Cosma / Communication / Media / Computation / Electronic / Calculator

A calculator adds and divides,
Subtracts, and finds products, besides.
You can also compute
A percent or square root—
All without an old ruler that slides. —
Jesse Frankovich, calculator, OEDILF



Frank M. LoSchiavo (YouTube Channel)
Frank M. LoSchiavo (Official Website)


calculator : a usually electronic device for performing mathematical calculations — Merriam-Webster   See also OneLook


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Electronic calculator is a portable, usually inexpensive electronic device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic. Modern calculators are more portable than most computers, though most PDAs are comparable in size to handheld calculators. — Wikipedia

Calculator (Encyclopædia Britannica)


Calculator (WolframAlpha)



Using Built-In Google Calculator (Google Guide)
Google Calculator Cheat Sheet (Google Guide)


LearnersCloud (YouTube Channel)
LearnersCloud (Official Website)

(Free) Science Apps, Converters and Calculators
Scientific Calculator (Wikipedia)


7 Essential Financial Calculator Apps for Android and iPhone (GE Miller, MintLife)


Calculator Items (Etsy)
Calculator Gifts (Zazzle)




The first solid state electronic calculator was created in the 1960s, building on the history of tools such as the abacus, developed around 2000 BC; and the mechanical calculator, developed in the 17th century. It was developed in parallel with the analog computers of the day. Pocket-sized devices become available in the 1970s, especially after the invention of the microprocessor developed serendipitously by Intel for a Busicom calculator. Modern electronic calculators vary from cheap, give-away, credit-card sized models to sturdy desktop models with built-in printers. They became popular in the mid-1970s as integrated circuits made their size and cost small. By the end of that decade, calculator prices had reduced to a point where a basic calculator was affordable to most and they became common in schools. — Wikipedia

Electronic Calculators: Desktop to Pocket (Engineering and Technology History Wiki)

The Pocket Calculator Race (Vintage Calculators Web Museum)
Vintage Calculators Web Museum

History of Electronic Calculators (James Redin)


Electronic Calculators—Desktop (National Museum of American History)
Electronic Calculators—Handheld (National Museum of American History)

Old Calculator Museum
Museum of Hewlett Packard Calculators


DDC: 510.284 Calculators (Library Thing)
Subject: Calculators (Library Thing)

Subject: Calculators (Open Library)

LCC: QA 75 Calculating Machines (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: QA 75 Calculating Machines (Library of Congress)
Subject: Calculators (Library of Congress)

Subject: Calculators (WorldCat)




MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Calculators (JSTOR)
Calculators (NPR Archives)



Calculators (




Calculator spelling is an unintended characteristic of the seven-segments display traditionally used by calculators, in which, when read upside-down, the digits resemble letters of the Latin alphabet. Each digit may be mapped to one or more letters, creating a limited but functional subset of the alphabet, sometimes referred to as beghilos (or beghilosz) — Wikipedia

Museum of Obsolete Objects (YouTube Channel)

344 Words You Can Spell On a Calculator (Math Squad)




Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.


Function Communications Computation Storage Creation Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Type, Print Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Record Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS, SS) Database Application AI, VW

Format Multimedia (Video, Animation) Image (Object) Scent, Flavor, Audio (Text) Haptic, “Other

See also   Electromagnetism



1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.