Subjects and Subheadings
The “DIKW Hierarchy”, also known variously as the “Wisdom Hierarchy”, the “Knowledge Hierarchy”, the “Information Hierarchy”, and the “Knowledge Pyramid”, refers loosely to a class of models for representing structural and/or functional relationships between the content of communication (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom). — Wikipedia
Most writers about the hierarchy refer to this passage from T. S. Eliot’s The Rock.
Where is the Life we have lost in living?
Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? — T.S. Eliot, The Rock
Russell Ackoff popularized the hierarchy to categorize the content of communication.
From data to wisdom (Russell L. Ackoff, Journal of Applies Systems Analysis)
The wisdom of the world: Messages for the new millennium (Russell L. Ackoff, The Futurist)
On passing through 80 (Russell L. Ackoff, Systemic practice and action research)
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
data : 1. factual information (as measurements or statistics) used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation 2. information output by a sensing device or organ that includes both useful and irrelevant or redundant information and must be processed to be meaningful 3. information in numerical form that can be digitally transmitted or processed — Webster See also Oxford, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, InfoPlease, Word Reference, Urban Dictionary
Data refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data (plural of “datum”) are typically the results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images, or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived. Raw data, i.e. unprocessed data, refers to a collection of numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices that collect information to convert physical quantities into symbols. — Wikipedia
Big data: The next frontier for innovation, competition, and productivity (James Manyika, Michael Chui, Brad Brown, Jacques Bughin, Richard Dobbs, Charles Roxburgh, Angela Hung Byers, McKinsey & Company)