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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Computer Science: A Guide to Web Resources (U. of Albany, SUNY)
Computer Science, Program Languages and Scripts (Best info. on the Net)
Computer Programming Algorithms Directory
Applications and Systems – Languages, Development and Management (CompInfo – The Computer Information Center)
Computer Programming Portal (Wikipedia)


program : a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism (as a computer) — Webster

FOLDOC: Free Online Dictionary of Computing, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Computer program (also software, or just a program) is a sequence of instructions written to perform a specified task with a computer. A computer requires programs to function, typically executing the program’s instructions in a central processor. The program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to execute the instructions. The same program in its human-readable source code form, from which executable programs are derived (e.g., compiled), enables a programmer to study and develop its algorithms. — Wikipedia




History of Programming Languages (Denis Sureau)
“Mother Tongues” Lineage Chart (Wired Infographic) (PDF Version)


Retro Computing Museum


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library


So you want to learn to program? (Robert Talbert, Chronicle of Higher Education)


Jan’s Illustrated Computer Literacy 101, Computer Basics, Programming (Jan Smith)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Programming Reddit


NPR Archives







International Obfuscated C Code Contest


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form




  • Over 2,000 European AI Experts Join Hands to...
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    South China Morning PostAbout 2,100 artificial intelligence (AI) researchers from 29 European countries have announced a joint research alliance and are soliciting funding from the European Union (EU) to counter progress in such research in the U.S. and China. The Confederation of Laboratories for AI Research in Europe (CLAIRE) is calling on the European Commission to deploy an EU-wide AI strategy similar to U.S. and Chinese initiatives, to cultivate and retain AI talent by establishing […]

  • Spack, a Lab-Developed 'App Store for...
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    HPCwireResearchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed the Supercomputer PACKage manager (Spack), an open source package manager optimized for high-performance computing (HPC). Spack is one of the most popular pieces of software the lab has ever released to the GitHub open source community, becoming the go-to package manager at LLNL, as well as at Argonne, Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, and Sandia national laboratories. Spack also is being used at Lawrence Berkeley […]

  • 'Robotic Skins' Turn Everyday Objects into Robots
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    YaleNewsYale University researchers have developed "Robotic Skins," allowing users to turn inanimate objects into robots. The skins are made from elastic sheets embedded with sensors and actuators. When these sheets are placed on a deformable object, the skins animate the object from its surface, allowing the makeshift robot to perform different tasks depending on the properties of the soft object and how the skins are applied. In addition, using more than one skin at a time allows for more […]

  • Artificial Neural Network Now Capable of Finding...
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    Kazan Federal University (Russia)Researchers at Russia's Kazan Federal University (KFU) and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have developed recurrent neural networks using semantic vector word representation to match medical complaints such as "cannot fall asleep" or "a little giddy" in social networks with formal medical terms such as insomnia or vertigo. The researchers uploaded medical texts to the software platform to create a special vocabulary. The software used this data to […]

  • Meet the Winner of Robotics' World Cup
    on January 1, 1970 at 12:00 am

    Technology ReviewNimbRo, a two-legged robot developed at the University of Bonn in Germany, won the soccer World Cup for adult-size robots this summer in Montreal, Canada. NimbRo is 135 centimeters tall and weighs almost 40 pounds. The robot's exoskeleton is made up of a few simple parts which are three-dimensionally (3D) printed from nylon. NimbRo is equipped with a vision system that performs object detection, robot localization, task planning, and actuator control. These functions give the […]