Cosmos

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Discover the Cosmos Portal (European Commission’s Framework Programme 7)

Dictionary

cosmos : an orderly harmonious systematic universe — Webster Oxford Free OneLook Word Reference Urban Visuwords
cosmological : a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe — Webster Oxford Free OneLook Word Reference Urban Visuwords
realm : (1) kingdom (2) sphere, domain — Webster Oxford Free OneLook Word Reference Urban Visuwords
cosmological realm : the place, region, kingdom, domain, sphere or world holding the body of truth, information, and principles known about the orderly harmonious systematic universe — Cosma

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Encyclopedia

Cosmos “Cosmos” is a term used synonymously with “universe”. The kosmos of the ancient Greeks and Christian Middle Ages consisted of the Earth at the center of a series of concentric, revolving spheres to which the Moon, Sun, planets, and stars were fixed. In the scheme of Aristotle and Ptolemy, which prevailed until the Copernican Revolution, only one kosmos was allowed with nothing beyond. According to the school of atomism, however, there were many kosmoi, distinct and separate from our own, each with a world, possibly inhabited, at its heart. — David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science (Cosmology entries)

Britannica Wikipedia

Introduction

Cosmos: A Personal Voyage through Time and Space (Carl Sagan)
The Undiscovered Country: The Future of the Cosmos (Andrew Zimmerman Jones and Daniel Robbins, String Theory For Dummies)

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Innovations Report

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A Brief History of Cosmology (David Wands)

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Cosmos and Culture (Science Museum, UK)

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WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress UPenn Online Books Open Library
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Cosmology Bibliography (Edward L. Wright, UCLA)
Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Cosmology Entry

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USA.gov

cosmology : (1) branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature of the universe (2) branch of astronomy that deals with the origin, structure, and space-time relationships of the universe — Webster

Cosmology: The Study of the Universe (NASA)

sphere : (1) the apparent surface of the heavens of which half forms the dome of the visible sky (2) any of the concentric and eccentric revolving spherical transparent shells in which according to ancient astronomy stars, sun, planets, and moon are set (3) an area or range over or within which someone or something acts, exists, or has influence or significance — Webster

It is general knowledge that the notion of harmony comes from the ancient Greek word, harmonia. It was a key word of the Pythagoreanism and meant primarily the joining or fitting of things together. Originally it was connected to the concept of cosmos. The numerical explanation of the universe was a generalization from the discovery made by Pythagoras himself and revealed the numerical ratios which determine the concordant intervals of the scale. We find it clearly in Aristotle’s explanation of Pythagoras harmony of the spheres and also in Plato’s statements. — T. V. Hightower, The Harmony of the Spheres


Musica universalis, “universal music” or “music of the spheres” (Wikipedia)
Celestial spheres (Wikipedia)

