Periodic Table of Elements (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)
Interactive Periodic Table of Elements (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
Periodic Table (American Chemical Society)
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
Periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends. Generally, within one row (period) the elements are metals to the left, and non-metals to the right, with the elements having similar chemical behaviours placed in the same column. Table rows are commonly called periods and columns are called groups. Six groups have accepted names as well as assigned numbers: for example, group 17 elements are the halogens; and group 18 are the noble gases. Also displayed are four simple rectangular areas or blocks associated with the filling of different atomic orbitals.
The organization of the periodic table can be used to derive relationships between the various element properties, but also the predicted chemical properties and behaviours of undiscovered or newly synthesized elements. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev was the first to publish a recognizable periodic table in 1869, developed mainly to illustrate periodic trends of the then-known elements. He also predicted some properties of unidentified elements that were expected to fill gaps within the table. Most of his forecasts proved to be correct. Mendeleev’s idea has been slowly expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements and the development of new theoretical models to explain chemical behaviour. The modern periodic table now provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical reactions, and continues to be widely used in chemistry, nuclear physics and other sciences.
All the elements from atomic numbers 1 (hydrogen) through 118 (oganesson) have been either discovered or synthesized, completing the first seven rows of the periodic table. The first 98 elements exist in nature, although some are found only in trace amounts and others were synthesized in laboratories before being found in nature. Elements 99 to 118 have only been synthesized in laboratories or nuclear reactors. The synthesis of elements having higher atomic numbers is currently being pursued: these elements would begin an eighth row, and theoretical work has been done to suggest possible candidates for this extension. Numerous synthetic radionuclides of naturally occurring elements have also been produced in laboratories. — Wikipedia
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Researchers test the way we understand forces in...
on April 1, 2020 at 5:50 pm
A discovery by a team of researchers led by UMass Lowell nuclear physicists could change how atoms are understood by scientists and help explain extreme phenomena in outer space.
Radiation damage spreads among close neighbors
on March 17, 2020 at 2:18 pm
A single X-ray can unravel an enormous molecule, physicists report in the March 17 issue of Physical Review Letters. Their findings could lead to safer medical imaging and a more nuanced understanding of the electronics of heavy metals.
Scientists created an 'impossible'...
on March 3, 2020 at 1:41 pm
Scientists have created new superconducting compounds of hydrogen and praseodymium, a rare-earth metal, one substance being quite a surprise from the perspective of classical chemistry. The study helped find the optimal metals for room-temperature superconductors. The results were published in Science Advances.
Artificial atoms create stable qubits for quantum...
on February 11, 2020 at 9:00 am
Quantum engineers from UNSW Sydney have created artificial atoms in silicon chips that offer improved stability for quantum computing.
Quantum logic spectroscopy unlocks potential of...
on January 29, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Scientists from the PTB and the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK), both Germany, have carried out pioneering optical measurements of highly charged ions with unprecedented precision. To do this, they isolated a single Ar13 + ion from an extremely hot plasma and brought it practically to rest inside an ion trap together with a laser-cooled, singly charged ion. Employing quantum logic spectroscopy on the ion pair, they have increased the relative precision by a factor of a hundred […]
Current model for storing nuclear waste is...
on January 27, 2020 at 3:00 pm
The materials the United States and other countries plan to use to store high-level nuclear waste will likely degrade faster than anyone previously knew because of the way those materials interact, new research shows.
Stopping yellow spot fungus that attacks wheat...
on January 23, 2020 at 12:57 pm
Scientists from the Centre for Crop and Disease Management (CCDM) and Curtin University in Western Australia have used an advanced imaging technique at the Australian Synchrotron for an in-depth look at how a fungus found in wheat crops is damaging its leaves.
Making new catalysts from unique metallic alloys
on January 17, 2020 at 1:48 pm
Heusler alloys are magnetic materials made from three different metals that are not magnetic individually. The alloys are used broadly for their magnetic and thermoelectric properties, and their ability to regain their original shape after being deformed, known as shape memory. Investigations by Tohoku University's advanced materials scientist An-Pang Tsai and colleagues now show that these materials can also be fine-tuned to speed up chemical reactions. This catalytic capability is reviewed in […]
Potassium-driven rechargeable batteries: An...
on January 16, 2020 at 11:26 am
Our modern lifestyle would be immensely different without rechargeable batteries. Owing to their low-cost, recyclable technology, these batteries are used in most portable electronic devices, electric and hybrid vehicles, and renewable power generation systems. They offer an elegant solution to the world's growing energy demands. Moreover, rechargeable batteries are an essential tool in systems that harvest renewable energy, such as the wind and sunlight, because these sources can fluctuate […]
Simulation of dwarf galaxy reveals different...
on January 10, 2020 at 11:40 am
Simulations of a dwarf galaxy by RIKEN astrophysicists have revealed the various processes by which moderately heavy metals such as strontium are birthed. They have found that at least four kinds of stars are needed to explain the observed abundance of these metals in dwarf galaxies.