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Marine Science Otago (YouTube Channel)
New Zealand Marine Studies Centre (Official Website)


fish : any of numerous cold-blooded strictly aquatic craniate vertebrates that include the bony fishes and usually the cartilaginous and jawless fishes and that have typically an elongated somewhat spindle-shaped body terminating in a broad caudal (see caudal 2) fin, limbs in the form of fins when present at all, and a 2-chambered heart by which blood is sent through thoracic gills to be oxygenated — Webster   See also   OneLook


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Fish are the gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term “fish” is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces (also ichthyes) is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification. — Wikipedia

Fish (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Bony Vertebrates (One Zoom)

Agnatha (Catalogue of Life)
Chondrichthyes (Catalogue of Life)
Osteichthyes (Catalogue of Life)
Actinopterygii (Catalogue of Life)

Fish (WolframAlpha)




Ichthyology, also called fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish, including jawless fish (Agnatha), cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) and bony fish (Osteichthyes). According to FishBase, 33,400 species of fish had been described as of October 2016, with approximately 250 new species described each year. — Wikipedia

Ichthyology (Encyclopædia Britannica)

FishBase (R. Froese & D. Pauly)
Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes (California Academy of Sciences)

Discover Fishes (Florida Museum of Natural History)




DDC: 597.0 Cold-blooded Vertebrates, Fishes (Library Thing)
Subject: Fishes (Library Thing)

Subject: Fishes (Open Library)

LCC: QL 614 Fishes (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Fishes (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: QL 614 Fishes (Library of Congress)
Subject: Fishes (Library of Congress)

Subject: Fishes (WorldCat)




Fish (Science Trek)
Here Fishy Fishy (Biology4Kids)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)


American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists
Zoological Association of America
Association of Zoos and Aquariums


Ichthyology & Herpetology (American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists)
Fish (EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Fish (bioRxiv: Preprint Server for Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Fish (Science Daily)
Fish (Science News)
Fish (
Fish (NPR Archives)


Fish & Sharks (Northeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries)


Fish (


More News …

Fish News -- ScienceDaily All about fish. Current research in marine biology including fish habitats, aquaculture, speciation, deep sea fish and more.

  • Ancient giant amphibians swam like crocodiles 250...
    on March 30, 2023 at 2:22 pm

    Ancient 2m-long amphibians swam like crocodiles long before true crocodiles existed, according to a new study.

  • Earth prefers to serve life in XXS and XXL sizes
    on March 30, 2023 at 2:22 pm

    Life comes in all shapes in sizes, but some sizes are more popular than others, new research has found. A survey of body sizes of all Earth's living organisms has uncovered an unexpected pattern. Contrary to what current theories can explain, our planet's biomass -- the material that makes up all living organisms -- is concentrated in organisms at either end of the size spectrum.

  • How whale shark rhodopsin evolved to see, in the...
    on March 29, 2023 at 1:19 pm

    A group of researchers discovered that the rhodopsin -- a protein in the eye that detects light -- of whale sharks has changed to efficiently detect blue light, which penetrates deep-sea water easily. The amino acid substitutions -- one of which is counterintuitively associated with congenital stationary night blindness in humans -- aid in detecting the low levels of light in the deep-sea. Although these changes make the whale shark rhodopsin less thermally stable the deep-sea temperature, […]

  • Conserving wildlife can help mitigate climate...
    on March 28, 2023 at 6:55 pm

    Solving the climate crisis and biodiversity crisis are not separate issues. Animals remove billions of tons of carbon dioxide each year. Restoring species will help limit global warming, new science reveals.

  • Climate change threatens global fisheries
    on March 23, 2023 at 7:43 pm

    The diet quality of fish across large parts of the world's oceans could decline by up to 10 per cent as climate change impacts an integral part of marine food chains, a major study has found. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • After spinal cord injury, kinesthetic sense helps...
    on April 1, 2023 at 9:33 am

    For nearly 50 years, a jawless fish called the lamprey has interested scientists because of its remarkable ability to recover from spinal cord injuries. A new study reveals a possible technique lampreys may use to swim again, despite sparse neural regeneration.

  • Dominican border wall threatens environment,...
    on March 31, 2023 at 8:09 am

    The anti-migrant wall being built in the northwest of the Dominican Republic crisscrosses a thick mangrove forest and threatens the ecosystem by depriving it of water, environmental groups warn.

  • Manatee winter deaths in Florida's Brevard County...
    on March 30, 2023 at 9:00 pm

    The winter killing season for manatees along Central Florida's Atlantic coast is winding down with an astounding turn of events—a tiny fraction of the animals died compared to during the last two years.

  • Whether you're a snorkeler or CEO, you can help...
    on March 30, 2023 at 6:47 pm

    What if we told you the world has forests harboring creatures with three hearts and where the canopy can grow by a foot a day? What if we told you it was silently disappearing? What if we told you we now have the chance to bring it back?

  • Asian swamp eels spread in the Everglades:...
    on March 30, 2023 at 5:40 pm

    For a crayfish in the Florida Everglades, its worst nightmare is three feet long, dark brown and pure muscle, with a mouth like a vacuum that sucks up nearly everything it can find—tiny fish, small shellfish, turtle eggs and frogs.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.