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Science Daily

  • Just after the Big Bang: Galaxies created stars a hundred times faster now May 24, 2017 5:11 pm
    A team of astronomers has discovered a new kind of galaxy which, although extremely old -- formed less than a billion years after the Big Bang -- creates stars more than a hundred times faster than our own Milky Way.
  • Volunteers help find star that exploded 970 million years ago, predating the dinosaurs May 24, 2017 2:15 pm
    Online volunteers have helped astronomers find a star that exploded 970 million years ago, predating the dinosaurs' time on Earth.
  • Mapping super massive black holes in the distant universe May 19, 2017 5:18 pm
    Astronomers have constructed the first map of the Universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the Universe.
  • Solving one of nature's great puzzles: What drives the accelerating expansion of the universe? May 15, 2017 3:11 pm
    Physicists may have solved one of nature's great puzzles: What causes the accelerating expansion of our universe?
  • Origin of Milky Way's hypothetical dark matter signal may not be so dark May 2, 2017 4:12 pm
    A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars. The findings cast doubt on previous interpretations of the signal as a potential sign of dark matter.
  • Intergalactic gas and ripples in the cosmic web April 27, 2017 6:17 pm
    A team of astronomers has made the first measurements of small-scale ripples in primeval hydrogen gas using rare double quasars.
  • New survey hints at exotic origin for the Cold Spot April 25, 2017 4:48 pm
    A supervoid is unlikely to explain a 'Cold Spot' in the cosmic microwave background, according to the results of a new survey, leaving room for exotic explanations like a collision between universes.
  • Hubble's cosmic bubbles April 21, 2017 3:32 pm
    Hubble has revealed a few of the tenuous threads comprising Sh2-308, a faint and wispy shell of gas located 5,200 light-years away in Canis Major.
  • Light rays from a supernova bent by the curvature of space-time around a galaxy April 20, 2017 6:17 pm
    Astronomers have detected for the first time multiple images from a gravitationally lensed Type Ia supernova. The new observations suggest promising new avenues for the study of the accelerated expansion of the universe, gravity and distribution of dark matter in the universe.
  • Hubble celebrates 27 years with two close friends April 20, 2017 3:37 pm
    This stunning cosmic pairing of the two very different looking spiral galaxies NGC 4302 and NGC 4298 was imaged by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The image brilliantly captures their warm stellar glow and brown, mottled patterns of dust.
  • Astronomers perform largest-ever survey of high-mass binary star systems April 20, 2017 1:02 pm
    82 new high-mass binaries located in the Tarantula Nebula, also known as 30 Doradus, have been identified and characterized in the Large Magellanic Cloud, an international group of astronomers reports.
  • Supermassive black holes stifle galaxy growth April 18, 2017 3:53 pm
    Supermassive black hole winds in a newly discovered class of galaxies are so energetic they suppress future star formation.
  • Milky Way: Hydrogen halo lifts the veil of our galactic home April 18, 2017 3:15 pm
    Astronomers have reported the first detections of diffuse hydrogen wafting about in a vast halo surrounding the Milky Way.
  • Meet 'DeeDee,' a distant, dim member of our solar system April 12, 2017 3:57 pm
    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), astronomers have revealed extraordinary details about a recently discovered far-flung member of our solar system, the planetary body 2014 UZ224, more informally known as DeeDee.
  • Collisions generate gas in debris disks April 12, 2017 2:13 pm
    By examining the atomic carbon line from two young star systems -- 49 Ceti and Beta Pictoris -- researchers had found atomic carbon in the disk, the first time this observation has been made at sub-millimeter wavelength, hinting that the gas in debris disks is not primordial, but rather is generated from some process of collisions taking place in the debris disk.
  • First 'image' of a dark matter web that connects galaxies April 12, 2017 1:12 pm
    Researchers have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together.
  • Scientist measures brightness of the universe with NASA's New Horizons spacecraft April 11, 2017 5:58 pm
    Images taken by NASA's New Horizons mission on its way to Pluto, and now the Kuiper Belt, have given scientists an unexpected tool for measuring the brightness of all the galaxies in the universe.
  • Long ago and far away, an average galaxy: 'Typical' galaxy helps astronomers study epoch of reionization April 10, 2017 4:40 pm
    Using a giant galaxy cluster as a cosmic-scale lens, astronomers have discovered a galaxy from the early universe that they think is 'typical' of its time. This could help astronomers better understand the Epoch of Reionization when the first galaxies appeared.
  • Doubly accelerated electrons detected in collisions of galaxy clusters April 4, 2017 8:00 pm
    A cosmic phenomenon resulting from the acceleration of a gas cloud by a black hole and its reacceleration by the shock waves from the merging of two galaxy clusters has been described by an international collaboration of astronomers. The study enriches scientists' understanding of the universe on the largest scale.
