Program

Cosma / Communication / Media / Computation / Software / Program

And programming computers was so fascinating. You create your own little universe, and then it does what you tell it to do. — Vint Cerf

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Introduction1

Dictionary

program : a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism (as a computer) — Webster   See also OneLook

Programming (FOLDOC: Free Online Dictionary of Computing)

Encyclopedia

Computer program (also software, or just a program) is a sequence of instructions written to perform a specified task with a computer. A computer requires programs to function, typically executing the program’s instructions in a central processor. The program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to execute the instructions. The same program in its human-readable source code form, from which executable programs are derived (e.g., compiled), enables a programmer to study and develop its algorithms. — Wikipedia

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Innovation

Technology

Programming language is any set of rules that converts strings, or graphical program elements in the case of visual programming languages, to various kinds of machine code output. Programming languages are one kind of computer language, and are used in computer programming to implement algorithms. — Wikipedia

Larry Wall (Official Site)
Larry Wall (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Bjarne Stroustrup (Official Site)
Bjarne Stroustrup (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Inside the minds of great programmers (Big Think, YouTube Channel)

Programming Languages

Fortran, COBOL, BASIC
C, C++
Python, Perl, Ruby
Java, JavaScript
Lisp, APL, Haskell

List of programming languages (Wikipedia)

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Preservation

History

As soon as we started programming, we found to our surprise that it wasn’t as easy to get programs right as we had thought. Debugging had to be discovered. I can remember the exact instant when I realized that a large part of my life from then on was going to be spent in finding mistakes in my own programs. — Maurice Wilkes, Memoirs of a Computer Pioneer

Crash Course: Computer Science (YouTube Channel)

Computer Languages History (Éric Lévénez)
The Programming Languages Genealogy Project (Everything2)
“Mother Tongues” Lineage Chart (Wired Infographic) (PDF Version)

Library

Library of Congress # QA76.6 Programming (UPenn Online Books)

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

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Participation

The art of computer programming (Donald Ervin Knuth)

Education

An apprentice carpenter may want only a hammer and saw, but a master craftsman employs many precision tools. Computer programming likewise requires sophisticated tools to cope with the complexity of real applications, and only practice with these tools will build skill in their use. — Robert L. Kruse, Data structures and program design in C

Code.org
Computer science curriculum (Computer Science Academy, Carnegie Mellon University)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Course

Grasshopper App (Official Site)
Google Developers Training

Python Lesson 1 (Justin Arnold, Tech Train)

Introduction to Python Programming (Udacity)

Introduction to Computer Science and Programming (MIT Opencourseware)

Community

Hour of Code.org

Occupation

Computer Programmers (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)

Organization

SIGPLAN – Special Interest Group on Programming Languages (ACM)

Forum

Programming Reddit

News

ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology
Computer Programming News (Science Daily)
NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Document

USA.gov

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Expression

Fun

Humor

International Obfuscated C Code Contest

Poem

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

returntotop

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Related

Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Media

Function Communications Computation Storage Creation Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Type, Print Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Record Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS, SS) Database Application AI, VW

Format Multimedia (Video, Animation) Image (Object) Scent, Flavor, Audio (Text) Haptic, “Other

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Notes

1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.