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These are organized by form and function.

Communications Computation Storage Authoring Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Typewriter Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Recorder Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS) Database Application AI, World

See also Data


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



database : a usually large collection of data organized especially for rapid search and retrieval (as by a computer) — Webster

FOLDOC: Free Online Dictionary of Computing, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Database is an organized collection of data, today typically in digital form. The data are typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality (for example, the availability of rooms in hotels), in a way that supports processes requiring this information (for example, finding a hotel with vacancies). — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Introduction to Databases (Philip Greenspun)





A Timeline of Database History (QuickBase)
Databases (The History of Computing Project)
The birth of the modern computer, RDBMS (History of Computers and Computing)
System R History and the Birth of SQL (History of Computers and Computing)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Introduction to Databases (Jennifer Widom, Stanford University)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Database Trends and Applications
Database Journal
NPR Archives








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form




Database Trends and Applications : All Articles RSS feeds from Database Trends and Applications .

  • Cyber Security Awareness Month 2020: Assessing...
    on October 1, 2020 at 12:00 pm

    October is National Cyber Security Awareness Month (NCSAM). Started by the National Cyber Security Division within the Department of Homeland Security and the non-profit National Cyber Security Alliance, the goal of this designation is to raise awareness of the importance of cyber security. Find out what data governance and security leaders think about the state of data security today.

  • Imperva to Acquire Database Security Provider...
    on October 1, 2020 at 12:00 pm

    Imperva, a cybersecurity software vendor, has entered into an agreement to acquire jSonar, a provider of database security. The transaction is subject to customary closing conditions, including receipt of required regulatory clearance, and is expected to close in mid-October 2020.

  • Ionir Introduces Cloud Native Storage and Data...
    on September 30, 2020 at 2:00 pm

    Ionir is releasing a container native software defined storage and data management platform, designed to support Kubernetes production workloads in private cloud, hybrid cloud, and multi-cloud deployments.?The Ionir enterprise software defined storage platform delivers Data Teleport, an instant mobility capability for persistent volumes that allows stateful applications to be copied or moved instantly between Kubernetes clusters.

  • Experts Talk Transforming Data Analytics with...
    on September 30, 2020 at 2:00 pm

    From data lakes and data warehouses to hybrid and multicloud environments, the world of analytics continues to evolve to meet growing demands for fast, easy, and wide-ranging data access. In a recent survey of DBTA subscribers, 20% indicated plans to move their analytics to the cloud with another 27% considering this idea. At the same time, concerns about security, governance and performance linger, and there are other success factors to consider, including the strengths and weaknesses of […]

  • Multi-Cloud Copy Data Management Software Pioneer...
    on September 30, 2020 at 2:00 pm

    Actifio, a pioneer of?multi-cloud copy data management software, has announced an OEM agreement with Dell Technologies enabling the companies to offer two new solutions to help customers accelerate digital transformation. The new solutions are aimed at database cloning, cloud connectivity, and DevOps initiatives.

  • Is COUNT(rowid) Faster Than COUNT(*)?
    on May 18, 2020 at 8:01 am

    It is believed that count(*) expands to all columns and that count(rowid) is faster.  Read on to see why the opposite might be true.

  • How Many Databases Can You Name?
    on May 11, 2020 at 8:01 am

    There is a huge number of databases available. How many could you name? Create our list and then compare to our list of well over 100 databases!

  • How to Find the Estimation Cost for a Query
    on May 4, 2020 at 8:01 am

    Discover how to estimate the cost of a query. Read on to see an example of how to extract the Estimated Cost for execution plans stored in the procedure cache.  

  • Understanding Views in SQL
    on April 27, 2020 at 8:01 am

    Learn about the concept of views in SQL, and how they work. Read on to see clear examples of how to implement views.

  • Introduction to Azure SQL Database Instance Pools
    on April 20, 2020 at 8:01 am

    Learn about Azure SQL Database Instance Pools and how they they set to provide more flexibility and agility than other Platform-as-a Service SQL Server-based offerings in Azure.