  • Basic plasma wave physics reshaped by NASA observations March 31, 2017 5:08 pm
    NASA scientists are reshaping the basic understanding of a type of wave in space known as a kinetic Alfvén wave.
  • Satellite galaxies at edge of Milky Way coexist with dark matter March 30, 2017 8:49 pm
    New research rules out a challenge to the accepted standard model of the universe and theory of how galaxies form by shedding new light on a problematic structure.
  • Explaining the accelerating expansion of the universe without dark energy March 30, 2017 3:52 pm
    Enigmatic dark energy, thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. The researchers believe that standard models of the universe fail to take account of its changing structure, but that once this is done the need for dark energy disappears.
  • Shadow of agas cloud detected in an ancient proto-supercluster March 29, 2017 2:37 pm
    The Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope has been used to create the most-extensive map of neutral hydrogen gas in the early universe. This cloud appears widely spread out across 160 million light-years in and around a structure called the proto-supercluster. It is the largest structure in the distant universe, and existed some 11.5 billion years ago. Such a huge gas cloud is extremely valuable for studying large-scale structure formation and the evolution of galaxies from gas in the early universe, and merits further investigation.
  • Stars born in winds from supermassive black holes March 27, 2017 3:46 pm
    Observations using ESO's Very Large Telescope have revealed stars forming within powerful outflows of material blasted out from supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies. These are the first confirmed observations of stars forming in this kind of extreme environment. The discovery has many consequences for understanding galaxy properties and evolution.
  • Milky Way-like galaxies in early universe embedded in 'super halos' March 23, 2017 6:14 pm
    Astronomers have directly observed a pair of Milky Way-like galaxies seen when the universe was only eight percent of its current age. These progenitors of today's giant spiral galaxies are surrounded by 'super halos' of hydrogen gas that extend many tens-of-thousands of light-years beyond their dusty, star-filled disks.
  • Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy March 23, 2017 4:54 pm
    Pushing the limits of the largest single-aperture millimeter telescope in the world, and coupling it with gravitational lensing, astronomers report that they have detected a surprising rate of star formation, four times higher than previously detected, in a dust-obscured galaxy behind a Frontier Fields cluster.
  • New portal to unveil the dark sector of the universe March 23, 2017 12:39 pm
    Once upon a time, the Universe was just a hot soup of particles. In those days, together with visible particles, other particles to us hidden or dark might have formed. Billions of years later scientists catalogued 17 types of visible particles, with the most recent one being the Higgs boson, creating the 'Standard Model'. However, they are still struggling to detect the hidden particles, the ones that constitute the dark sector of the Universe.
  • Tracing aromatic molecules in the early Universe March 22, 2017 7:27 pm
    A molecule found in car engine exhaust fumes that is thought to have contributed to the origin of life on Earth has made astronomers heavily underestimate the amount of stars that were forming in the early Universe, a study has found. That molecule is called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. On Earth it is also found in coal and tar. In space, it is a component of dust.
  • Universe's ultraviolet background could provide clues about missing galaxies March 22, 2017 1:24 pm
    Astronomers have developed a way to detect the ultraviolet background of the universe, which could help explain why there are so few small galaxies in the cosmos.
  • Looking for signs of the Big Bang in the desert March 21, 2017 4:39 pm
    The silence of an immense desolate land in which to search for reverberations coming from the time at which everything began. The Simons Observatory will be built in the Chilean Atacama desert at an altitude of several thousand meters for the purposes of studying primordial gravitational waves which originated in the first instants of the Big Bang.
  • Does the universe have a rest frame? March 21, 2017 4:25 pm
    Physics is sometimes closer to philosophy when it comes to understanding the universe. Physicists are now attempting to elucidate whether the universe has a resting frame.
  • Breaking the supermassive black hole speed limit March 21, 2017 3:03 pm
    A new computer simulation helps explain the existence of puzzling supermassive black holes observed in the early universe. The simulation is based on a computer code used to understand the coupling of radiation and certain materials.
  • Dark matter less influential in galaxies in early universe March 15, 2017 6:38 pm
    New observations indicate that massive, star-forming galaxies during the peak epoch of galaxy formation, 10 billion years ago, were dominated by baryonic or 'normal' matter. This is in stark contrast to present-day galaxies, where the effects of mysterious dark matter seem to be much greater. This surprising result was obtained using ESO's Very Large Telescope and suggests that dark matter was less influential in the early universe than it is today.
