Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Ecosystem / Aquatic



The Aquatic Biome (World’s Biomes, University of California Museum of Paleontology)
Aquatic Ecosystems (National Geographic)


aquatic : growing or living in or frequenting water — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Aquatic ecosystem An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water. Communities of organisms that are dependent on each other and on their environment live in aquatic ecosystems. The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica




Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea. Given that in biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather than on taxonomy.

A large proportion of all life on Earth lives in the ocean. The exact size of this large proportion is unknown, since many ocean species are still to be discovered. The ocean is a complex three-dimensional world covering approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. The habitats studied in marine biology include everything from the tiny layers of surface water in which organisms and abiotic items may be trapped in surface tension between the ocean and atmosphere, to the depths of the oceanic trenches, sometimes 10,000 meters or more beneath the surface of the ocean. Specific habitats include coral reefs, kelp forests, seagrass meadows, the surrounds of seamounts and thermal vents, tidepools, muddy, sandy and rocky bottoms, and the open ocean (pelagic) zone, where solid objects are rare and the surface of the water is the only visible boundary. The organisms studied range from microscopic phytoplankton and zooplankton to huge cetaceans (whales) 25–32 meters (82–105 feet) in length. Marine ecology is the study of how marine organisms interact with each other and the environment. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica




The Ocean Through Time (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Life on Planet Ocean (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



What can I do to protect coral reefs? (NOAA)
What You Can Do (



OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



What is a Marine Biologist? (Environmental Science)


Science Daily,






More News … - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Rising daily surface temperatures of 160 lakes...
    on September 30, 2022 at 3:01 pm

    The annual surface temperature of 160 lakes across the Tibetan Plateau has increased significantly in the period of 1978–2017, according to a study on large-scale dynamic monitoring and simulation of lake water temperature.

  • War disturbs nature permanently, study finds
    on September 29, 2022 at 3:10 pm

    Using long-term data, researchers studied the effects of large mammal declines—caused by civil war and poaching—on the species composition of savanna ponds. Guillaume Demare conducted the research as part of his doctoral studies at the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin and Freie Universität, and the study is published in Global Change Biology.

  • Scientists say a One Health approach to plant...
    on September 28, 2022 at 11:00 pm

    A team of scientists argues that a One Health approach to plant health is vital if we are to sustainably feed a growing population expected to reach 10 billion by 2050.

  • Manmade wetlands: A barrier to the spread of...
    on September 26, 2022 at 4:22 pm

    Constructed wetlands, built to treat wastewater and stormwater runoff, act as a barrier preventing the spread of microplastics through the environment, a Griffith-led study has found.

  • Mexico earthquake triggers 'desert tsunami' 1,500...
    on September 23, 2022 at 6:10 pm

    About five minutes after the 7.6 magnitude earthquake hit near Mexico's southwest coast Monday, typically calm water deep in a Death Valley National Park cave started sloshing against the surrounding limestone rock.

Sea Life News -- ScienceDaily Current events articles in marine biology and science. From beached whales to coral reef bleaching, learn what is happening in today's oceans.

  • Changes in marine ecosystems going undetected
    on September 30, 2022 at 1:08 pm

    Existing ways of calculating biodiversity dynamics are not very effective in detecting wholesale species community change due to the effects of ocean acidification.

  • Scientists find link between fast-melting Arctic...
    on September 30, 2022 at 12:34 am

    An international team of researchers has found acidity levels increasing three to four times faster than ocean waters elsewhere and a strong correlation between the accelerated rate of melting ice in the region and the rate of ocean acidification. This threatens the Earth's climate and the survival of plants, shellfish, coral reefs and other marine life.

  • Study links cold water shock to catastrophic...
    on September 29, 2022 at 5:34 pm

    Scientists have discovered that an extreme weather event that resulted in rapid sea temperature drops of up to 10 degrees was the primary cause of a catastrophic coral die-off event off the coast of Costa Rica.

  • Population boom near globe's vulnerable coral...
    on September 29, 2022 at 5:26 pm

    Millions more people across the globe are relying on our endangered coral reefs than 20 years ago, according to new figures into population growth in coastal areas.

  • How fish survive the extreme pressures of life in...
    on September 28, 2022 at 11:59 am

    Scientists have discovered how a chemical in the cells of marine organisms enables them to survive the high pressures found in the deep oceans.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.