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These are organized by form and function.

Communications Computation Storage Authoring Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Typewriter Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Recorder Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS) Database Application AI, World

These are types of media formats.

Multimedia (Video, Animation), Image (Object), Scent, Flavor, Audio (Text), Haptic, “Other


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



virtual world : computer-based simulated environment intended for its users to inhabit and interact via avatars (primarily software) — Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Virtual world is an online community that takes the form of a computer-based simulated environment through which users can interact with one another and use and create objects. The term has become largely synonymous with interactive 3D virtual environments, where the users take the form of avatars visible to others. In general, virtual worlds allow for multiple users. The computer accesses a computer-simulated world and presents perceptual stimuli to the user, who in turn can manipulate elements of the modeled world and thus experience a degree of telepresence. Such modeled worlds and their rules may draw from the reality or fantasy worlds. Example rules are gravity, topography, locomotion, real-time actions, and communication. Communication between users can range from text, graphical icons, visual gesture, sound, and rarely, forms using touch, voice command, and balance senses. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



History of Virtual Worlds (MediaShift, PBS)
Virtual Worlds Timeline (Avatar Planet)
Virtual Worlds History (Wikipedia)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Hypergrid Business
NPR Archives







The Unlikely Story of Microsoft’s Surprise Minecraft Buyout (Daniel Goldberg and Linus Larsson, Wired)
Minecraft (Official Site), Minecraft (Wikipedia)


LEGO’s ‘Minecraft’ competitor is real and ready to download (Jon Fingas, Engadget)
LEGO Worlds Steam Early Access (
LEGO Worlds (


World of WarCraft (Official Site), World of Warcraft (Wikipedia)



Hypergrid Business Covering virtual reality, immersive worlds, and other emerging technologies

  • Enchanted Grid sees ownership shakeup, residents...
    by Maria Korolov on October 27, 2021 at 3:07 pm

    Update: As of Wednesday afternoon, the new sole owner of Enchanted Grid says that she has no access to the grid servers to restart them and that she is told “there are no grid servers to restart.” Enchanted Grid, a mid-sized private grid with a few hundred regions and registered

  • Facebook’s unlikely to promote a distributed...
    by David Kariuki on October 27, 2021 at 2:35 am

    Facebook’s announcement of a $50 million research fund and plans to hire 10,000 employees in U.K. to help build the metaverse, clarifies that the company will be using massive resources to push the technology adoption for VR and gain a huge market share to become the central hub of the

  • Oculus Quest 2 setup is super easy. Getting...
    by Maria Korolov on October 24, 2021 at 5:36 am

    I just ordered my Oculus Quest 2 headset this morning — and it already came this evening. Initial impression is that it’s the easiest-to-use headset I’ve tried so far. Very comfortable, very lightweight, and I didn’t even need to charge it up when I took it out of the box.

  • Wyldwood Bayou grid celebrates first anniversary
    by David Kariuki on October 21, 2021 at 1:59 pm

    Wyldwood Bayou grid will celebrate first anniversary from Friday, October 29 through Monday, November 1, which coincides with the grid’s second Halloween Bash to be held on Sunday, October 31. The grid was launched a year ago by Kith Whitehawk as a destination grid for the club Rockin’ the Blues, and

  • Wildwood Bayou shines in twelfth annual OpenSim...
    by Maria Korolov on October 20, 2021 at 3:04 pm

    More than 300 valid responses came in for the Twelfth Annual OpenSim Grid Survey, and Wildwood Bayou received nearly perfect scores in all categories, with Utopia Skye, Enchanted Grid, Craft World and Kitely close behind. Wildwood Bayou, Utopia Skye, and Enchanted Grid were all write-in grids. Most years, there’s at least