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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Computer Science: A Guide to Web Resources (U. of Albany, SUNY)
Computer Science, Program Languages and Scripts (Best info. on the Net)
Computer Programming Algorithms Directory
Applications and Systems – Languages, Development and Management (CompInfo – The Computer Information Center)
Computer Programming Portal (Wikipedia)


program : a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism (as a computer) — Webster

FOLDOC: Free Online Dictionary of Computing, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Computer program (also software, or just a program) is a sequence of instructions written to perform a specified task with a computer. A computer requires programs to function, typically executing the program’s instructions in a central processor. The program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to execute the instructions. The same program in its human-readable source code form, from which executable programs are derived (e.g., compiled), enables a programmer to study and develop its algorithms. — Wikipedia




History of Programming Languages (Denis Sureau)
“Mother Tongues” Lineage Chart (Wired Infographic) (PDF Version)


Retro Computing Museum


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library


So you want to learn to program? (Robert Talbert, Chronicle of Higher Education)


Jan’s Illustrated Computer Literacy 101, Computer Basics, Programming (Jan Smith)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Programming Reddit


NPR Archives







International Obfuscated C Code Contest


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form




  • UC Berkeley Grad Receives ACM Doctoral...
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    Association for Computing MachineryACM announced that University of California, Berkeley researcher Chelsea Finn will receive the 2018 ACM Doctoral Dissertation Award for her dissertation, "Learning to Learn with Gradients." In her thesis, Finn introduced algorithms for meta-learning that enable deep networks to solve new tasks from small datasets. Finn also demonstrated how the algorithms can be applied to fields such as computer vision, reinforcement learning, and robotics. Finn introduced a […]

  • W&M Computing Mentorship for Girls Wins...
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    William & MaryThe College of William & Mary's Society of Women in Computing (SWC) has been named recipient of the ACM Outstanding Community Service Award for the second consecutive year, for a mentorship designed for female middle-school students. Two years ago, SWC's board started organizing weekly lesson plans for a robotics mentorship with Williamsburg's Berkeley Middle School (BMS), including coding projects specifically geared for girls. Activities ranged from programming Harry […]

  • Driverless Electric Truck Starts Deliveries on...
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    ReutersA driverless electric truck has started delivering freight daily along a public road in Sweden, an achievement described as a world first by vehicle developer Einride and logistics client DB Schenker. Einride CEO Robert Falck said, “This public road permit is a major milestone ... and it is a step to commercializing autonomous technology on roads.” The developer plans to have 200 vehicles dispatched by the end of next year. The T-Pod employs an Nvidia Drive platform for […]

  • Microsoft Warns Wormable Windows Bug Could Lead...
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    Ars TechnicaMicrosoft has warned a serious vulnerability in Windows Remote Desktop Services could be exploited to launch a WannaCry-level attack against Internet-connected computers. The pre-authentication vulnerability needs no human interaction to be exploited. Microsoft's Simon Pope called the bug "wormable," which means any future malware targeting the flaw could spread between infected computers. Microsoft has backported a just-released fix for the Windows 2003 and XP operating systems, […]

  • Directors Using VR on Set to Find the Perfect Shot
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    New ScientistTechnicolor has developed a virtual reality (VR) headset that allows film directors to instantly see what a scene will look like with computer-generated imagery added. Previously, directors had to send footage of human actors to render farms (groups of powerful computers) that would add graphical elements in a process that could take days to complete. The VR headset incorporates a stack of high-powered chips originally designed for gaming, which provide directors the opportunity to […]