Tree of Life

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FuseSchool Global Education (YouTube Channel)
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Tree of life or Universal Tree of Life is a metaphor, model and research tool used to explore the evolution of life and describe the relationships between organisms, both living and extinct, as described in a famous passage in Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species (1859).

The affinities of all the beings of the same class have some-
times been represented by a great tree. I believe this simile
largely speaks the truth. — Charles Darwin

Tree diagrams originated in the medieval era to represent genealogical relationships. Phylogenetic tree diagrams in the evolutionary sense date back to at least the early 19th century. The term phylogeny for the evolutionary relationships of species through time was coined by Ernst Haeckel, who went further than Darwin in proposing phylogenic histories of life. In contemporary usage, tree of life refers to the compilation of comprehensive phylogenetic databases rooted at the last universal common ancestor of life on Earth. — Wikipedia

Tree of Life (Encyclopædia Britannica)



Gaia’s Greenhouse

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Gaia's Greenhouse SL



Articles about the Tree of Life (Big Think)




Phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among or within groups of organisms. These relationships are determined by phylogenetic inference methods that focus on observed heritable traits, such as DNA sequences, protein amino acid sequences, or morphology. The result of such an analysis is a phylogenetic tree—a diagram containing a hypothesis of relationships that reflects the evolutionary history of a group of organisms.– Wikipedia

Phylogenetics (Encyclopædia Britannica)

What is Phylogeny? (Tree of Life)
A View of All Known Life (One Zoom)
The Importance of Scientific Names (Catalogue of Life)




DDC: 572.838 Phylogenetic (Library Thing)
Subject: Phylogenetics (Library Thing)

Subject: Phylogenetics (Open Library)

LCC: QH 390 Phylogenetics (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Phylogenetics (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: QH 390 Phylogenetics (Library of Congress)
Subject: Phylogenetics (Library of Congress)

Subject: Phylogenetics (WorldCat)




Science Trek (YouTube Channel)
Kingdoms (Science Trek, Official Website)

Tree of Life (Ology, American Museum of Natural History)
Journey Into Phylogenetic Systematics (Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)


American Institute of Biological Sciences


Phylogenetics (bioRxiv: Preprint Server for Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Phylogenetics (EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Tree of Life (JSTOR)
Phylogenetics (Science Daily)
Phylogenetics (Science News)



Phylogenetics (


More News … - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Exploring how community-based social norms evolve
    on June 8, 2023 at 4:21 pm

    Cooperation is a guiding principle of everyday life. It's as simple as following the rules of the road when driving or holding a door for a stranger; cooperation is a fundamental aspect of human societies and has long intrigued evolutionary biologists. But how do people reach a consensus on whether, and with whom, to cooperate?

  • Researchers identify role of introgression during...
    on June 7, 2023 at 7:51 pm

    Adaptive radiation, a process in which many new species explode and occupy different ecological niches in a short time, can rapidly promote speciation and enrich species diversity. Genomic analyses have shown that phylogenies of closely related species often exhibit a high degree of reticulation, which is often associated with adaptive radiation.

  • Lingering effects of Neanderthal DNA found in...
    on June 7, 2023 at 6:22 pm

    Recent scientific discoveries have shown that Neanderthal genes comprise some 1 to 4% of the genome of present-day humans whose ancestors migrated out of Africa, but the question remained open on how much those genes are still actively influencing human traits—until now.

  • Romantic love in humans may have evolved from...
    on June 7, 2023 at 6:17 pm

    Romantic heterosexual relationships in humans may have evolved from same-sex pairings in a common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, according to a novel hypothesis by a researcher at The University of Texas at Austin.

  • Study explains the evolutionary origins and...
    on June 6, 2023 at 11:00 pm

    Masturbation is common across the animal kingdom but is especially prevalent among primates, including humans. Historically, this behavior was considered to be either pathological or a by-product of sexual arousal, and recorded observations were too fragmented to understand its distribution, evolutionary history, or adaptive significance. New research published in Proceedings of The Royal Society B finds that, perhaps surprisingly, this behavior seems to serve an evolutionary purpose.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.