Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Life / Plant / Flower



Flowering Plants (OneZoom Tree of Life EXplorer)
Flowering Plants, Angiosperms (Tree of Life Web Project)


flower : : the specialized part of an angiospermous plant that occurs singly or in clusters, possesses whorls of often colorful petals or sepals, and bears the reproductive structures (such as stamens or pistils) involved in the development of seeds and fruit : blossom — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in plants that are floral (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds. In addition to facilitating the reproduction of flowering plants, flowers have long been admired and used by humans to beautify their environment, and also as objects of romance, ritual, religion, medicine and as a source of food. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


About Flowers





Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!

Top Places to see Flowers (World Love Flowers)







Flower Meanings and Meanings of Flowers (About Flowers)
Language of flowers (Wikipedia)


Glass Flowers: The Ware Collection of Blaschka Glass Models of Plants (Harvard Museum of Natural History)
Glass Flowers (Wikipedia)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Parts Of A Flower (Kids Biology)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

Plant Science: An Introduction to Botany (The Great Courses Plus)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



World Love Flowers: International guide for all your flower events and gardens


Flowers News (Buzzfeed), Phys.org, NPR Archives










Flower Arrangements 101: A Crash Course for Easy and Elegant Florals (Meredith Swinehart, Gardenista)


From Van Gogh To Jeff Koons, Here’s a History of Flowers in Art (Annie Armstrong, Creators)

Visual Arts



OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics


More News …

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Scientists grow plants in lunar dirt, next stop...
    on May 14, 2022 at 2:30 pm

    For the first time, scientists have grown plants in soil from the moon collected by NASA's Apollo astronauts.

  • Decoding the leaf: Scientists search for features...
    on May 13, 2022 at 4:39 pm

    Machine learning programs that can classify leaves and place them in biological families may unlock new clues about the evolution of plant life, but only if scientists understand what the computers are seeing. A team led by Penn State scientists combined a machine learning approach and traditional botanical language to find and describe new features for fossil identification.

  • Michigan profs push 'pee for peonies' urine...
    on May 13, 2022 at 2:11 pm

    A pair of University of Michigan researchers are putting the "pee" in peony.

  • What we're still learning about how trees grow
    on May 12, 2022 at 6:00 pm

    What will happen to the world's forests in a warming world? Will increased atmospheric carbon dioxide help trees grow? Or will extremes in temperature and precipitation hold growth back? That all depends on whether tree growth is more limited by the amount of photosynthesis or by the environmental conditions that affect tree cell growth—a fundamental question in tree biology, and one for which the answer wasn't well understood, until now.

  • Structure of 'gliding bird' plant protein could...
    on May 11, 2022 at 3:00 pm

    Biologist Xinnian Dong says her "best Christmas gift ever" arrived in the form of a phone call. The call was from her longtime friend and collaborator at Duke University, Pei Zhou, who rang with long-awaited news: they had finally solved the structure of the plant protein NPR1.

  • Improving the yield and quality of the grain...
    on May 9, 2022 at 5:03 pm

    The grain called finger millet may not be well-known outside of Africa, but it is an important crop to the region. Finger millet has been farmed in eastern Africa for thousands of years. However, breeding the crop for better traits has been difficult for local farmers.

  • Landscapes with higher proportions of forest...
    on May 9, 2022 at 3:04 pm

    About 75% of food crops and more than 80% of wild plants require pollination by insects. The value of crop pollination alone is estimated at up to 577 billion US dollars per year worldwide. The best-known pollinators are bees, but these are by no means the only insects that provide this service for humans and nature—flies, wasps, beetles, butterflies and moths also play important roles.

  • New Mexico and Arizona facing a dangerously early...
    on May 5, 2022 at 1:30 pm

    New Mexico and Arizona are facing a dangerously early fire season. It has left neighborhoods in ashes and is having such devastating effects that the governor of New Mexico on May 3, 2022, urged President Joe Biden to issue a disaster declaration. Over 600 fires had broken out in the two states by early May, and large wildfires had burned through hundreds of homes near Ruidoso and Las Vegas, New Mexico, and Flagstaff, Arizona.

  • The Jurassic rise of squamates as supported by...
    on May 3, 2022 at 10:58 am

    Scientists have found that a key modern group of reptiles that includes lizards and snakes—known as squamates—diverged in the Jurassic period, 50 million years earlier than previously thought.

  • Lighting the tunnel of plant evolution:...
    on May 2, 2022 at 6:17 pm

    Two-pore channels (TPCs) are ancient ion channels present in the cells of both animals and plants. In animals, including humans, these ion channels play important roles in biological activities in various tissues, such as in the brain and nervous system. All land plant species contain TPC genes; in many higher vascular plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Oryza sativa (rice), a single TPC gene is involved in the activity of slow vacuolar (SV) channels (voltage-dependent cation […]


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.