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Marine Science Otago (YouTube Channel)
New Zealand Marine Studies Centre (Official Website)


fish : any of numerous cold-blooded strictly aquatic craniate vertebrates that include the bony fishes and usually the cartilaginous and jawless fishes and that have typically an elongated somewhat spindle-shaped body terminating in a broad caudal (see caudal 2) fin, limbs in the form of fins when present at all, and a 2-chambered heart by which blood is sent through thoracic gills to be oxygenated — Merriam-Webster   See also   OneLook


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Fish are the gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term “fish” is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces (also ichthyes) is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification. — Wikipedia

Fish (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Bony Vertebrates (One Zoom)

Agnatha (Catalogue of Life)
Chondrichthyes (Catalogue of Life)
Osteichthyes (Catalogue of Life)
Actinopterygii (Catalogue of Life)

Fish (WolframAlpha)



Talks about Fish (TED: Ideas Worth Spreading)
Articles about Fish (Big Think)




Ichthyology, also called fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish, including jawless fish (Agnatha), cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) and bony fish (Osteichthyes). According to FishBase, 33,400 species of fish had been described as of October 2016, with approximately 250 new species described each year. — Wikipedia

Ichthyology (Encyclopædia Britannica)

FishBase (R. Froese & D. Pauly)
Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes (California Academy of Sciences)

Discover Fishes (Florida Museum of Natural History)




DDC: 597.0 Cold-blooded Vertebrates, Fishes (Library Thing)
Subject: Fishes (Library Thing)

Subject: Fishes (Open Library)

LCC: QL 614 Fishes (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Fishes (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: QL 614 Fishes (Library of Congress)
Subject: Fishes (Library of Congress)

Subject: Fishes (WorldCat)




Fish (Science Trek)
Here Fishy Fishy (Biology4Kids)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)


American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists
Zoological Association of America
Association of Zoos and Aquariums


Ichthyology & Herpetology (American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists)
Fish (EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Fish (bioRxiv: Preprint Server for Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Fish (JSTOR)
Fish (Science Daily)
Fish (Science News)
Fish (
Fish (NPR Archives)


Fish & Sharks (Northeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries)


Fish (


More News …

Fish News -- ScienceDaily All about fish. Current research in marine biology including fish habitats, aquaculture, speciation, deep sea fish and more.

  • Theories about the natural world may need to...
    on September 25, 2023 at 4:48 pm

    New research has validated at scale, one of the theories that has underpinned ecology for over half a century. In doing so, the findings raise further questions about whether models should be revised to capture human impacts on natural systems.

  • Prehistoric fish fills 100 million year gap in...
    on September 20, 2023 at 3:03 pm

    X-rays of an ancient jawless fish shows earliest-known example of internal cartilage skull, unlike that of any other known vertebrate.

  • Rivers are rapidly warming, losing oxygen;...
    on September 14, 2023 at 3:47 pm

    Rivers are warming and losing oxygen faster than oceans, according to a new article. The study shows that of nearly 800 rivers, warming occurred in 87% and oxygen loss occurred in 70%.

  • Scientists find good places to grow long-spined...
    on September 13, 2023 at 4:27 pm

    Scientists are trying to raise as many urchins as possible because they eat algae that could otherwise smother reef ecosystems and kill corals. Researchers have identified algae on which larval sea urchins grow into juveniles in a lab setting.

  • Some spiders can transfer mercury contamination...
    on September 13, 2023 at 4:27 pm

    Sitting calmly in their webs, many spiders wait for prey to come to them. Arachnids along lakes and rivers eat aquatic insects, such as dragonflies. But, when these insects live in mercury-contaminated waterways, they can pass the metal along to the spiders that feed on them. Now, researchers have demonstrated how some shoreline spiders can move mercury contamination from riverbeds up the food chain to land animals. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Japanese scientists find microplastics are...
    on September 30, 2023 at 8:10 am

    Researchers in Japan have confirmed microplastics are present in clouds, where they are likely affecting the climate in ways that aren't yet fully understood.

  • Reducing fishing gear could save whales with low...
    on September 30, 2023 at 8:10 am

    Sometimes simple solutions are better. It all depends on the nature of the problem. For humpback whales, the problem is the rope connecting a crab trap on the seafloor to the buoy on the surface. And for fishermen, it's fishery closures caused by whale entanglements.

  • Endangered red wolf can make it in the wild, but...
    on September 30, 2023 at 8:09 am

    The endangered red wolf can survive in the wild, but only with "significant additional management intervention," according to a long-awaited population viability analysis released Friday.

  • Dangerous chemicals found in South Carolina's...
    on September 29, 2023 at 5:46 pm

    Chemicals that can make people sick have recently been found in fish, crabs and oysters in South Carolina as concerns grow about the threat the toxins pose to food and water across the Palmetto State.

  • Explosion in fish biodiversity due to genetic...
    on September 29, 2023 at 2:14 pm

    Scientists show that the extraordinary diversity of cichlid fish in Africa's Lake Victoria was made possible by "genetic recycling"—repeated cycles of new species appearing and rapidly adapting to different roles in the ecosystem. An evolutionary case study that has fascinated researchers for decades, the new study sheds light on how 500 species of fish were able to emerge and thrive in just 16,000 years.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.