elements have also been produced in laboratories. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Solving the puzzle of the periodic table – Eric Rosado
Brief history of the development of the periodic table (Western Oregon University)

The periodic tables we almost had (Mark Lorch, Quartz)
Alternate Periodic Table Designs (Western Oregon University)
The Internet Database of Periodic Tables

Periodic Videos (YouTube Channel)



WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Periodic Table (For Kids! YouTube Channel)

Periodic Table and the Elements (Chem4Kids)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)

Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Pure and Applied Chemistry (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives




The Quest for Superheavy Elements and the Island of Stability (Christoph E. Düllmann and Michael Block, Scientific American)


My Favourite Element (YouTube Channel, The Royal Institution)
Periodic Videos (YouTube Channel)


Tom Lehrer at 90: a life of scientific satire (Andrew Robinson, Nature)


More… - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Buzz about thermoelectrics heats up with...
    on July 23, 2021 at 9:18 am

    The landing of NASA's Perseverance rover was another leap forward not only for space exploration but also for the technology that's powering the craft on its years-long mission on Mars—a thermoelectric generator that turns heat into electricity.

  • Silicon with a two-dimensional structure
    on July 22, 2021 at 4:45 pm

    Silicon, a semi-metal, bonds in its natural form with four other elements and its three-dimensional structure takes the form of a tetrahedron. For a long time, it seemed impossible to achieve the synthesis and characterisation of a two-dimensional equivalent—geometrically speaking, a square. Now scientists from the field of Inorganic Chemistry at Heidelberg University have succeeded in producing a crystalline complex with such a configuration. PD Dr. Lutz Greb from the Institute of Inorganic […]

  • First study of nickelate's magnetism finds a...
    on July 8, 2021 at 8:14 pm

    Ever since the 1986 discovery that copper oxide materials, or cuprates, could carry electrical current with no loss at unexpectedly high temperatures, scientists have been looking for other unconventional superconductors that could operate even closer to room temperature. This would allow for a host of everyday applications that could transform society by making energy transmission more efficient, for instance.

  • New type of massive explosion explains mystery...
    on July 7, 2021 at 3:00 pm

    A massive explosion from a previously unknown source—10 times more energetic than a supernova—could be the answer to a 13-billion-year-old Milky Way mystery.

  • Machine learning cracks the oxidation states of...
    on July 6, 2021 at 1:57 pm

    Chemical elements make up pretty much everything in the physical world. As of 2016, we know of 118 elements, all of which can be found categorized in the famous periodic table that hangs in every chemistry lab and classroom.

  • The first commercially scalable integrated laser...
    on July 1, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    Fifteen years ago, UC Santa Barbara electrical and materials professor John Bowers pioneered a method for integrating a laser onto a silicon wafer. The technology has since been widely deployed in combination with other silicon photonics devices to replace the copper-wire interconnects that formerly linked servers at data centers, dramatically increasing energy efficiency—an important endeavor at a time when data traffic is growing by roughly 25% per year.

  • Mission to rescue doomed trout at the Arroyo Seco...
    on June 21, 2021 at 2:33 pm

    In an era of increasing drought and nearly back-to-back wildfires, state conservationists have been working overtime in the San Gabriel Mountains to rescue frogs, fish and other species facing potential oblivion by rounding up populations of threatened animals and transporting them to safer areas.

  • Portable technology offers boost for nuclear...
    on June 11, 2021 at 2:27 pm

    About five years ago, Areg Danagoulian, associate professor in the MIT Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering (NSE), became intrigued by a technique developed by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses a neutron beam to identify unknown materials.

  • Using a mineral 'sponge' to catch uranium
    on June 9, 2021 at 1:52 pm

    A team of researchers from Sandia, Lawrence Berkeley and Pacific Northwest national laboratories tested a "sponge-like" mineral that can "soak up" uranium at a former uranium mill near Rifle, Colorado.

  • Solar energy and pollinator conservation: A path...
    on June 3, 2021 at 2:45 pm

    Amid the steady growth of solar energy production in the United States, pollinator conservation at solar installations has become an appealing secondary pursuit, but the long-term success of such efforts remains to be seen. Can the land within a solar farm be made a true resource for pollinating insects? Will solar developers see value in the extra investment to plant and maintain flowering vegetation?