Cosma / Communication / Media / Computation / Software / Program




program : a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism (as a computer) — Webster

FOLDOC: Free Online Dictionary of Computing, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Computer program (also software, or just a program) is a sequence of instructions written to perform a specified task with a computer. A computer requires programs to function, typically executing the program’s instructions in a central processor. The program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to execute the instructions. The same program in its human-readable source code form, from which executable programs are derived (e.g., compiled), enables a programmer to study and develop its algorithms. — Wikipedia


Computer Science: A Guide to Web Resources (U. of Albany, SUNY)
Programming (Dmoz Tools)
Computer Programming Portal (Wikipedia)




“Mother Tongues” Lineage Chart (Wired Infographic) (PDF Version)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



So you want to learn to program? (Robert Talbert, Chronicle of Higher Education)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Programming Reddit


NPR Archives








International Obfuscated C Code Contest


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form




  • Scientists Claim Big Advance in Using DNA to...
    on December 5, 2021 at 10:39 pm

    BBC NewsScientists at the Georgia Institute of Technology's Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) claim they can improve DNA data storage 100-fold with a new processor they developed. GTRI's Nicholas Guise said the approximately 100x higher density of the processor's features enables this expansion, which should be facilitated with control electronics over the next year. The technology grows unique DNA strands one chemical base at a time, which can be used to encode data in a manner similar to […]

  • Tool Predicts Where Coronavirus Binds to Human...
    on December 5, 2021 at 10:39 pm

    Cornell ChronicleCornell University researchers have developed a computational tool for predicting binding sites on the surfaces of human and COVID-19 viral proteins. A user-friendly Web server also provided by the tool’s developers shows all protein structures, so virologists and clinicians can determine whether current drugs, or those under development, will bind to them. "The tool we developed to predict protein-to-protein interfaces is the most accurate, and we can use it to make the most […]

  • DeepMind's AI Helps Untangle the Math of Knots
    on December 5, 2021 at 10:39 pm

    NatureResearchers at U.K.-based artificial intelligence (AI) laboratory DeepMind worked with mathematicians to use AI to identify patterns that humans had overlooked in a theory of knots and the study of symmetry, via machine learning. Knot theorists determined the saliency maps technique would be most useful in finding a pattern that linked two knot properties, which led to a formula that appeared correct in all testable cases. The University of Oxford's Marc Lackenby and András Juhász […]

  • New Attacks on Web Browsers Detected
    on December 5, 2021 at 10:39 pm

    Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Germany)Information technology scientists at Germany's Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) and Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences detected 14 new types of Web browser-targeting cross-site leaks (XS-Leaks). XS-Leaks circumvent the same-origin policy designed to prevent the theft of information from a trusted Website, allowing hackers to identify site details that are linked to personal data. The researchers identified three defining XS-Leak characteristics and […]

  • High-Speed Network Aids in Firefighting, Space,...
    on December 5, 2021 at 10:39 pm

    The San Diego Union TribuneThe University of California, San Diego (UCSD)'s High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (HPWREN) helps Southern California emergency personnel and residents identify the locations of fires and their likely pathways through connected cameras and weather sensors. UCSD's Frank Vernon said, "By early 2010, more than 60 firefighting sites in San Diego County were connected by cameras and the Internet via HPWREN, often in difficult-to-reach areas." Over […]




Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.


Function Communications Computation Storage Authoring Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Typewriter Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Recorder Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS) Database Application AI, VW

Format Multimedia (Video, Animation) Image (Object) Scent, Flavor, Audio (Text) Haptic, “Other



1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.