Cosma Home > Communication > Media > Computation > Computer > Software > Program




These are organized by form and function.

Communications Computation Storage Authoring Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Typewriter Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Recorder Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS) Database Application AI, World


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Computer Science: A Guide to Web Resources (U. of Albany, SUNY)
Programming (Dmoz Tools)
Computer Programming Portal (Wikipedia)


program : a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism (as a computer) — Webster

FOLDOC: Free Online Dictionary of Computing, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Computer program (also software, or just a program) is a sequence of instructions written to perform a specified task with a computer. A computer requires programs to function, typically executing the program’s instructions in a central processor. The program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to execute the instructions. The same program in its human-readable source code form, from which executable programs are derived (e.g., compiled), enables a programmer to study and develop its algorithms. — Wikipedia




“Mother Tongues” Lineage Chart (Wired Infographic) (PDF Version)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library


So you want to learn to program? (Robert Talbert, Chronicle of Higher Education)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Programming Reddit


NPR Archives







International Obfuscated C Code Contest


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form




  • China's Surveillance State Sucks Up Data. U.S....
    on November 24, 2020 at 8:47 am

    The New York TimesChips from U.S. companies Intel and Nvidia power a Chinese supercomputing facility that monitors people in a region known for government suppression, raising issues about the technology sector's responsibility. The Urumqi Cloud Computing Center watches the population of Xinjiang using Intel and Nvidia chips sold to Sugon, the company backing the center, to sort the collected data. Local officials in 2017 said the center would support a Chinese police surveillance project […]

  • Time Test Measures How Fast a Neural Net Can Be...
    on November 24, 2020 at 8:47 am

    ZDNetComputer industry consortium MLPerf has launched a series of test results for high-performance computing systems running machine learning tasks, designed to quantify a deep learning network's training time on the world's most powerful computers. The tests measure how many minutes the supercomputers take to train the network until it becomes proficient in the CosmoFlow and DeepCAM tasks. The supercomputer tasks count wall time to achieve accuracy, where less, rather than more, is better. […]

  • RIT Researchers Create Programmable Network...
    on November 24, 2020 at 8:47 am

    Rochester Institute of TechnologyRochester Institute of Technology (RIT) researchers have developed a prototype programmable switch that shortens Internet Protocol (IP) lookup time and upgrades router performance dramatically. The RIT team used a novel longest prefix matching algorithm (CuVPP) which employs packet batch processing and cache locality for both instructions and data by exploiting Vector Packet Processing (VPP). The switch also taps a cuckoo filter in the cache as a fast […]

  • The Future of Kitchen Design Is Hands-Free,...
    on November 24, 2020 at 8:47 am

    The Wall Street JournalKitchen appliance designers and manufacturers increasingly rely on technological advances, using cameras, sensors, artificial intelligence, and novel materials to modernize the kitchen. Appliance maker Miele's G7000 dishwashers are equipped with sensors that prompt owners' smartphones to reorder detergent when running low, while rival Bosch's dishwashers are made with a Zeolite mineral compound that helps plastic items dry more efficiently. Bosch also has integrated […]

  • 3D-Printed Glass Enhances Optical Design...
    on November 24, 2020 at 8:47 am

    Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryResearchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) used multi-material three-dimensional (3D) printing to produce tailored gradient refractive index (GRIN) glass optics. The LLNL team controlled the ratio of two distinct glass-forming pastes (inks) combined inline via the direct ink writing method of 3D printing. Tailoring the GRIN enables the replacement of a curved optic with a flat surface, which could lower […]