Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Life / Animal / Vertebrate


Free School (YouTube Channel)
Free School (Facebook)


vertebrate : any of a subphylum (Vertebrata) of chordates that comprises animals (such as mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes) typically having a bony or cartilaginous spinal colum which replaces the notochord, a distinct head containing a brain which arises as an enlarged part of the nerve cord, and an internal usually bony skeleton and that includes some primitive forms (such as lampreys) in which the spinal column is absent and the notochord persists throughout life — Webster   See also   OneLook


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones). Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata. Vertebrates include the jawless fish and the jawed vertebrates, which include the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, and ratfish) and the bony fishes.

Extant vertebrates range in size from the frog species Paedophryne amauensis, at as little as 7.7 mm (0.30 in), to the blue whale, at up to 33 m (108 ft). Vertebrates make up less than five percent of all described animal species; the rest are invertebrates, which lack vertebral columns. — Wikipedia

Vertebrate (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Vertebrates (One Zoom)
Chordata (Catalogue of Life)
Chordata (WolframAlpha)




Biology is the scientific study of life. Biologists study life at multiple levels of organization, from the molecular biology of a cell to the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, and evolution of populations. Biologists also study and classify the various forms of life, from prokaryotic organisms such as archaea and bacteria to eukaryotic organisms such as protists, fungi, plants, and animals. — Wikipedia




DDC: 596 Vertebrates (Library Thing)
Subject: Vertebrates (Library Thing)

Subject: Vertebrates (Open Library)

LCC: QL 605 Vertebrates (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Vertebrates (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: QL 605 Vertebrates (Library of Congress)
Subject: Vertebrates (Library of Congress)

Subject: Vertebrates (WorldCat)




Vertebrates (Biology4Kids)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)


American Institute of Biological Sciences


Vertebrates (EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Vertebrates (bioRxiv: Preprint Server for Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Vertebrates (Science Daily)
Vertebrates (Science News)
Vertebrates (
Vertebrates (NPR Archives)



Vertebrate (


More News … - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Hope for salamanders? Study recalibrates climate...
    on March 31, 2023 at 6:22 pm

    For tiny salamanders squirming skin-to-soil, big-picture weather patterns may seem as far away as outer space. But for decades, scientists have mostly relied on free-air temperature data at large spatial scales to predict future salamander distributions under climate change. The outlook was dire for the mini ecosystem engineers, suggesting near elimination of habitat in crucial areas.

  • Insects have more complex immune systems than...
    on March 29, 2023 at 7:53 pm

    Humans and other vertebrates (like mammals, birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians) have complex, multi-faceted immune systems that protect us from a constant barrage of bugs and other nasties. But what about insects and other invertebrates?

  • Understanding how cohesin makes DNA loops in the...
    on March 29, 2023 at 6:47 pm

    Cohesin is a ring-shaped protein that surrounds and moves around the DNA molecule, forming the loops. It is a crucial process for the cell. Understanding how cohesin works has been one of the challenges of molecular biology in recent decades. A study now published by researcher Ana Losada's group at The Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) will serve to deepen our understanding of the disease known as Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

  • Scientists have bone to pick with T-Rex skeleton...
    on March 29, 2023 at 8:31 am

    A curator gingerly fastens a pointy claw bone with a thin metal wire, completing perhaps the world's biggest construction kit—reassembling a 67-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus-Rex called Trinity.

  • Sulfur may be partly responsible for reddish...
    on March 28, 2023 at 2:36 pm

    A small team of environmental scientists from several institutions in Italy and Switzerland has found evidence suggesting that at least some of the red plumage sported by barn owls on small, isolated islands may be due to the ingestion of sulfur. In their study, reported in the Journal of Biogeography, the group studied the preserved skin of thousands of barn owl specimens from multiple geographic locations archived in museum collections.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.