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ray : any of an order (Rajiformes) of usually marine cartilaginous fishes (such as stingrays and skates) having the body flattened dorsoventrally, the eyes on the upper surface, and enlarged pectoral fins fused with the head — Merriam-Webster   See also   OneLook


Ray is a superorder of cartilaginous fish scientifically known as Batoidea. They and their close relatives, the sharks, comprise the subclass Elasmobranchii. Rays are the largest group of cartilaginous fishes, with well over 600 species in 26 families. Rays are distinguished by their flattened bodies, enlarged pectoral fins that are fused to the head, and gill slits that are placed on their ventral surfaces. — Wikipedia

Ray (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Rays (Florida Museum of Natural History)

Rays, Skates and Sawfish (One Zoom)
Rays (WolframAlpha)




Ichthyology, also called fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish, including jawless fish (Agnatha), cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) and bony fish (Osteichthyes). According to FishBase, 33,400 species of fish had been described as of October 2016, with approximately 250 new species described each year. — Wikipedia

Ichthyology (Encyclopædia Britannica)

FishBase (R. Froese & D. Pauly)
Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes (California Academy of Sciences)




DDC: 597.3 Elasmobranchii: Sharks, Rays, etc. (Library Thing)
Subject: Rays (Library Thing)

Subject: Rays (Open Library)

LCC: QL638.R88 Rays (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Rays (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: QL638.R88 Rays (Library of Congress)
Subject: Rays (Library of Congress)

Subject: Rays (WorldCat)




MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)


American Elasmobranch Society
American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists
Zoological Association of America
Association of Zoos and Aquariums


Ichthyology & Herpetology (American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists)
Rays (bioRxiv: Preprint Server for Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Rays (JSTOR)


Fish & Sharks (Northeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries)


Ray (USA.gov)


More News …

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Protection of highly threatened sharks and rays...
    on November 29, 2023 at 3:27 pm

    Biodiversity—the total variation of life—is multidimensional. Its study encompasses multiple facets, such as taxonomy (the variety of species), phylogenetics (their evolutionary history) and functionality (the ecological roles that species play in ecosystems). Protecting biodiversity implies safeguarding all of these dimensions.

  • Hidden or extinct? Genome analysis of...
    on November 14, 2023 at 3:37 pm

    There are always little treasures to be found in museum collections—that's what makes them so valuable for research. With todays methods of analysis, new, detailed findings can be elicited from archives that are often centuries old.

  • Evolution of taste: Study discovers bitter taste...
    on November 13, 2023 at 8:00 pm

    A research team from the University of Cologne, in collaboration with colleagues from the Leibniz Institute for Food Systems Biology in Freising, has discovered a receptor for bitter taste in twelve different cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays). The receptor belongs to the so-called taste receptors type 2 (T2R), which also make humans perceive bitter and potentially toxic foods.

  • Threatened sharks and rays caught off Cyprus
    on November 6, 2023 at 8:53 pm

    Sharks and rays from threatened species are being caught off northern Cyprus, according to a new study by scientists who are working with local authorities and fishers to protect the animals.

  • Decontaminating Fukushima: Have the billions...
    on October 24, 2023 at 5:08 pm

    The Chernobyl and (to a lesser extent) Fukushima nuclear accidents contaminated large areas of land with low-level radioactivity. After both accidents, huge efforts were taken to decontaminate the affected areas.


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