  • Radiation from nearby galaxies helped fuel first monster black holes March 13, 2017 5:50 pm
    Researchers have shown how supermassive black holes may have formed in the early universe. They suggest that radiation from a neighboring galaxy could have shut down star-formation in a black-hole hosting galaxy, allowing the nascent black hole to rapidly put on weight.
  • Looking for signs of the first stars March 13, 2017 3:06 pm
    It may soon be possible to detect the universe's first stars by looking for the blue colour they emit on explosion.
  • Why the discovery of a bevy of quasars will boost efforts to understand galaxies' origins March 10, 2017 3:35 pm
    Late last year, an international team including researchers announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science - and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history.
  • First public data released by Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program March 10, 2017 1:42 pm
    The first massive data set of a 'cosmic census' has been released using the largest digital camera on the Subaru Telescope. With its beautiful images now available for the public at large, figuring out the fate of the Universe has come one step closer.
  • Hubble dates black hole's last big meal March 9, 2017 6:27 pm
    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has found that the black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy ate its last big meal about 6 million years ago, when it consumed a large clump of infalling gas. After the meal, the engorged black hole burped out a colossal bubble of gas weighing the equivalent of millions of suns, which now billows above and below our galaxy's center.
  • Studying magnetic space explosions with NASA missions March 9, 2017 5:04 pm
    Magnetic explosions happen constantly all across the universe, and new results with NASA's ARTEMIS mission help explain how near-Earth explosions convert energy into heat and propel particles toward Earth.
  • Ancient stardust sheds light on the first stars March 8, 2017 1:10 pm
    Astronomers have used ALMA to detect a huge mass of glowing stardust in a galaxy seen when the Universe was only four percent of its present age. This galaxy was observed shortly after its formation and is the most distant galaxy in which dust has been detected. This observation is also the most distant detection of oxygen in the Universe. These new results provide brand-new insights into the birth and explosive deaths of the very first stars.
  • Cosmic environments and their influence in star formation March 6, 2017 7:46 pm
    Astronomers have performed an extensive study of the properties of galaxies within filaments formed at different times during the age of the universe.
  • Astronomy: Dark matter mapped March 1, 2017 3:56 pm
    One of the highest-resolution maps of dark matter ever created has now been revealed, offering a detailed case for the existence of cold dark matter -- sluggish particles that comprise the bulk of matter in the universe.
  • Scars from the Big Bang: Galaxy cluster and cosmic background March 1, 2017 3:54 pm
    The events surrounding the Big Bang were so cataclysmic that they left an indelible imprint on the fabric of the cosmos. We can detect these scars today by observing the oldest light in the universe.
  • A new cosmic survey offers unprecedented view of galaxies March 1, 2017 3:54 pm
    Scientists have published a 'cosmic census' of a large swath of the night sky containing roughly 100 million stars and galaxies, including some of the most distant objects in the universe. These high-quality images allow an unprecedented view into the nature and evolution of galaxies and dark matter.
  • A galaxy on the edge March 1, 2017 1:49 pm
    This colorful stripe of stars, gas, and dust is actually a spiral galaxy named NGC 1055. Captured here by ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), this big galaxy is thought to be up to 15 percent larger in diameter than the Milky Way. NGC 1055 appears to lack the whirling arms characteristic of a spiral, as it is seen edge-on. However, it displays odd twists in its structure that were probably caused by an interaction with a large neighboring galaxy.
  • Scientists reach back in time to discover some of the most power-packed galaxies February 28, 2017 1:43 pm
    When the universe was young, a supermassive black hole heaved out a jet of particle-infused energy that raced through space at nearly the speed of light. Billions of years later, scientists has identified this black hole and four others similar to it that range in age from 1.4 billion to 1.9 billion years old.
  • Vast luminous nebula poses a cosmic mystery February 23, 2017 5:43 pm
    Astronomers have found an enormous, glowing blob of gas in the distant universe, with no obvious source of power for the light it is emitting. Called an 'enormous Lyman-alpha nebula' (ELAN), it is the brightest and among the largest of these rare objects, only a handful of which have been observed.
  • Possible dark matter ties in Andromeda Galaxy February 22, 2017 1:23 pm
    NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has found a signal at the center of the neighboring Andromeda galaxy that could indicate the presence of the mysterious stuff known as dark matter. The gamma-ray signal is similar to one seen by Fermi at the center of our own Milky Way galaxy.
  • Mapping the family tree of stars February 21, 2017 12:16 am
    Astronomers are borrowing principles applied in biology and archaeology to build a family tree of the stars in the galaxy. By studying chemical signatures found in the stars, they are piecing together these evolutionary trees looking at how the stars formed and how they are connected to each other. The signatures act as a proxy for DNA sequences. It's akin to chemical tagging of stars and forms the basis of a discipline astronomers refer to as Galactic archaeology.
  • Radial acceleration relation found in all common types of galaxies February 17, 2017 6:25 am
    The distribution of normal matter precisely determines gravitational acceleration in all common types of galaxies, a team of researchers reports. This provides further support that the relation is tantamount to a new natural law, the researchers say.
  • Black-hole-powered jets forge fuel for star formation February 14, 2017 6:05 pm
    Astronomers have discovered a surprising connection between a supermassive black hole and the galaxy where it resides. Powerful radio jets from the black hole - which normally suppress star formation - are stimulating the production of cold gas in the galaxy's extended halo of hot gas. This newly identified supply of cold, dense gas could eventually fuel future star birth as well as feed the black hole itself.
  • What drives universe's expansion? February 10, 2017 6:09 pm
    Experiments with advanced technology could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, and settle a longstanding puzzle over what is driving the accelerated expansion of the universe.
  • Ancient signals from the early universe February 10, 2017 6:09 pm
    For the first time, theoretical physicists have calculated the signal of specific gravitational wave sources that emerged fractions of a second after the Big Bang. The source of the signal is a long-lost cosmological phenomenon called 'oscillon.'
  • Simulations reveal the invisible chaos of superluminous supernovae February 2, 2017 2:04 pm
    To better understand the physical conditions that create superluminious supernova, astrophysicists are running 2D simulations of these events using supercomputers at National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) and newly developed CASTRO code.
  • Tracing the cosmic web with star-forming galaxies in the distant universe January 31, 2017 5:42 pm
    A research group has revealed a picture of the increasing fraction of massive star-forming galaxies in the distant universe. Massive star-forming galaxies in the distant universe, about 5 billion years ago, trace large-scale structure in the universe. In the nearby universe, about 3 billion years ago, massive star-forming galaxies are not apparent. This change is consistent with the picture of galaxy evolution established by other independent studies.
  • NASA's Fermi discovers the most extreme blazars yet January 31, 2017 3:47 am
    NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has identified the farthest gamma-ray blazars, a type of galaxy whose intense emissions are powered by supersized black holes. Light from the most distant object began its journey to us when the universe was 1.4 billion years old, or nearly 10 percent of its present age.
  • Cosmic dust that formed our planets traced to giant stars January 30, 2017 6:34 pm
    Scientists have identified the origin of key stardust grains present in the dust cloud from which the planets in our Solar System formed, a study suggests.
  • Both push and pull drive our galaxy's race through space January 30, 2017 4:09 pm
    What is propelling the Milky Way's race through space? By 3-D mapping the flow of galaxies through space, researchers found that the Milky Way galaxy is speeding away from a large, previously unidentified region of low density.
  • Substantial evidence of holographic universe January 30, 2017 1:32 pm
    A UK, Canadian and Italian study has provided what researchers believe is the first observational evidence that our universe could be a vast and complex hologram. Theoretical physicists and astrophysicists, investigating irregularities in the cosmic microwave background (the 'afterglow' of the Big Bang), have found there is substantial evidence supporting a holographic explanation of the universe -- in fact, as much as there is for the traditional explanation of these irregularities using the theory of cosmic inflation.
  • Cosmic lenses support finding on faster than expected expansion of the universe January 26, 2017 6:26 pm
    By using galaxies as giant gravitational lenses, an international group of astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have made an independent measurement of how fast the universe is expanding. The newly measured expansion rate for the local Universe is consistent with earlier findings. These are, however, in intriguing disagreement with measurements of the early universe. This hints at a fundamental problem at the very heart of our understanding of the cosmos.

Scientific American
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Science News
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113 Cosmology (Philosophy of nature)
550, QC801-809 Cosmic physics